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ConsumerLab.com investigates the evidencehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/african%2Dmango%2Dreviewed/01-17-2012/2241/17/2012News ArticlesZinc Supplements and Lozenges Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comChoose zinc supplements carefully -- ConsumerLab.com finds only some have dosage proven to shorten colds, reduce eye diseasehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/zinc%5Fsupplements%5Freviewed%5Fcompared/12-20-2011/22312/20/2011News ArticlesMelatonin Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com identifies many quality melatonin sleep supplements, but prices range from 4 cents to over $1 for the same dosehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/melatonin%2Dsupplements%2Dreviewed/11-29-2011/22211/29/2011News ArticlesDo Nitric Oxide Supplements Work? ConsumerLab.com ReportsConsumerLab.com examines whether nitric oxide supplements make muscles bigger and increase endurancehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/do%2Dnitric%2Doxide%2Dsupplements%2Dwork/11-14-2011/22111/14/2011News ArticlesLactose-Free Milks and Lactase Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comSupplements for lactose intolerance vary in strength and cost, and some offer no benefit, according to ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/lactose%2Dfree%2Dmilk%5Fand%5Flactase%2Dsupplements%2Dreviewed/10-31-2011/22010/31/2011News ArticlesSAM-e Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com30% of SAM-e supplements selected for review fail to pass ConsumerLab.com testing -- Cost of SAM-e found to vary 5-foldhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/sam%2De+supplements+reviewed/10-13-2011/21910/13/2011News ArticlesNot All Vitamin A Supplement Pass TestingNot all vitamin A supplements pass ConsumerLab.com tests -- New report reviews beta-carotene and cod liver oil supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitamin%2Da%2Dsupplements%2Dreviewed%5Fcod%2Dliver%2Doil%5Fbeta%2Dcarotene/09-21-2011/2189/21/2011News ArticlesOnly 30% of Sexual Enhancement Supplements Pass ConsumerLab.com TestingConsumerLab.com analyzes supplements for sexual dysfunction -- Only three out of ten products selected for testing passhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/sexual%5Fenhancement%5Fsupplement%5Freview/08-31-2011/2178/31/2011News ArticlesSome Coconut Waters Don't Deliver on Promises According to ConsumerLab.comSome coconut waters don't deliver on promises according to ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/coconut%2Dwater%2Dreview%2Dcompare/08-04-2011/2168/4/2011News ArticlesMenopause Supplements and Creams Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com tests menopause supplements and creams: Most are "Approved," but some found contaminated or lacking claimed amount of ingredienthttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/menopause+%5Fsupplements%5Freview%5Fincluding%5Fsoy%5Fisoflavones%5Fand%5Fblack%5Fcohosh/07-12-2011/2157/12/2011News ArticlesMultivitamins Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com puts multivitamins to the testhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/multivitamin%5Freview%5Freport/06-16-2011/2146/16/2011News ArticlesRed Yeast Rice Supplements Reviewed - Wide Variation FoundRed yeast rice supplements weaker now than in 2008; Wide variation among brands and contamination discovered by ConsumerLab.com -- Popular cholesterol-lowering supplements tested and comparedhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/red%2Dyeast%2Drice%2Dreviewed/05-23-2011/2135/23/2011News ArticlesReviews of Vitamin D, Calcium, and Vitamin K Supplements Published by ConsumerLab.comProblems discovered with eight vitamin D supplements in study by ConsumerLab.com -- Incorrect amounts of vitamins, lead contamination, and labeling infractions identified.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitamin%2Dd%2Dsupplements%2Dreview/04-26-2011/2124/26/2011News ArticlesReview of Iron Supplements Find 100-Fold Variation in CostConsumerLab.com finds 100-fold variation in cost of iron supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/iron%2Dsupplements%5Freview/03-30-2011/2113/30/2011News ArticlesCoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com reviews CoQ10 and ubiquinol supplements -- Tests show quality to be high, but large differences found in dosage, formulation, and costhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/coq10%5Freview%5Fubiquinol%5Fnews/03-08-2011/2103/8/2011News ArticlesProblems with Some Turmeric and Curcumin SupplementsSome turmeric and curcumin supplements fail quality review -- ConsumerLab.com finds 20% of turmeric supplements selected for review deliver less than 15% of promised compoundshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/turmeric%2Dcucumin%2Dsupplements%2Dreview/02-16-2011/2092/16/2011News ArticlesTop-rated Vitamin and Suppelement Brands and Merchants Based on ConsumerLab.com SurveyTop-rated vitamin and supplement brands and merchants on consumer satisfaction for 2011 -- Based&nbsp;on ConsumerLab.com survey of vitamin and supplement users&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/top%2Drated%5Fvitamin%5Fsupplement%5Fbrands%5Fmerchants/02-01-2011/2082/1/2011News ArticlesVitamin and Supplement Users Survey Results Reported by ConsumerLab.comVitamin D use increased 52% in past two years according to ConsumerLab.com survey of supplement users -- Fish oil continued to surpass multivitamins as most popular supplement and Internet was most common place to buy supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitamin%5Fsupplement%5Fuse%5Fsurvey%5Freport/01-31-2011/2071/31/2011News ArticlesPotassium Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com evaluates quality of potassium supplements and identifies those offering best valuehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fpotassium%5Fsupplements/01-25-2011/2061/25/2011News ArticlesReview of Omega-3 and -6 Supplements from Flaxseed, Evening Primrose, Borage, and Black Currant OilsSpoilage and labeling errors found with some omega-3 and -6 supplements;&nbsp;Review of&nbsp;evening primrose, flaxseed, borage, and black currant oil supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/omega%2D3%5Fand%2D6%5Fsupplements/01-11-2011/2051/11/2011News ArticlesDHEA Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comDHEA supplements, touted for anti-aging and strength, reviewed by ConsumerLab.com.&nbsp; Testing finds one brand with only 14.7% of labeled amount&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/dhea%5Fsupplements%5Freview/12-14-2010/20412/14/2010News ArticlesResveratrol Supplements ReviewedConsumerLab.com Finds Lower-priced Resveratrol Supplements Pass Tests While Some Higher-priced brands flunkhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/compare%5Fresveratrol%5Freview/12-02-2010/20312/2/2010News ArticlesConsumerLab.com Faults AHPA Trade Group for Misrepresenting Quality of Valerian SupplementsConsumerLab.com faults AHPA&nbsp;trade group for misrepresenting quality of valerian supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/ahpa%5Ffalse%5Fstatements/11-24-2010/20211/24/2010News Articles22% of Valerian Supplements Fail ReviewOnly 22% of valerian herbal sleep supplements selected for review pass tests for quality by ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fvalerian%5Fsupplements/11-10-2010/20111/10/2010News ArticlesB-Complex, Energy Shot, and B Vitamin Supplement Review by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com reports deficiencies in some B-complex supplements and more caffeine than expected in "shot-sized" B vitamin "energy" drinkshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fb%2Dcomplex%5Fenergy%2Dshot%5Fb%2Dvitamin%5Fsupplements/10-26-2010/20010/26/2010News ArticlesFish Oil Supplements Reviewed and ComparedConsumerLab.com finds quality problems with nearly 30% of fish oil supplements reviewed; "Fishy" claims identified -- Softgels and liquids for&nbsp;adults, children and pets tested, including krill oil and algal oil supplements&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/fish%5Foil%5Fsupplements%5Freviewed/09-28-2010/1999/28/2010News ArticlesProblems Found with Ginseng SupplementsProblems persist with ginseng supplements -- Review by ConsumerLab.com finds 45% of products don't provide full amount of ingredient or are contaminatedhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/ginseng%5Fsupplement%5Freview/08-16-2010/1988/16/2010News ArticlesProblems with Some Creatine and BCAA Supplements ReportedTests of "muscle enhancement" supplements show quality problems with some creatine and branched-chain amino acid products -- Review of Muscle Enhancement Supplements published by ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/creatine%5Freview%5Fbcaa%5Freview/07-21-2010/1977/21/2010News ArticlesEchinacea Supplements Reviewed by ConsumerLab.comEchinacea supplements vary widely in ingredients but found clear of contaminants according to ConsumerLab.com -- New review guides consumers through wide range of dosage, species, preparations, and formulas in echinacea productshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/echinacea%5Fsupplements%5Freviewed/06-30-2010/1966/30/2010News ArticlesReview of Greens Powders and Whole Foods Supplements by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com tests "greens" and "whole foods" products; Most offer healthful nutrients, but some found contaminated with heavy metalshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fgreens%5Fpowders%5Fwhole%5Ffoods/06-09-2010/1956/9/2010News ArticlesTests of protein powders and drinks show some lead contamination but no melamine -- New report covers whey, soy, and rice protein supplements for body building, endurance/recovery, meal-replacment and dietingTests of protein powders and drinks show some lead contamination but no melamine -- New report covers whey, soy, and rice protein supplements for body building, endurance/recovery, meal-replacment and dietinghttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/protein%5Fpowder%5Freview/05-05-2010/1945/5/2010News ArticlesSt. John's Wort Supplement Review Released by ConsumerLab.com ConsumerLab.com reports most St. John's wort supplements fail quality tests -- An effective antidepressant herb but heavy metal contamination and low potency are concernshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/st%5Fjohns%5Fwort%5Fsupplement%5Freview/04-14-2010/1934/14/2010News ArticlesCholesterol-Lowering Supplements Evaluated by ConsumerLab.comCholesterol-lowering supplements reviewed by ConsumerLab.com: Many pass quality testing, one fails. Sterol and policosanol products analyzed.&nbsp; Evidence for other cholesterol-lowering ingredients evaluatedhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/cholesterol%5Flowering%5Fsupplements/03-25-2010/1923/25/2010News ArticlesWeight Loss Supplements Tested and Reviewed by ConsumerLab.com; Carcinogenic Chromium Found in SomeConsumerLab.com finds carcinogenic form of chromium in supplements, including those for weight loss -- Reviews published of supplements containing chromium, green tea, 7-keto DHEA and stimulant formulashttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fchromium%5Fsupplements%5Fhexavalent/03-02-2010/1913/2/2010News ArticlesTop-rated Supplement Brands and MerchantsTop-rated supplement brands and merchants for&nbsp;consumer satisfaction for 2010; Based on ConsumerLab.com Survey of Vitamin &amp; Supplement Usershttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/supplement%5Fusers%5Fsurvey%5Fratings/02-01-2010/1892/1/2010News ArticlesSurvey by ConsumerLab.com Finds Fish Oil Most Popular Dietary Supplement; Fish oil becomes most popular dietary supplement in ConsumerLab.com survey; Vitamin D and resveratrol use surgehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/supplement%5Fsurvey%5Freport/01-31-2010/1902/1/2010News ArticlesCLA supplements tested and compared by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com finds quality of most CLA supplements for slimming to be high; One brand mislabeled -- Report is first published in series on supplements for weight loss and slimminghttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/cla%5Fsupplement%5Freview/01-20-2010/1881/20/2010News ArticlesNews on eye health supplements (with lutein and zeaxanthin) and astaxanthin supplements tested by ConsumerLab.com"Eye health" supplements vary widely in formula but product quality is high according to ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/eye%5Fhealth%5Fsupplements%5Fnews/12-16-2009/18712/16/2009News ArticlesReview of Milk Thistle Supplements ReleasedTests show many milk thistle supplements low in key component -- Nine of ten products fail ConsumerLab.com testing of herb used in diabetes and liver diseaseshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/milk%5Fthistle%5Freview%5Fnews/12-02-2009/18612/2/2009News ArticlesProbiotic Supplements Review Published by ConsumerLab.com ConsumerLab.com finds many probiotics don't deliver listed ingredientshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/review%5Fof%5Fprobiotic%5Fsupplements%5F2009/11-16-2009/18511/16/2009News ArticlesReview of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplements Reported by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com finds that only two-thirds of alpha-lipoic acid supplements selected for testing pass quality review -- Anti-oxidant supplements helpful to diabeticshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/alpha%2Dlipoic%5Facid%5Fsupplements%5Freviewed/10-07-2009/18410/7/2009News ArticlesReview of Prostate Supplements (Saw Palmetto and Beta-Sitosterol)ConsumerLab.com finds many prostate supplements have correct ingredients, but four fail review -- New report on 19 saw palmetto and beta-sitosterol supplementshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/prostate%2Dsaw%5Fpalmetto%2Dbeta%2Dsitosterol%5Freview/09-15-2009/1839/15/2009News ArticlesReview of Acai Berry Supplements and Beverages by ConsumerLab.comConsumerLab.com tests quality of acai berry supplements and beverages -- No contamination found but health benefits remain unproven.&nbsp; Caution urged with laxative formulas and billing schemes.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/acai%2Dberry%2Dreview/08-25-2009/1828/25/2009News ArticlesReview of Vitamin E Supplements, Oils and Creams Released by ConsumerLab.comMost vitamin E supplements pass testing, but what seems natural may be synthetic according to ConsumerLab.com -- New review of vitamin E supplements, oils, and creams released todayhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitamin%5Fe%5Freview/08-04-2009/1818/4/2009News ArticlesJoint Supplement Review Released by ConsumerLab.comNine joint health supplements fail ConsumerLab.com quality review -- Lead contamination, missing ingredients and other problems found in supplements for people as well as for dogs, cats and horses; Many others approvedhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/glucosamine%5Fchondroitin%5Fmsm%5Freview/07-10-2009/1807/10/2009News ArticlesMagnesium Supplement Review Reported by ConsumerLab.comReview of Magnesium Supplements by ConsumerLab.com Shows One-Quarter Fail Quality Testshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/magnesium%5Fsupplement%5Freview/05-19-2009/1795/19/2009News Articles40% of Green Tea and Selenium Supplements Fail ConsumerLab.com Review; Lycopene Supplements Pass40% of Green Tea and Selenium Products Fail ConsumerLab.com Review of Cancer-Prevention Supplements; Lycopene Supplements Passhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/green%5Ftea%5Flycopene%5Fselenium%5Freview/04-28-2009/1784/28/2009News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Results of Multivitamin TestsConsumerLab.com Warns of Problems with Multivitamins and Vitamin Water -- Defects Found in Over 30% of Supplements Selected for Testing; Several Popular Children's Multis Exceed Tolerable Limitshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/multivitamin%5Fmultimineral%5Ftest%5Fresults/03-31-2009/1773/31/2009News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K SupplementsConsumerLab.com reports deficiencies in some supplements containing calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin K -- Focus on bone health supplements and new uses for vitamins D and Khttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/calcium%5Fvitamin%5Fd%5Fvitamin+k%5Ftests/03-10-2009/1763/10/2009News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: 2009 Vitamin & Supplement Users Survey ResultsSurvey shows fish oil nearly as popular as multivitamins among supplement users.&nbsp; Most also take calcium and CoQ10 -- ConsumerLab.com publishes 2009 Report on Vitamin &amp; Supplement Users, including top-rated brands and merchants.&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/merchants%5Frated%5Fhighest%5Fby%5Fdietary%5Fsupplement%5Fconsumers/02-03-2009/1752/3/2009News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Largest Test of CoQ10 and Ubiquinol SupplementsConsumerLab.com reports largest test of CoQ10 and ubiquinol supplements -- Most supplements provide claimed ingredient, but large variation in dosage and forms may confuse consumers.&nbsp; ConsumerLab.com provides guidance.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/coq10%5Fubiquinol%5Fnews/01-13-2009/1741/13/2009News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Zinc Supplement Test Report ReleasedTests of zinc supplements by ConsumerLab.com show only some provide dosage proven to shorten colds, reduce eye disease.&nbsp; Lead contamination found in one product.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/zinc%5Flozenges%5Fsupplements/12-09-2008/17312/9/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: ConsumerLab.com Asks USP to Adopt Safer Lead Limit for Drugs and Supplements. Warns that lead contamination may worsen if USP accepts currently proposed allowance.ConsumerLab.com asks USP to adopt safer lead limit for drugs and supplements.&nbsp; Warns that lead contamination may worsen if USP accepts currently proposed allowance.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/usp%5Flead%5Flimit/12-08-2008/17212/8/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Adulteration Suspected with Some "Memory" SupplementsAdulteration Suspected with Some "Memory" Supplements -- Few Ginkgo and Huperzine Supplements Pass ConsumerLab.com Tests; Quality High for Acetyl-L-Carnitinehttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/memory%5Fsupplements%5Fginkgo%5Fhuperzine%5Facetyl%2Dl%2Dcarnitine/11-18-2008/17111/18/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests reveal quality problems with vitamin A supplementsTests reveal quality problems with vitamin A supplements -- New ConsumerLab.com report focuses on vitamin A, including beta-carotene and cod liver oilhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitmain%5Fa%5Fbeta%2Dcarotene%5Fcod%5Fliver%5Foil/10-28-2008/17010/28/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Melatonin SupplementsConsumerLab.com finds melatonin supplements range in strength but ingredient quality is highhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/melatonin+supplements/10-02-2008/16910/2/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Menopause SupplementsConsumerLab.com's tests of menopause supplements reveal wide range in strength and quality; mislabeling and contamination discovered -- Soy and red clover isoflavones, black cohosh, and progesterone products testedhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/menopause%5Fsupplements%5Fsoy%5Fred%5Fclover%5Fisoflavones%5Fblack%5Fcohosh%5Fprogesterone/09-17-2008/1689/17/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.co News: Tests of Nutrition BarsConsumerLab.com finds improvements in labeling of nutrition bars but potential pitfalls exist --&nbsp;New report compares 20 bars, including those for protein, fiber, energy and whole foodhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/nutrition%5Fbars%5Fenergy%5Fprotein%5Ffiber%5Fmeal%2Dreplacement%5Fwhole%5Ffood/08-12-2008/1668/12/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Fish Oil SupplementsConsumerLab.com Find Fifty Fish Oil Supplements Pass Quality Testing&nbsp;-- New Report Helps Consumers Choose Among Pills, Liquids, Foods and Beverages with Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/omega%2D3%5Ffatty%5Facids%5Fepa%5Fand%5Fdha%5Ffrom%5Ffish%5Fmarine%5Foils/08-05-2008/1678/5/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Red Yeast Rice SupplementsTests of ten red yeast rice supplements by ConsumerLab.com reveal significant statin levels, but some pills contaminated -- Popular cholesterol-lowering supplements compared in new reporthttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/red%5Fyeast%5Frice%5Fsupplements%5Ftests%5Fcomparison%5Flovastatin/07-01-2008/1657/1/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Iron Supplements TestedSome iron supplements short on iron or contaminated according to ConsumerLab.comhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/iron%5Fsupplements%5Ftested/05-05-2008/1645/5/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: FDA Report on Budeprion XL 300FDA's investigation of generic antidepresssant called inadequate by ConsumerLab.com and The People's Pharmacyhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/fda%5Freview%5Fbudeprion%5Fxl%5Fwellbutrin/04-16-2008/1634/16/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: CONSUMERLAB.COM AND THE PEOPLE’S PHARMACY ASK FDA TO DISCLOSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENERIC AND ORIGINAL DRUGSAs problems surface, Consumerlab.com and the people's pharmacy ask FDA to disclose differences between generic and original drugshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/generic%5Fdrugs%5Ftoprolxl%5Fmetoprolol%5Fsuccinate%5Fextended%5Frelease/03-17-2008/1573/17/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Vitamin C SupplementConsumerLab.com finds most vitamin C supplements pass quality tests but one short on ingredient and some exceed tolerable levelshttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/vitamin%5Fc%5Fsupplements%5Ftests/03-07-2008/1563/7/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Turmeric/Curcumin SupplementsConsumers warned of lead in some turmeric supplements &mdash; Highest lead level ever reported by ConsumerLab.com; Lack of active compound also a problemhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/turmeric%5Fcurcumin%5Fsupplement%5Ftests/02-06-2008/1552/6/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: ANNOUNCES BRANDS AND MERCHANTS RATED HIGHEST BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENT CONSUMERSConsumerLab.com announces brands and merchants rated highest by dietary supplement consumershttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/merchants%5Frated%5Fhighest%5Fby%5Fdietary%5Fsupplement%5Fconsumers/01-23-2008/1541/23/2008News ArticlesConsumerLab.com News: Tests of Potassium SupplementsConsumerLab.com finds most potassium supplements meet quality standards, but one with only 18% of ingredient &mdash; Results for 12 potassium supplements in new reviewhttps://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/potassium%5Fsupplements%5Ftests/01-08-2008/1531/8/2008News ArticlesCan I get the new coronavirus from supplements from China?Many of the ingredients used in dietary supplements come from China. Even supplements that are "made in the U.S." may include ingredients from China, where the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is believed to have originated. Due to temporary shutdowns of businesses in some areas of China, there may be disruptions in the supply of these ingredients from China. There is no requirement for a dietary supplement to list the country of origin of its ingredients, so your question is a valid one. <br /> <br /> However, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the <a href="#" target="_blank"><b>CDC</b></a>), "In general, because of poor survivability of these coronaviruses on surfaces, there is likely very low risk of spread from products or packaging that are shipped over a period of days or weeks at ambient temperatures." "Currently there is no evidence to support transmission of 2019-nCoV associated with imported goods and there have not been any cases of 2019-nCoV in the United States associated with imported goods." <br /> <br /> More needs to be learned about this new virus, but, currently there is no reason to believe that you can catch it from a dietary supplement. Problems that are more likely to occur with ingredients from China, as well as other parts of the world, relate to the quality of the ingredients and impurities such as lead and other heavy metals. In 2017, for example, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14053" target="_blank"><b>71.4% of Chinese manufacturing facilities inspected by the FDA</b></a> were out of compliance with regulations -- but so were 61.5% of U.S. facilities, typically due to ingredient issues. For this reason, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/" target="_blank"><b>all products that ConsumerLab reviews</b></a> are tested for key compounds relating to their identity, and products that include significant amounts of whole herbs or minerals are tested for heavy metals. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coronavirus-from-supplements-from-china/coronavirus/46682/4/2020AnswersWhat is lactoferrin and will it really strengthen my immune system?Lactoferrin is a protein found in human and cow's milk. Sold as a supplement, lactoferrin is often promoted for supporting or strengthenin the immune system, preventing infections and improving gut health. <br /> <br /> Laboratory evidence suggests lactoferrin may have antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. <br /> <br /> Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that lactoferrin may be helpful for reducing the occurrence of serious infections preterm infants, preventing and treating anemia in women, and in improving taste and smell for people undergoing chemotherapy. The evidence for lactoferrin in preventing colds and vaginal infections is also preliminary and relies on it being used along with probiotics. Lactoferrin generally appears to be safe but could trigger a reaction in people with milk allergies. Much more research is required to establish the efficacy of lactoferrin for treating or preventing any condition. <br /> <br /> For more details about lactoferrin and the evidence behind it, read the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=lactoferrin"><strong>full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lactoferrin-health-benefits-%26-strengthening-the-immune-system/lactoferrin/46671/11/2020AnswersWhich vitamins and supplements are good for acne, and are there any that make it worse?Acne means there is inflammation around blocked pores of the skin. This may explain why supplements with an anti-inflammatory effect may lead to clearer skin, while those that stimulate inflammation may make things worse. <br /> <br /> According to a small, preliminary study, high-dose <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/?clinicalid=214#acne" target="_blank"><b>"fish oil (which has natural anti-inflammatory effects) reduced pimples</b></a> by about 40%. (Borage oil was also tried and reduced pimples by about one-third, although borage oil is not anti-inflammatory). <br /> <br /> The mineral <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21654" target="_blank"><b>zinc may also reduce acne</b></a>, however the benefits appear to be slight and the required dose is so high as to be potentially toxic. <br /> <br /> The following can make acne worse: <br /> <br /> Large doses (much larger than the daily requirement) of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#acne" target="_blank"><b>vitamin B12 from supplements can cause outbreaks of acne</b></a>, even in older people, as the oversupply of vitamin B12 may stimulate production of an inflammatory protein by bacteria in the skin. <br /> <br /> Although uncommon, certain individuals who are sensitive to iodine can develop acne breakouts, rashes, or other skin reactions when consuming iodine from iodized table salt or supplements such as certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><b>multivitamins</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/" target="_blank"><b>kelp supplements</b></a>. For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/#skin" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the Kelp Supplements Review. (Keep in mind that iodine is an essential mineral and is especially important during pregnancy, so don't avoid iodine.) <br /> <br /> A modest association between consumption of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/?clinicalid=216#acne" target="_blank"><b>cocoa</b></a> and the development of pimples has also been shown.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamins-and-supplements-for-acne-and-clear-skin/acne/46661/10/2020AnswersI enjoy oat milk in my coffee, but how healthy is it for me?Many popular oat milks are not really made from just oats and water, but from oats that have been chemically processed to turn some of their healthful, complex carbohydrates into not-so healthful&nbsp;<b>simple sugars</b>, such as maltose. This makes these oat milks sweet but means that <i>you are essentially adding some sugar to your coffee</i>. This explains the head-scratching labels on oat milks that list several grams of "added sugar" in their Nutrition Facts panels but don't list sugar as an ingredient. <br /> <br /> Some brands, such as <i>Oatly</i>, for example, have as much as 7 grams of sugar (about 1.7 teaspoonfuls of sugar) per cup of oat milk, although this is only about half the amount in cow's milk (as lactose) or in&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lactose-free-milk_lactase-enzyme-supplement-review/lactose-intolerance/" target="_blank"><b>lactose-free milk</b></a>&nbsp;in which the lactose has been converted to glucose. On the other hand, a cup of oat milk typically provides less than half the protein (about 2 to 3 grams) found in cow's milk (about 8 grams).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Oat milk also provides a gram or two of soluble fiber, which you won't get from cow's milk, but not nearly as much as you would get from&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based Cereals/oats/" target="_blank"><b>whole oats</b></a> which also provide <em>in</em>soluble fiber in the form of bran -- a portion of the oat typically not included in oat milks.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Vegetable oil is often added to oat milk for texture, adding a few grams of fat, but, in contrast to cow's milk, this is mainly unsaturated fat.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> One cup of oat milk typically provides about 25-30% of the Daily Value (DV) of <b>calcium</b>, which is added. This is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-safer-to-get-calcium-from-foods-than-from-supplements/calcium_foods_supplements/" target="_blank"><b>just like getting calcium from a supplement</b></a>, so be aware that you don't want to get too much calcium (500 mg or more) at a time, as you can't absorb more than that amount, nor should you get more than 1,000 mg of calcium per day this way as there is an&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#heartattack" target="_blank"><b>increased risk of stroke with too much calcium from supplements</b></a> (which is not the case with calcium naturally in cow's milk).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Significant and generally safe amounts of vitamins are often added to oat milks, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin A</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin B12</b></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin D</b></a>. These are disclosed on labels. <br /> <br /> <b>The bottom line:</b> <br /> Oat milk in your coffee, or consumed on its own, is a healthy alternative to regular milk. It contains some sugar but less than in cow's milk. It also&nbsp;contains little to none of the saturated fat you'll get from regular milk and it can provide significant amounts of key vitamins. However, it's probably best&nbsp;<i>not to consume more than 2 to 3 cups of oat milk per day to avoid getting too much supplemental calcium</i>. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab will be publishing additional information comparing brands of oat milk and other plant-based milks -- such as soy milk, almond milk, cashew milk, coconut milk, and pea milk -- s<i>o stay tuned!</i>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/oat-milks---whats-really-in-them/oat-milk/46651/4/2020AnswersAre some probiotics dangerous? I've heard that Bacillus subtilis, a soil-based probiotic, can cause infections.As explained in more detail in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of our Probiotic Supplements Review, probiotics are generally safe, including <i>Bacillus subtilis</i>, but infections have occurred in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#infection" target="_blank"><b>people who are immunocompromised</b></a>, including those undergoing cancer treatment, and those with intravenous lines, feeding tubes, or urinary catheters. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#allergicreaction" target="_blank"><b>Allergic reactions</b></a> can also occur in people with milk allergies (due to probiotics cultured on milk-containing media) or yeast allergies (due to yeast-based probiotics). <br /> <br /> In its testing of probiotics, ConsumerLab.com also checks for potential contamination of products with pathogenic organisms, including <i>E. coli</i>, <i>Salmonella</i>, and undesirable yeasts and molds. See which products are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b>Approved or Not Approved</b></a>, as well as our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> in our Probiotic Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/safety-of-probiotics/probiotic-danger/46641/3/2020AnswersMy optometrist recommended genetic testing to determine the effectiveness of various supplements for AMD. What is the evidence for doing this?As described in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#genetictesting" target="_blank"><b>Vision Supplements Review</b></a>, certain genetic variations , or polymorphisms (more details about the specific genes are found in the Review), are <i>associated</i> with higher or lower risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These variations, in turn, have been <i>associated</i> with better or worse outcomes from supplementation with antioxidants and zinc known to generally reduce the progression of AMD. <i>However</i>, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#genetictesting" target="_blank"><b>Vision Supplements Review</b></a>, it has yet to be <i>proven</i> that genetic testing will result in a better outcome in guiding the use of supplements for treating AMD, so it seems premature to rely on these tests to determine supplementation.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> See our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b>tests of popular vision supplements</b></a> and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among products. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/genetic-testing-for-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd-supplements/genetic-testing-amd/466312/11/2019AnswersAre there collagen supplements for vegetarians and vegans?Plants don't contain or provide collagen, so there is no "vegan collagen." There are, however, supplements that contain certain vitamins, amino acids, and other ingredients used in building collagen. But will they help you? See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#collagenbooster" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips</strong></a> section of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#collagenbooster" target="_blank"><strong>Collagen Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/collagen-supplements-for-vegetarians-and-vegans/vegetarian-collagen/466211/26/2019AnswersWhat are the health benefits of manuka honey, and is it safe?Manuka honey has unique chemical characteristics and is promoted for a range of uses: Topically for wounds; orally for constipation; and as a mouthwash for gum disease. However, the clinical evidence supporting these uses is weak and, in some cases, is based on evidence from honey other than manuka, as described in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=manuka-honey"><strong>the full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/manuka-honey-health-benefits/manuka-honey/466111/2/2019AnswersCan eating almonds reduce wrinkles?Daily consumption of a large amount of almonds was shown to slightly reduce the severity and width of wrinkles in a 4-month study of postmenopausal women. However, the way in which the study was conducted does not rule out possible similar benefit from other nuts. For details about the study, including the amount of almonds consumed, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=almonds-wrinkles"><strong>see the full answer >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/" target="_blank"><b>Review of Collagen Supplements</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/almonds-for-reducing-wrinkles/almonds-wrinkles/466010/8/2019AnswersWhich dietary supplements and health foods contain high levels of lead?Lead is one of several toxic heavy metals that plants can absorb from the environment (the soil, water or air), while growing, and which can contaminate other minerals when they are mined. Sometimes lead is introduced into supplements by its use as a colorant (e.g. lead chromate, which has been <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#forsyth" target="_blank"><b>added to turmeric powder</b></a> to make it more yellow) or from other ingredients added to products. <br /> <br /> Consequently, supplements and foods such as whole <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>turmeric root powder</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><b>ashwagandha root powder</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/" target="_blank"><b>Echinacea</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>cocoa powder</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Greens_Whole_Foods_Powders_Supplements/greens/" target="_blank"><b>greens and "whole food" supplements</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/" target="_blank"><b>kelp</b></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><b>green tea leaves</b></a> all have the potential to be contaminated with lead as well as other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic. Plant <i>extracts</i>, as opposed to powders made from whole plant parts, are much less likely to be contaminated as the extraction process helps to remove contaminants. Minerals such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><b>calcium</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>magnesium</b></a> may also naturally contain toxic heavy metals such as lead, although this is unlikely today due to improvements in production techniques. <br /> <br /> Because animals and fish can ingest and absorb heavy metals from their environment, products such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><b>bone broth</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>canned tuna and salmon</b></a> can also be contaminated with lead or other heavy metals. <br /> <br /> <b>Health concerns and intake limits for lead</b> <br /> In children, infants, and fetuses, even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurobehavioral development and cognitive function. Consequently, lead is of particular concern during pregnancy, as the mother can transfer it to the fetus. <br /> <br /> In adults, lead at somewhat higher levels can cause elevated blood pressure, anemia, and adversely affect the nervous and reproductive systems. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" name="limits" id="limits">The FDA has established <a href="#" target="_blank">maximum daily intakes</a> (i.e., daily limits) for lead from all sources of exposure, called the Interim Reference Levels (IRLs). The limits were reduced by the FDA in 2018: For children, the limit was reduced to 3 mcg from 6 mcg per day. For all adults, it was lowered to 12.5 mcg per day, having previously been 25 mcg for pregnant women and 70 mcg for other adults. According to the agency, the new lower limit for adults helps to protect against possible fetal exposure in women who are unaware that they are pregnant, and against infant exposure during nursing. <br /> <br /> <b>ConsumerLab.com's testing for lead</b> <br /> Neither the FDA nor any other federal or state agency routinely tests dietary supplements for contamination with lead or other toxic metals prior to sale. For this reason, ConsumerLab tests all supplements containing whole herbs and/or more than 250 mg of minerals for contamination with lead (as well as for cadmium and arsenic). Also tested for heavy metals are all <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>cocoa powders and dark chocolates</b></a>. ConsumerLab also tests spices for cooking, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#divReviewTableHeaderB" target="_blank"><b>turmeric spice</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cinnamon-supplements-review/cinnamon/#spices" target="_blank"><b>cinnamon</b></a>, for heavy metals. ConsumerLab tests for mercury in products where there is contamination concern, such as in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>canned fish</b></a> (commonly contaminated) and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><b>fish oil supplements</b></a> (rarely contaminated) and supplements containing spirulina or algae. <br /> <br /> When testing for lead, ConsumerLab uses the State of California's Prop 65 limit, above which a warning label is required on products sold in that state (the only state to have such a limit). That limit is 0.5 mcg of lead per daily serving. However, based on settlements of cases of lead contamination in California, which have allowed somewhat higher amounts in products with inherent contamination issues, ConsumerLab allows somewhat higher amounts in products not marketed for children that contain minerals, whole parts of herbs, or for which serving sizes are 5 grams or more. <br /> <br /> More details about these limits and how CL tests for lead are found in the How Products Were Evaluated section of each Product Review, accessible <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=methods_index.asp" target="_blank"><b>here</b></a>. Any product selected by CL for testing that fails to pass lead testing is noted as "Not Approved" and the amount of lead found is shown in the Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lead-contamination-in-supplements-and-foods/lead-contamination-supplements/465910/5/2019AnswersI have IBS and don't want to take medication if I can help it. I've heard that peppermint works for IBS, but is there good research to support this?Many people share your reluctance to rely on drugs for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21736" target="_blank"><b>irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)</b></a>, a common gastrointestinal disorder that causes chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or alternating bouts of both). Other non-pharmaceutical interventions for IBS &mdash; notably the low FODMAP diet, cognitive behavioral therapy, and gut-directed hypnotherapy &mdash; have performed well in clinical trials, but the time and commitment they require can be difficult for some people. <br /> <br /> Peppermint oil is one of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs/supplements_for_IBS/" target="_blank"><b>several supplements that have been proposed to help with IBS</b></a>, possibly by reducing muscular spasms in the colon. However, the evidence to support its use is mixed. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=peppermint-oil-ibs"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer >></strong></a> <br /> <br /> Peppermint oil may be helpful for mild indigestion and stomach upset in people who do not have IBS, as well as for other uses. See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21838" target="_blank"><b>Peppermint Oil</b></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/peppermint-oil-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs/peppermint-oil-ibs/46589/21/2019AnswersHow do the Beyond Burger, the Impossible Burger, and a beef burger compare in terms of vitamins and minerals, and which is best?Burgers can be compared in many ways (e.g., taste, fats, protein, environmental impact, GMOs, amount of processing, etc.), but, as far as vitamins and minerals go, the Impossible Burger is a better burger than the Beyond Burger because, as shown in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=#compare"><strong>table below</strong></a>, it matches the many nutrients in a beef burger and goes beyond the Beyond Burger in of terms minerals -- and way beyond it in terms of vitamins because the Beyond Burger lists&nbsp;<i>none</i>. <br /> <br /> The Beyond Burger and the Impossible Burger contain somewhat similar amounts of several minerals: Both provide 25% of the Daily Value (DV) of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><b>iron</b></a> &mdash; which is twice the amount in a beef burger, although the iron in meat is heme-bound, which may be better absorbed than the iron added to the meatless burgers; and both meatless burgers provide more&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><b>calcium</b></a> than the 18 mg in a regular burger: Beyond provides 104 mg and Impossible provides 170 mg. All the burgers provide some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/" target="_blank"><b>potassium</b></a>.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Only the Impossible Burger matches a beef burger on <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><b>zinc</b></a> &mdash; each providing about half the daily requirement. Neither meatless burger provides the small amount of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>magnesium</b></a> in a beef burger or the moderate amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Selenium_Supplements_Review_Ratings/selenium/" target="_blank"><b>selenium</b></a>. Both meatless burgers contain about <i>four times the sodium</i> that is in a beef burger &mdash; a concern for people watching their sodium intakes.<br /> <br /> As to vitamins, Impossible Burger matches a beef burger in providing substantial amounts of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B6</strong></a>. Impossible exceeds the 102% DV of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><b>vitamin B12</b></a> in a beef burger, providing 130% of the DV. Due to the difficulty some people have with extracting vitamin B12 from meat (a common problem among older people and those using acid-lowering medications), B12 may actually be better absorbed from the Impossible Burger than from a beef burger. Impossible Burger also provides more <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><b>folate</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#riboflavin" target="_blank"><b>riboflavin</b></a> (30% of the DV of each) than a beef burger (just 2% and 5% of the DV, respectively), although only a beef burger provides <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/" target="_blank"><b>choline</b></a> (12% of the DV), which is particularly important for pregnant women. <br /> <br /> A strange feature of the Impossible Burger is its very high amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#thiamin" target="_blank"><b>thiamin</b></a> (2,350% of the DV) compared to <em>none</em> in the Beyond Burger and just 4% of the DV in a beef burger. The reason for such a high amount of thiamin is unclear as it is not just from natural ingredients but from thiamin listed as an added ingredient. Getting too large a dose of certain vitamins can be dangerous, but, fortunately, there is no established upper limit for thiamin, so this large amount of thiamin does not pose a safety issue.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <strong>Overall, the Impossible Burger provides as much or more of nearly every vitamin and mineral found in appreciable amounts in a beef burger, aside from choline and selenium. The Beyond Burger provides none of the vitamins, not even vitamin B12, which people on vegan diets need to get from fortified foods or supplements, as it is best obtained from meats, dairy, and eggs. The Beyond Burger does provide a good amount of iron, as does the Impossible Burger and, of course, a beef burger</strong>.<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that none of burgers provides significant amounts of vitamins <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>A</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>C</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>D</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>E</strong></a>, or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>K</strong></a>. You'll need to get those from other foods or, if needed, supplements.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you want to find out your daily requirement of a vitamin or mineral, use the links in the first column of the table below which go to parts of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><b>Recommended Daily Intakes and Limits</b></a> table. From there you can also get to our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/" target="_blank"><b>reviews of supplements</b></a> based on our laboratory tests of popular brands. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" name="protein" id="protein"><strong>About Fats, Cholesterol, and Protein: [Added 9/20/2019]</strong> <br /> <br /> Upon publishing this article, we received reader comments asking us to include information regarding fat and protein in the burgers and how leaner beef would compare, so we've added information to the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=#compare"><strong>comparison table</strong></a> and the discussion below. <br /> <br /> For our original comparison, we chose to use a ground beef burger that was 84% lean, which is on the lean side for chuck and has the same amount of <strong>fat</strong> as a Beyond Burger (18 grams), although 4 grams more than an Impossible Burger. Leaner (and, typically, more expensive) beef will contain less fat and provide more protein (as discussed further below) but offers roughly the same amounts of vitamins and only slightly higher amounts of minerals. <br /> <br /> The fat in a beef burger is about 50% saturated (the least healthy form). The fat in the Impossible Burger is about 57% saturated, although the total amount of saturated fat is only one gram more than in the beef burger. Fat in the Beyond Burger is only 33% saturated but, since it has more total fat than an Impossible Burger, this amounts to only two grams less of saturated fat than the Impossible Burger and one less than the beef burger. The saturated fats in the meatless burgers are due to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-and-MCT-oils/coconut-mct-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>coconut oil</strong></a> and, in the Beyond Burger, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><strong>cocoa butter</strong></a> as well. <br /> <br /> The meatless burgers provide a little less <strong>protein</strong> than the 21 grams in the beef burger: Beyond provides 19 grams and Impossible provides 20 grams. Of course, a burger made with leaner beef will provide more protein (a burger that is 95% lean contains 24 grams of protein, for example). <br /> <br /> <a name="compare" id="compare"></a>There is no <strong>cholesterol</strong> in either meatless burger, compared to 78 mg in the beef burger &mdash; about one-quarter of the maximum amount one should consume per day. Beef provides no&nbsp;<strong>fiber</strong>, compared to two to three grams of fiber in the meatless burgers. Impossible has an additional six grams of <strong>complex carbs</strong> and Beyond has one gram.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a name="comp-table" id="comp-table"></a><center><strong>Vitamins, Minerals and Other Nutrients in Beyond, Impossible, and Ground Beef Burgers</strong><br /> (Amount and % Daily Value per Patty -- 4 oz /113 g)</center> <table cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" border="0" class="reviewTable" align="center" style="border-top:none !important;border-left:none !important;"> <tr> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD-C answer-table" style="border-top:none !important;border-left:none !important;">&nbsp;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD-C answer-table" style="border-top:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><strong><center>Beyond Burger</center></strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD-C answer-table" style="border-top:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><strong><center>Impossible Burger</center></strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD-C answer-table" style="border-top:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><strong>Beef Burger</strong> (84% Lean)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTH answer-table" colspan="4" style="text-align:left;border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><strong>Vitamins:</strong></td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Thiamin/#rdatable" target="_blank">Thiamin</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">28.3 mg<br /> (2350%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.047 mg<br /> (4%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Riboflavin/#rdatable" target="_blank">Riboflavin</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.4 mg<br /> (30%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.071 mg<br /> (5%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Niacin/#rdatable" target="_blank">Niacin</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">5.3 mg<br /> (35%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">5.162 mg<br /> (32%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Pantothenic+Acid/#rdatable" target="_blank">Pantothenic Acid</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.609 mg<br /> (12%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Vitamin+B-6/#rdatable" target="_blank">Vitamin B6</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.4 mg<br /> (25%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.386 mg<br /> (23%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Folate+Vitamin+B-9/#rdatable" target="_blank">Folate</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">115 mcg DFE<br /> (30%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">7 mcg DFE<br /> (2%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Choline/#rdatable" target="_blank">Choline</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">68.1 mg<br /> (12%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Vitamin+B-12/#rdatable" target="_blank">Vitamin B12</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">3 mcg<br /> (130%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">2.45 mcg<br /> (102%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTH answer-table" colspan="4" style="text-align:left;border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><strong>Minerals:</strong></td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Copper/#rdatable" target="_blank">Copper</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0.075 mg<br /> (8%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Calcium/#rdatable" target="_blank">Calcium</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">104 mg*<br /> (8% DV)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">170 mg<br /> (15%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">18 mg<br /> (1%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Iron/#rdatable" target="_blank">Iron</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">4.5 mg*<br /> (25% DV)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">4.2 mg<br /> (25%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">2.33 mg<br /> (13%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Magnesium/#rdatable" target="_blank">Magnesium</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">20 mg<br /> (5%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Potassium/#rdatable" target="_blank">Potassium</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">300 mg<br /> (6%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">610 mg<br /> (15%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">328 mg<br /> (7%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Phosphorus/#rdatable" target="_blank">Phosphorus</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">180 mg<br /> (15%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">191 mg<br /> (15%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Selenium/#rdatable" target="_blank">Selenium</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">17.7 mcg<br /> (32%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;">Sodium</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">390 mg<br /> (16%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">370<br /> (16%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">75 mg<br /> (3%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Zinc/#rdatable" target="_blank">Zinc</a></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&mdash;</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">5.5 mg<br /> (50%)</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">5 mg<br /> (45%)</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;text-align:left;"><strong>Protein</strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">20 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">19 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">21 g</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;text-align:left;"><strong>Total Fat:</strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">18 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">14 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">18</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;">Saturated Fat</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">6 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">8 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">7 g**</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;text-align:left;"><strong>Cholesterol:</strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 mg</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 mg</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">78 mg</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;text-align:left;"><strong>Total Carbohydrate:</strong></td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">3 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">9 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 g</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;">Dietary Fiber</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">2 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">3 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 g</td> </tr> <tr style="border-left:solid 1px #7993b4;"> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table" style="border-left:solid 2px #7993b4 !important;">Sugars</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">&lt;1 g</td> <td class="reviewTable reviewTableTD answer-table">0 g</td> </tr> </table> <div style="font-size:14px;max-width:600px;margin-right:auto;margin-left:auto;line-height:20px;margin-top:10px;">All values based on uncooked patties. Cooking may affect levels.<br /> DVs based on a 2,000 calorie diet, typically the highest amount required by adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Impossible Burger rounds vitamins and most minerals to nearest 5%. Percentages for ground beef burger are calculated from amounts listed in the USDA database. <br /> <br /> * Amount calculated from Daily Value listed on label. <br /> ** Based on fatty acids, which comprise roughly 90% of weight of fats. <br /> <br /> Sources (Accessed 9/17/2019): <ul type="disc"> <li class="reviewBody">Beyond Burger (retail version): <a href="#" target="_blank">https://www.beyondmeat.com/products/the-beyond-burger/</a></li> <li class="reviewBody">Impossible Burger: <a href="#" target="_blank">https://faq.impossiblefoods.com/hc/en-us/articles/360018939274-What-are-the-nutrition-facts-</a></li> <li class="reviewBody">Ground Beef Burger (Raw, 84% lean. Showing any nutrients at or above 5% DV) <a href="#" target="_blank">https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/beef/show</a></li> </ul> </div> </span>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/beyond-burger-vs-impossible-burger/beyond-burger-impossible-burger/46579/17/2019AnswersCan drinking coffee can prevent gallstones? Can supplements help?Higher consumption of certain coffees has been associated with a lower risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease. <br /> <br /> Although several types of supplements have been proposed to help with gallstone disease, the evidence is weak &mdash; and some may lead to complications. For more details regarding coffee and supplements for gallstone disease, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=coffee-gallstones"><strong>sign in and see the full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/gallstones-prevention-%26-coffee/coffee-gallstones/46569/7/2019AnswersWhat are the side effects of boswellia?Boswellia, a common ingredient supplements for joint health, appears to be generally well-tolerated. In clinically studies, the most common side effects have been gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and stomach pain. Occasionally, however, other side effects have been reported. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#boswelliaconcerns" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><b>Joint Health Supplements Review</b></a>, which includes our tests, comparisons, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=h/reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> for boswellia, glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM supplements.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/boswellia-side-effects/boswellia-side-effects/46558/6/2019AnswersCan cocoa and chocolate cause kidney stones?Cocoa and chocolate are high in oxalates, naturally occurring compounds that can contribute to the formation of the most common type of kidney stone in susceptible individuals. Cocoa powders tend to contain a higher concentration of oxalates than chocolate bars, but a single, typical serving of either cocoa or chocolate can contain higher amounts of oxalates than people who are following a low-oxalate diet should consume in a day. For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#kidneystones" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>Cocoa and Dark Chocolates Review</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Be aware that some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#oxalate" target="_blank"><b>turmeric</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-cranberry-help-with-utis/cranberry_urinary_infection/#oxalate" target="_blank"><b>cranberry supplements</b></a> increase urinary oxalate levels, and getting <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>too much vitamin C</b></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#stones" target="_blank"><b>calcium</b></a> from supplements may also increase the risk of kidney stones in some people. <br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21459" target="_blank"><b>Kidney Stones</b></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cocoa-and-chocolate-causing-kidney-stones/cocoa-chocolate-kidney-stones/46547/2/2019AnswersDo water filters remove microplastics from tap water?Plastic pollution in drinking water is a growing concern, with&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/plastic-particles-in-drinking-water-and-salt/microplastics-water-salt/" target="_blank"><b>recent studies</b></a> finding much of the world's tap and bottled water to be contaminated with small bits of plastic known as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/plastic-particles-in-drinking-water-and-salt/microplastics-water-salt/" target="_blank"><b>microplastics</b></a>. Traditional water filters can remove heavy metals like lead and mercury, microbial contaminants, particulates such as sand, and some filters may help to remove certain industrial chemicals, herbicides or pharmaceuticals. <br /> <br /> We have not yet tested common, above-the-counter filters such as Brita, Pur, Propur, and Lifestraw to determine their abilities to remove microplastics from tap water. However, based on a review of their claims and filtering abilities, they should be able to clear substantial amounts of microplastics. More sophisticated filtration systems are necessary to more completely remove microplastics from tap water.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=water-filters"><strong>See the full answer for details</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <a name="filtertests" id="filtertests"></a><em><b>ConsumerLab will be testing home water filters for their ability to filter microplastics and other water contaminants, with results expected in early 2020.</b></em>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/water-filters-for-microplastics/water-filters/46536/12/2019AnswersDoes D-aspartic acid boost testosterone levels?D-aspartic acid (generally called aspartic acid) is a common ingredient in supplements promoted to raise testosterone levels, increase libido, and help increase muscle mass. However, clinical studies suggest that this effect may depend on the type of man who is taking it. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=d-aspartic-acid">See the full answer for details</a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/d-aspartic-acid-effects-on-testosterone/d-aspartic-acid/46526/11/2019AnswersDoes consuming casein protein, like in Greek yogurt, increase the risk of prostate cancer?There is some evidence suggesting that dairy, and particularly yogurt (which is high in casein), may modestly increase the risk of prostate cancer. Preliminary laboratory research also suggests an effect of casein in promoting prostate cancer cells, although clinical studies showing this effect in men have yet to be conducted. For more information, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#caseinprostate" target="_blank"><b>Casein</b></a> section of the Protein Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/casein-protein-and-prostate-cancer-risk/casein-prostate-cancer/46516/5/2019AnswersWhat are the health benefits of black garlic?Black garlic has been promoted as superior to fresh garlic or regular garlic supplements, but there appears to be no good evidence of a significant effect on improving cholesterol levels. One study suggested that it may improve certain measures of heart function in people with congestive heart failure. Many of black garlic&#39;s other purported benefits, such as anti-cancer properties and decreasing inflammation, appear to be based only on preliminary laboratory and animal studies. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/#blackgarlic" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerTips</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/" target="_blank"><b>Garlic Supplements Review</b></a>, which includes our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/#topchoices" target="_blank"><b>top choices</b></a> among aged and fresh garlic powders and extracts.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/the-health-benefits-of-black-garlic/black-garlic/46505/28/2019AnswersDoes I3C (from broccoli) reduce the risk of cancer?Studies have shown that high consumption of broccoli and other cabbage-family vegetables is associated with reduced risk of a variety of cancers. This has spurred research into potential anti-cancer effects of compounds that occur in these vegetables, such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is sold as a supplement. <br /> <br /> <u>I3C</u> <br /> As discussed in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21757" target="_blank"><strong>Indole-3-Carbinol article</strong></a>, some studies in animals indicate that I3C may help reduce the risk of estrogen-sensitive cancers, and a study in women with cervical dysplasia found 200 mg to 400 mg of I3C daily improved the rate at which the cervix spontaneously returned to normal. In addition, a preliminary study found that adding 400 mg of I3C daily to standard therapy for ovarian cancer (surgery and chemotherapy) resulted in better outcomes than standard therapy alone. However, in an experimental model of breast cancer in rats, I3C treatment resulted in more tumors than when it was not given, suggesting that I3C may have the potential to increase cancer risk in some situations. <br /> <br /> Laboratory research has shown that I3C can inhibit an enzyme that deactivates a tumor-suppressive protein called PTEN, and applying I3C to prostate tumor cells suppressed their growth (<a href="#" target="_blank">Lee, Science 2019</a>). Consequently, I3C is <a href="#" target="_blank">being considered as a treatment</a> for people with a rare genetic mutation affecting PTEN that predisposes them to higher rates of cancers; however, this has yet to be tested clinically, so it is too early to say if it will work. <br /> <br /> Although short-term studies with I3C indicate that doses as high as 800 mg daily are safe, longer-term and larger studies are needed to assess its benefits and risks. It should not be given to women who are pregnant or people already diagnosed with cancer, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21757" target="-blank"><b>Safety</b></a> section of our Indole-3-Carbinol article.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/i3c-from-broccoli-%26-cancer-risk/broccoli-cancer/46495/25/2019AnswersHow can I easily compare the ingredients in supplements?First, it's great that you are asking, as it is critical to carefully read and compare labels on dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbals, and oils. For example, 1,000 mg of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a> listing 1,000 mg of the omega-3s EPA and DHA may be very different from a product listing 1,000 mg of "fish oil" of which, perhaps, only 25% is omega-3s. Similarly, 350 mg of "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#buying" target="_blank"><b>magnesium</b></a> (magnesium citrate)" is very different from 350 of "magnesium citrate," as only 39.2 mg of the latter is actually magnesium compared to 350 mg of the former. <br /> <br /> If you are a ConsumerLab.com subscriber, within each of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/" target="_blank"><b>Product Reviews</b></a> (covering more than 1,000 products), you will find the complete list of ingredients for each product that can be easily compared to competing products. Additional tables compare amounts of key ingredients, other special features, allergens, and cost, and, of course, you'll see what we actually found when we tested each product. <br /> <br /> In addition, the National Institutes of Health, through its Office of Dietary Supplements and National Library of Medicine, provides a free <a href="#" target="_blank"><b>Dietary Supplement Label Database</b></a> in which you can look up ingredients in over 71,000 products and compare amounts of specific ingredients across products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/comparing-supplement-ingredients/comparing-supplements/46485/8/2019AnswersIs Greek yogurt a good source of protein?Yes, Greek yogurt is an excellent good source of protein, providing 2 to 3 times the amount of protein as regular yogurt. In fact, a 200 gram serving (just under a cup) of Greek yogurt provides about 20 grams of protein &mdash; roughly 30% of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>daily protein requirement</b></a> for a sedentary adult and about 20% for an active adult. <br /> <br /> The majority of the protein Greek yogurt is casein. The other well-known milk protein, whey, is more liquid, and it is removed in making Greek yogurt to create a thicker, dryer yogurt. Casein is absorbed more slowly than whey in the digestive tract. (For more about casein and whey see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#protein" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerLab's Product Review of Protein Powders</b></a>, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among them.) <br /> <br /> To see if the protein in Greek yogurt helps build muscle, college-aged men were recruited to perform resistance exercise training three days a week for 12 weeks during which they consumed, along with their regular diets, two to three servings daily of either Greek yogurt (200 grams per serving) or a carbohydrate pudding that was equal in calories but devoid of protein. Not surprisingly, those who ate the yogurt experienced greater increases in muscle size and strength and lost more fat than those who consumed the pudding (<a href="#" target="_blank">Bridge, Front Nutr 2019</a>). Although this showed that Greek yogurt aids muscle production, it doesn't mean that Greek yogurt is any better or worse than other sources of protein, such as whey protein powder. Increasing protein from any source will help build muscle mass during resistance training.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although Greek&nbsp;yogurt contains some sugar (about 5 grams per 200 gram serving), this&nbsp;about half the amount of sugar you would get from an equal serving of milk because some of the sugar is fermented in making yogurt, giving yogurt a slightly sour taste. Greek yogurt is an excellent source of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><b>calcium</b></a>, although it provides a little less calcium than milk or regular yogurt because some calcium is lost during the straining process used to make Greek yogurt.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/greek-yogurt-as-a-source-of-protein/greek-yogurt/46475/5/2019AnswersIs it true that protein can strain the kidneys as you get older?Increasing protein intake is <em>not</em> associated with a decrease in kidney function in older adults who don't have kidney disease. However, it can be an issue in people with kidney disease, and some experts recommend limiting protein intake in individuals who have normal kidney function but are at high risk for developing kidney disease. For more details about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#knight" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><strong>Protein Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> The Review explains that many older adults <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#schoen" target="_blank"><strong>do not get enough protein</strong></a> and provides <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>guidelines for protein intake</strong></a> based on your weight and activity level. It also discusses the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#hudson" target="_blank"><strong>best time to take protein supplements</strong></a>, our tests of protein products, and identifies our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a> for best protein powders, shakes and drinks.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/proteins-effects-on-kidney-health/protein-kidney-health/46464/30/2019AnswersIs aloe an effective remedy for dry eye?Although some websites recommend using aloe in the eye as a remedy for dry eye, this recommendation appears to be based solely on experimentation on eye cells in the laboratory and not on clinical studies in people. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#dryeye" target="_blank"><b>Aloe Supplements Review</b></a> for more details about this and other uses of aloe as well as our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#topchoices" target="_blank"><b>top choices for aloe pills</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#topchoicesjuice" target="_blank"><b>aloe liquids</b></a>. <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <i>oral</i> supplementation with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dryeye" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/#dryeye" target="_blank"><b>flaxseed oil</b></a> may help reduce symptoms of dry eye.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/aloe-for-dry-eye/aloe-dry-eye/46454/27/2019AnswersDoes taking vitamin C (1,000 mg) deplete copper in the body?High-dose vitamin C can potentially lower copper levels, although the effect seems to be modest, as described in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#copper" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><b>Vitamin C Supplements Review</b></a>. <br /> <br /> A better-known and established cause of copper deficiency is supplementing with&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>high doses of zinc</b></a>, as zinc competes with copper for absorption. This is why copper is added, for example, to vision supplements that contain large amounts of zinc.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/effect-of-vitamin-c-on-copper-levels/vitamin-c-copper/46444/23/2019AnswersI read that statins can cause diabetes. Is this true also with red yeast rice? The use of statin drugs (for cholesterol-lowering) can slightly raise blood sugar levels and slightly increase the risk of diabetes. Although these effects are theoretically possible with red yeast rice (because it naturally contains statin compounds), such effects have not been demonstrated. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#diabetes" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><b>Red Yeast Rice Review</b></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Pick</b></i></a> for red yeast rice.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/red-yeast-rice-supplements-%26-diabetes/red-yeast-rice-diabetes/46434/23/2019AnswersDo probiotics help prevent urinary tract infections?There is currently not enough evidence to conclude that probiotic supplements reduce the risk of the developing urinary tract infections (UTIs). For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#uti" target="_blank"><b>What It Does</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/" target="_blank"><b>Probiotic Supplements Review</b></a>. <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-cranberry-help-with-utis/cranberry_urinary_infection/" target="_blank"><b>cranberry juice</b></a> may help to reduce the occurrence of UTIs in women as well as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-cranberry-supplements-helpful-for-men/cranberry-for-prostate/" target="_blank"><b>lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)</b></a> in men. Small studies suggest that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-d-mannose-help-to-prevent-urinary-tract-infections/D-Mannose_UTI/" target="_blank"><b>D-mannose powder</b></a> may be helpful as well. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21411" target="_blank"><strong>Bladder Infections</strong></a> for other proposed treatments for UTIs.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/probiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-utis/probiotics-uti/46424/20/2019AnswersDo whey or soy protein powders contain estrogens?Soy protein can contain plant estrogens (phytoestrogens), known as isoflavones. Whey protein (which is made from cow's milk) can also contain these isoflavones (due to soy in cow feed) as well the hormone estradiol (an estrogen) that is naturally found in cow milk. <i>However</i>, as explained in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>Protein Powders Review</b></a>, amounts of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#zambito" target="_blank"><b>estrogens or phytoestrogens in whey protein powders</b></a> are very small and unlikely to be of any significance. Higher concentrations of phytoestrogens are found in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#soyisoflavones" target="_blank"><b>soy protein powders</b></a> but, as also explained in the Review, these are lower than the amounts in soy flour and levels vary considerably based on how the soy protein was extracted.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/estrogens-in-whey-and-soy-protein-powders/estrogen-whey-soy/46414/16/2019AnswersCan taking curcumin cause dry eye?There do not appear to be any studies suggesting that supplementing with curcumin (from turmeric) causes dry eye. In fact, some preliminary evidence suggests that curcumin may help <em>relieve</em> dry eye. There is also preliminary evidence that curcumin may reduce symptoms of chronic anterior uveitis, which can cause redness and pain in the eye but, again, no well-controlled studies have proven this effect. For more details about this and other possible effects of curcumin, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#dryeye" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements and Spiced Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-taking-curcumin-cause-dry-eye/curcumin-dry-eye/46404/9/2019AnswersWhat are the health benefits of holy basil extract?In traditional Ayurvedic medicine, holy basil is called "tulsi," "The Queen of Herbs" and "the elixir of life," and is used to boost general health, wellbeing and longevity and assist in dealing with the stresses of daily life. Several small, preliminary studies suggest that holy basil extract (typically standardized to contain a specific concentration of ursolic acid) may help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes and it may reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety. However more research is needed to determine if holy basil extract is truly effective and what types of extracts work best. For details, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=holy-basil"><b>sign in to the full answer &gt;&gt;</b></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-health-benefits-of-holy-basil-extract/holy-basil/46394/7/2019AnswersDoes CBD help fight colds or the flu?Although CBD (cannabidiol) is sometimes promoted to help reduce the symptoms of colds and the flu, there are no published studies investigating these effects in people. Some preliminary research in animals suggests that CBD (and THC) may actually hinder the immune system's response to certain infections. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#colds" target="_blank"><b>What It Does</b></a> section of the CBD and Hemp Extracts Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-cbd-help-fight-colds-or-the-flu/colds-flu/46384/2/2019AnswersIs Ester-C the best form of vitamin C?Regular vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is acidic. This is not the reason why high-dose vitamin C sometimes causes diarrhea, but the acidity can cause stomach irritation in some people. If you want a less-acidic vitamin C, you can choose <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#forms" target="_blank"><b><i>Ester-C</i></b></a> (calcium ascorbate) or sodium ascorbate. With each, vitamin C is attached to (and is "buffered" by) calcium or sodium. If you are watching your sodium intake, <i>Ester-C</i> would be preferable. However, there is no evidence of a significant difference in the absorption of any of these forms of vitamin C. <br /> <br /> More <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#buying" target="_blank"><b>details about these forms</b></a>, as well as our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#toppicks" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> for vitamin C supplements based on our tests and comparisons, are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><b>Vitamin C Supplements Review</b></a>. The review includes information about other forms of vitamin C, such as slow-release, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, "fully reduced," liposomal, and <i>PureWay-C</i>, which includes fatty acids.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-ester-c-the-best-form-of-vitamin-c/ester-c/46373/21/2019AnswersHas the probiotic VSL#3 been changed or discontinued? Is Visbiome a good alternative?<i>VSL #3</i> (Sigma-Tau Healthscience/Alfasigma) is an eight-strain probiotic that has been promoted as a medical food for a number of conditions such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. A U.S. court has ruled that the formula sold in recent years as <i>VSL#3</i> is not the same as original formula used in many clinical trials, and that this newer formula was falsely promoted as being the same as the original. The inventor of the original formula now sells the product as <i>Visbiome</i> (ExeGi Pharma). For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#cinque" target="_blank"><b>What to Consider When Buying</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/" target="_blank"><b>Probiotic Supplements Review</b></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> for probiotics.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/has-the-probiotic-vsl3-been-changed-or-discontinued-is-visbiome-a-good-alternative/vsl-visbiome/46363/16/2019AnswersIs kratom too dangerous to use?Kratom is promoted for many uses. These include increasing energy, helping with anxiety and depression, providing pain relief, and easing symptoms of opioid withdrawal. However, these potential benefits come with serious potential risks -- which have included death in several cases.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> A native herb of Southeast Asia, kratom is typically sold in the U.S. as a leaf powder or leaf extract and may come as a powder, liquid, capsule, or tea. The active compounds in kratom can have opioid-like effects similar to morphine and heroin. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" style="background-color:#ffff00"><a name="eggleston" id="eggleston"></a>An analysis of reports in the United States National Poison Data System (NPDS) between 2011 and 2018 showed that the most common adverse effects associated with the use of kratom alone were agitation (18.6%), tachycardia (16.9%), drowsiness (13.6%), vomiting (11.2%), and confusion (8.1%). Severe adverse effects included seizure (6.1%), withdrawal (6.1%), hallucinations (4.8%), respiratory depression (2.8%), coma (2.3%), and cardiac or respiratory arrest (0.6%). In the majority of these cases, kratom was taken orally as a tablet, capsule or powder (<a href="#" target="_blank">Eggleston, Pharmacotherapy 2019</a>).</span> Consuming kratom tea during pregnancy was reported to cause withdrawal symptoms in an infant -- requiring treatment with morphine (<a href="#" target="_blank">Murthy, Paediatr Child Health 2019</a>). Use of kratom has been <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14168" target="_blank"><b>linked to at least 44 deaths</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Calls to National Poison Control centers in the U.S. regarding kratom have risen dramatically, according to a recent study (<a href="#" target="_blank">Post, Clin Tox 2019</a>). Sixty-five percent of calls received about kratom between 2011 and 2017, came in just the last two of that seven-year period. Over half (51.9%) of the incidents resulted in serious medical outcomes, including seizures, kidney failure, cardiac arrest, coma and 11 deaths. Serious adverse events and death were more likely to occur in people using kratom in addition to other substances, such as alcohol, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-any-supplements-i-should-avoid-when-taking-valium-or-xanax/Valium_Xanax_interactions/" target="_blank"><b>benzodiazepines</b></a> (such as Valium and Xanax), caffeine, or fentanyl (a prescription opioid drug), but at least two deaths were associated with the use of kratom alone. <br /> <br /> In 2018, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14232" target="_blank"><b>numerous kratom products were recalled</b></a> after being found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The FDA has also found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14253" target="_blank"><b>high levels of lead</b></a> in many of the kratom products. <br /> <br /> The <a href="#" target="_blank"><b>FDA has urged consumers</b></a> not to use any products labeled as containing kratom, or its psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. <br /> <br /> <u>Legality</u> Although not currently federally classified as a controlled substance, kratom has been classified as a Schedule 1 substance or as otherwise <a href="#" target="_blank"><b>legally restricted</b></a> in Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont and Wisconsin. In other states, however, there are currently no legal restrictions on the use kratom. The FDA is currently evaluating the available scientific information on kratom, after which it will make its recommendation to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) on how it should be classified. The <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=12990" target="_blank"><b>DEA announced</b></a> its intent to classify the active compounds in kratom as Schedule I controlled substances, but is awaiting the FDA's recommendation after receiving "numerous comments from members of the public challenging" this proposed classification.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/too-much-kratom---is-it-dangerous/kratom/46353/12/2019AnswersWhat is the difference between cocoa and cacao? Is one better than the other?Cocoa is the dark, flavanol-rich stuff that comes from cacao beans that have been roasted and processed. This separates the cocoa solids (known as cocoa liquor) from the fats (which become cocoa butter). The cocoa liquor is the basis for dark and milk chocolates or can be dried into cocoa powder. <br /> <br /> It is the cocoa, rather than the other parts of the cacao bean, that ends up with all of the healthful cocoa flavanols and fiber, as well the stimulants caffeine and theobromine and, unfortunately, metals such as cadmium, which is a toxin. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b>Levels of cadmium are quite high</b></a> in most cocoa powders (about twice as high as in cacao beans) and some dark chocolates, so daily consumption of these should, therefore, be limited. (High-flavanol cocoa extracts are available in which cadmium has been removed, although these are typically formulated with many additional ingredients to improve taste). Note that some cocoa powders claim to be 100% cacao, but this may only mean that all of what is in them originally came from cacao and not that 100% of what's in cacao is in the powder. <br /> <br /> Even "raw cacao powders" do not contain all that is in the cacao bean because they are made from what is left after pressing most of the fats out of unroasted beans. ConsumerLab's tests show that the concentrations of flavanols in cacao powders fall within the same range as those of cocoa powders, but the cacao powders tend to contain as much, if not more, cadmium. <br /> <br /> Some people eat cacao beans cracked into cacao "nibs" that are somewhat crunchy and can be eaten directly, sprinkled onto foods like a topping, or blended into smoothies. ConsumerLab.com has <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>purchased and tested cacao nibs</b></a> and found that they generally contain about half the amount of flavanols per gram as cocoa or cacao powders. This is because most of the weight of the nibs is fat (like the cacao beans from which they come), and most of this fat is saturated fat. In contrast, cocoa and cacao powders contain little fat. <br /> <br /> Of course, most people prefer cocoa-based products, like cocoa powder and chocolates, rather than eating raw cacao nibs. Chocolates are made by mixing cocoa liquor with varying amounts of cocoa butter, milk, and sugar.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerLab's tests</b></a> show that pure cocoa powders contain about 10 to 20 mg of cocoa flavanols per gram, while dark chocolates contain about 3 to 12 mg per gram. Unfortunately, you can't rely on the "% cocoa" or "% cacao" figures on chocolate bar wrappers to determine flavanol levels because those figures include cocoa "butter" which lacks flavanols and varying amounts of cocoa butter are used in chocolates. <br /> <br /> Be aware that both cocoa and cacao naturally contain the stimulants caffeine and theobromine (in higher concentrations in cocoa and cacao powders than in cacao nibs). <br /> <br /> Our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#top-picks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> for cacao and cocoa-based products are found in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolates, and Cacao Nibs Review</b></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-difference-between-cocoa-and-cacao-is-one-better-than-the-other/cocoa-vs-cacao/46343/7/2019AnswersCan vitamins or other supplements cause a change in the ability to taste, or even a loss of taste?Yes, some supplements may cause a change in taste, as can vitamin deficiencies. <br /> <br /> A metallic taste can be a symptom of hypercalcemia, a dangerous condition caused by <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>too much vitamin D</b></a>. Deficiencies in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>iron</b></a>, vitamin <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b> A</b></a>, vitamin <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank"><b> B6</b></a>, vitamin <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><b>B12</b></a>, or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><b>niacin</b></a>, can also cause a change in taste as well as sense of smell. <br /> <br /> A <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>permanent loss of smell</b></a> resulting in diminished taste, has occurred in people using zinc nasal gel. Interestingly, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>zinc <i>deficiency</i></strong></a> can also cause a loss of taste. Be aware that many other factors can affect taste. The abilities to smell and taste decline with age (<a href="#" target="_blank">Boyce, Postgrad Med J 2006</a>). The following medical conditions can also cause a loss of taste: chronic sinusitis, chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. (A more complete list of medications and conditions can be found in this article in the <a href="#" target="_blank">American Family Physician</a>). It's best to consult with your physician if you experience a change in your ability to taste. <br /> <br /> Note that a number of medications can also alter taste, including antibiotics such as azithromycin (Zithromax) and clarithromycin (Biaxin), cholesterol-lowering drugs such as lovastatin (Mevacor) and pravastatin (Pravachol), and medications used to treat high blood pressure, such as enalapril (Vasotec) and diltiazem (Cardizem).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-vitamins-or-other-supplements-cause-a-change-in-the-ability-to-taste-or-even-a-loss-of-taste/loss-of-taste/46333/5/2019AnswersA tea called Throat Coat made me lethargic and I was found to have low potassium. Is this a known problem? I was drinking 5 cups a day.<i>Throat Coat</i> contains a very large amount of licorice root (760 mg per tea bag) <i>plus</i> another 60 mg of a 6:1 licorice root extract and these ingredients are likely to be the cause of your issues. Licorice root provides great flavor, but you need to exercise caution and moderation with it because it contains a compound that can, through an effect on the kidneys to cause loss of potassium, fluid retention, increased blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and lethargy. <i>Throat Coat</i> has a warning on its box regarding these issues, although the warning does not identify the causative agent &mdash; licorice root. See our article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21674" target="_blank"><b>licorice root</b></a> for more details about its side effects, as well as the findings of clinical studies of its proposed uses. <br /> <br /> Be aware that the FDA has warned that eating 2 ounces of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14129" target="_blank"><b>black licorice</b></a> a day for at least two weeks can cause similar problems. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody"><a name="falet" id="falet"></a>Homemade licorice tea has been reported to cause similar problems. An 84-year-old man (with hypertension controlled by medication) developed extremely high blood pressure, headache, photophobia, chest pain (due to pulmonary edema) and fatigue, as well as low potassium after two weeks of drinking 1 to 2 glasses daily of homemade licorice root extract called "erk sous" (<a href="#" target="_blank">Falet, CMAJ 2019</a>).</span> <span class="reviewBody" style="background-color:#ccffff"><a name="erkus" id="erkus"></a>A 57-year old man in Turkey with no prior history of cardiovascular disease experienced atrial fibrillation (a rapid, irregular heartbeat) likely caused by low potassium levels after consuming four glasses of "licorice root syrup" daily for one month (<a href="#" target="_blank">Erkus, Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2016</a>).</span> <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody"><a name="shin" id="shin"></a>Dietary supplements containing licorice root can also be problematic. A 68-year-old Chinese-American woman developed dangerously high blood pressure (219/123 mm Hg) resulting in a stroke (with symptoms including difficulty speaking and paralysis on one side of the body) after taking Chinese herbal supplement pills providing 800 mg of licorice root daily for two weeks to treat indigestion. The supplement contained several other ingredients, such as ginger root and cinnamon bark, but the reporting physicians noted the woman could have been consuming <i>8 times</i> the maximum dose recommended by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Food of glycyrrhizin, the compound in licorice known to increase blood pressure (<a href="#" target="_blank">Shin, Neurohospitalist 2019</a>).</span>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/throat-coat-tea-potassium-loss-lethargy-and-other-symptoms/throat-coat/46322/26/2019AnswersDoes taking zinc help with sleep?Zinc is involved in processes in the brain that control sleep. Some preliminary research suggests that supplementing with zinc-containing formulas may help improve sleep, but, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#sleep" target="_blank"><b>What It Does &mdash; For sleep</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><b>Zinc Supplements Review</b></a>, taking zinc alone has not been proven to help with sleep.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-taking-zinc-help-with-sleep/zinc-better-sleep/46312/24/2019AnswersDoes microwaving green tea affect the amount of EGCG or other catechins in the tea?Microwaving won't destroy beneficial catechins in green tea like EGCG, and there is a way that a microwave oven can be used to maximize catechin release. However, simply microwaving green tea in cool water won't get you there. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#microwave" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerTips</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><b>Green Tea Review</b></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#brew" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> among brewable green teas.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-microwaving-green-tea-affect-the-amount-of-egcg-or-other-catechins-in-the-tea/microwaving-green-tea/46302/23/2019AnswersAre there supplements I should avoid when taking apixaban (Eliquis) or similar blood thinner drugs? Yes, the effectiveness of apixaban (Eliquis), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), betrixaban (Bevyxxa), and other anticoagulant drugs (blood-thinners) classified as "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=1060518" target="_blank"><b>direct factor Xa inhibitors</b></a>" may be impacted by taking certain supplements. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/" target="_blank"><b>St. John's wort</b></a>, for example, <i>activates</i> one of the liver enzymes (CYP3A4) that breaks down these medications in the body. This could potentially reduce the amount of these medications in the body and decrease their effects. <br /> <br /> On the other hand, some supplements may <i>inhibit</i> CYP3A4. Potentially, this could lead to excessive blood levels of these medications and increase their effects and side effects. Supplements that inhibit CYP3A4 include&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#tacrolimus" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/#cyp" target="_blank"><b>echinacea</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#statins" target="_blank"><strong>green tea</strong></a> and others, as well as grapefruit juice (see our CL Answer about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/grapefruit-juice-supplements-cyp3a4-enzyme/supplements-cyp3a4-enzyme/" target="_blank"><b>supplement (and grapefruit juice) interactions and CYP3A4</b></a> for more information). <br /> <br /> Also be aware that certain supplements may have a blood-thinning effect, which could potentially increase the risk of bleeding when taking Eliquis or related medications, although no studies have directly examined the effects with these specific drugs. To be safe, consult your physician before using <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><b>fish oil</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><b>ashwagandha</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><strong>chondroitin</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>curcumin and turmeric</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/" target="_blank"><b>garlic</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/" target="_blank"><b>ginger</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/" target="_blank"><em><b>Ginkgo biloba</b></em></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><b>melatonin</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/" target="_blank"><b>resveratrol</b></a>. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody">Be aware that the blood thinner dabigatran (Pradaxa), which is classified as a <i>direct thrombin inhibitor</i>, is not metabolized by, and does not inhibit or activate CYP3A4. However, as with direct factor Xa inhibitors, taking supplements that have a blood-thinning effect could potentially increase the risk of bleeding. However, grapefruit juice <a href="#"target="_blank">inhibits a protein</a> involved in the metabolism of Pradaxa (P-glycoprotein, or P-gp) and therefore it may be best to avoid when taking this drug. As with direct factor Xa inhibitors, taking supplements that have a blood-thinning effect (as noted above) can increase the risk of bleeding in people taking Pradaxa.</span> <br /> <br /> See the extensive <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><b>Drug Interactions</b></a> section on ConsumerLab to look up interactions for these and other drugs you may be taking. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-supplements-i-should-avoid-when-taking-i-apixaban-eliquis-or-similar-anticoagulant-drugs/eliquis-supplement-interactions/46292/17/2019AnswersDoes CBD help with Parkinson's disease?There is preliminary evidence that CBD can help alleviate non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as mood and sleep disturbances, but CBD does not appear to improve tremor or motor function in people with Parkinson&#39;s disease. In fact, there are reports of high doses of CBD&nbsp;<i>worsening</i> motor symptoms in some people with Parkinson's. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#parkinsons" target="_blank"><b>Parkinson's disease and movement disorders</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>CBD Oil and Hemp Extract Supplements Review</strong></a>. (Also see our test-based <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> for CBD oils and other CBD products).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-cbd-help-with-parkinsons-disease/cbd-oil-parkinsons-disease/46282/15/2019AnswersI've heard that grapefruit juice can interact with medications because it inhibits an enzyme that breaks down drugs in the body. Do any supplements interact the same way with drugs? Yes, it's well-known that grapefruit juice can interact with many medications, including certain cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, blood pressure drugs, antihistamines, and sedatives. One of the ways grapefruit does this is by inhibiting CYP3A4, an enzyme in the liver and intestine that helps metabolize (break down) approximately 50% of all medications. This can lead to potentially excessive blood levels of these medications, increasing their&nbsp;effects and side effects.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <em><strong>Many supplements can also inhibit (and in some cases, activate) CYP3A4</strong></em><em><strong> and </strong></em><em><strong>interact with many of the same medications.</strong></em>&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Below is a list of some of the&nbsp;<b>supplements</b> known to inhibit CYP3A4. More details about each are found in our linked Product Reviews and CL Answers:&nbsp;&nbsp; <ul> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#statins" target="_blank"><b>Green Tea</b></a></li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#tacrolimus" target="_blank"><b>Curcumin/Turmeric</b></a> (Curcumin may also activate CYP3A4)</li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#piperine" target="_blank"><b>Black pepper extract (piperine or Bioperine)</b></a> -- a bioavailability enhancer in some curcumin and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10</b></a> formulas</li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#cyp" target="_blank"><b>CBD Oil (cannabidiol)</b></a></li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/berberine-goldenseal-supplements-review/berberine/#interactions" target="_blank"><b>Goldenseal/Berberine</b></a></li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/#cyp" target="_blank"><b>Echinacea</b></a></li> <li class="recallText"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#revol" target="_blank"><b>Ginger</b></a></li> </ul> Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#interactions" target="_blank"><b>St. John's wort</b></a> can activate CYP3A4, causing a decrease in the activity of many drugs. <br /> <br /> To see a list of <b>medications</b> that are metabolized by CYP3A4,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=supplements-cyp3a4-enzyme"><strong>sign in &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cyp3a4-inhibitors---grapefruit-%26-more/supplements-cyp3a4-enzyme/46272/12/2019AnswersWhat is the difference between fish oil and cod liver oil? Is one better than the other?Regular <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><b>fish oil</b></a> is pressed from the whole body of the fish, while <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><b>cod liver oil</b></a> is pressed from the liver of the fish. Both can be good sources of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, but cod liver oil contains substantial, and in some cases, excessive amounts of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin A</b></a>, as well as a good amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin D</b></a>, which are not generally found in regular fish oil supplements. One type of oil is not necessarily better than the other, but which one you choose should be based on your nutritional needs and your reason for taking it. <br /> <br /> Be aware that some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#fishingredients" target="_blank"><b>"vitamin A" supplements that list cod</b></a> or other fish as ingredients do not contain the omega-3s and vitamin D found in true cod liver oil. <br /> <br /> <u>Getting omega-3s</u> <br /> A typical recommended daily serving from either a fish oil or cod liver oil supplement can easily provide the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dosage" target="_blank"><b>daily intakes of EPA and DHA</b></a> recommended by some countries (300 mg to 500 mg combined) and, if taken every day, slightly more than the amount provided by the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/#whatitis" target="_blank"><b>American Heart Association's recommendation</b></a> of one to two servings per week of fatty fish, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>tuna or salmon</b></a>. <br /> <br /> However, if you need higher, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dosage" target="_blank"><b>therapeutic doses of EPA and DHA</b></a> (thousands of milligrams of EPA and DHA combined, as taken for lowering triglycerides, treating ulcerative colitis, depression or other conditions), fish oil supplements are a better choice. This is because the amount of cod liver oil you would need to consume in order to get these higher amounts of DHA and EPA will typically include excessive amounts of vitamin A. (See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><b>Fish Oil Supplements Review</b></a> for information about highly concentrated supplements that are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#vitalcompare" target="_blank"><b>similar to prescription fish oils</b></a>, as well as our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> among products). <br /> <br /> <u>Vitamins A &amp; D</u> <br /> The amounts of vitamin A in the retinol form found in several <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b>cod liver oils tested by ConsumerLab</b></a> have exceeded the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#using" target="_blank"><b>daily requirements</b></a> for adults, and exceeded daily upper tolerable intake levels for children and/or adolescents, above which there is a risk of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>adverse events</b></a>. That being said, ConsumerLab has also identified&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#oiltoppick" target="_blank"><b>products</b></a> that contains lower amounts of vitamin A with a relatively high dose of EPA and DHA combined. <br /> <br /> As to vitamin D, cod liver oils tested by ConsumerLab have tended to provide about 400 IU (10 mcg) of vitamin D per daily serving -- a good portion of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/#VitaminD" target="_blank"><b>recommended daily intake of vitamin D</b></a> for adults. Cod liver oil may be a good option for those who want to increase their intake of omega-3s but do not get enough vitamin D from their diets or sun exposure. (See our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#oiltoppick" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> among cod liver oils).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-difference-between-fish-oil-and-cod-liver-oil-is-one-better-than-the-other/fish-oil-vs-cod-liver-oil/46262/8/2019AnswersAre there side effects from collagen supplements?Collagen supplements containing collagen hydrolysate, collagen peptides and similar ingredients appear to be generally safe and well-tolerated. However, some people may experience mild side effects, ranging from gastrointestinal symptoms to skin rashes. Rarely, liver abnormalities have been reported, and people who are allergic to certain sources of collagen, such as fish, or who are allergic to sulfites, should not take collagen products containing these ingredients. For more information, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#cautions"target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/"target="_blank"><b>Collagen Supplements Review</b></a>, which also includes our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#toppicks"target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among products. <br /> <br /> People with kidney disease or who are on dialysis should consult with their physician before consuming <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><b>bone broth</b></a> as a source of collagen, as some bone broths contain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>high amounts of sodium and potassium</b></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-side-effects-from-collagen-supplements/collagen-side-effects/46252/5/2019AnswersDoes CBD interact with other medications?Yes. CBD (cannabidiol) can interact with other medications that, like itself, are metabolized in the body by the cytochrome p450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. By competing for these enzymes, CBD can reduce the metabolism of such drugs, raising their blood levels and possibly requiring downward adjustment of their doses. This has been seen in clinical trials in which hundreds of milligrams of CBD are given daily. The effect may be less pronounced with CBD supplements that provide smaller doses (single or tens of milligrams). For details and specific medications that may interact with CBD, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#interactions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/" target="_blank"><b>CBD Oil and Hemp Extract Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-cbd-interact-with-other-medications/cbd-drug-interactions/46242/5/2019AnswersIt is okay to add milk to green tea? No, you should not add milk to green tea, as it will significantly reduce the bioavailability of green tea catechins like EGCG. These catechins are thought to be responsible for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>many of the health benefits</b></a> of green tea. However, if you are prone to kidney stones, there may be a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#kidneystones" target="_blank"><b>benefit</b></a> to adding milk to your tea. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#milk" target="_blank"><b>How to Take</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><b>Green Tea Review</b></a>. Also see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#egcggraph" target="_blank"><b>how much EGCG we found</b></a> in brewed, bottled and matcha green teas, and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among green tea products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/it-is-okay-to-add-milk-to-green-tea/milk-green-tea/46232/1/2019AnswersWhat is the best form of iron supplement?Iron comes in many forms. If taken with just water, all are about equally well-absorbed, so less expensive forms, such as ferrous sulfate, are fine. However, with larger doses, some people experience gastric discomfort and/or constipation. Taking with food may reduce discomfort, but also reduces absorption of certain forms of iron, such as ferrous sulfate, while other forms are better-absorbed in the presence of food, such ferrous bisglycinate (sold as "Gentle Iron") and ferrous glycinate. <br /> <br /> Note that some supplements include vitamin C to increase iron absorption but this is unlikely have a significant effect, and there is concern that slow- or timed-release products may lead to reduced absorption of iron. For more details see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#forms" target="_blank"><b>Forms of Iron and Avoiding Stomach Upset</b></a> section of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><b>Iron Supplements Review</b></a>. Also see our overall <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><strong>Top Picks</strong></em></a> among the iron supplements we tested.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-best-form-of-iron-supplement/best-iron/46221/30/2019AnswersDo melatonin supplements reduce the body's own production of melatonin?Taking small to moderate doses of melatonin from supplements does not appear to reduce the body's own production of melatonin (endogenous melatonin), although there are other factors that may decrease your body's natural levels of melatonin. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#endogenous" target="_blank"><b>What to Consider When Using</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><b>Melatonin Supplements Review</b></a>, which also includes our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a><em> </em>among popular products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-melatonin-supplements-reduce-the-bodys-own-production-of-melatonin/melatonin-production/46211/29/2019AnswersWhat are the health benefits of black cumin seed (black seed) oil?Black seed oil is promoted as a healthy, alternative oil for use on salads and other foods but it tends to be more expensive than other oils, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><b>extra virgin olive oil</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/benefits-of-avocado-oil/avocado-oil/" target="_blank"><b>avocado oil</b></a>, and has a strong taste that some people find unpleasant. <br /> <br /> Limited evidence from clinical studies conducted primarily in Asia suggests that black seed oil, in liquid or capsule form, as well as black seed powder, may be helpful for modestly lowering blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol, and weight, and for improving asthma symptoms, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. In addition, for certain conditions, the efficacy may depend on which form is used (oil or powder). <br /> <br /> It is important not to confuse black cumin (<i>Nigella sativa</i>) seed with the spice cumin, as they are unrelated. <br /> <br /> See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=black-seed-oil"><strong>full answer</strong></a> for more information about black seed oil and black seed powder, including the clinical evidence, dosage, and safety. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-health-benefits-of-black-cumin-seed-black-seed-oil/black-seed-oil/46201/27/2019AnswersIs it true that I need to drink more water or increase calcium intake when supplementing with protein powder? No, these are myths that have been disproven. While it's always important to stay hydrated and get the recommended amount of calcium from your diet, there is no evidence that healthy adults need to increase fluid or calcium intake when taking protein supplements, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#bone" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>Protein Supplements Review</b>.</a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-true-that-i-need-to-drink-more-water-or-increase-calcium-intake-when-supplementing-with-protein-powder/protein-dehydration-calcium/46191/26/2019AnswersWhich supplements can cause constipation?There are a number of supplements that can cause constipation. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><b>Iron supplements</b></a>, for example are a common culprit. The good news, however, is that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#constipation" target="_blank"><b>certain forms of iron may be less likely to cause constipation</b></a> than others. <br /> <br /> Similarly, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><b>calcium supplements</b></a> can cause constipation in some people, but one particularly popular form of calcium <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>may be more likely</b></a> to do so than another. <br /> <br /> Some people find that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#concerns" target="_blank"><b>protein powders and drinks cause constipation</b></a> and bloating. <br /> <br /> Other supplements reported to cause constipation, although less frequently, include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cinnamon-supplements-review/cinnamon/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>cinnamon</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/berberine-goldenseal-supplements-review/berberine/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>berberine</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/nattokinase-supplement-review/nattokinase/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>nattokinase</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/nattokinase-supplement-review/nattokinase/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>chlorella</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>NAC (N-acetyl cysteine)</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>beta-sitosterol</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Excessive intake of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> as a supplement <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>can cause hypercalcemia</b></a> (too much calcium in the blood) with symptoms including constipation. <br /> <br /> Consuming plenty of water and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank"><b>dietary fiber</b></a> can go a long way in helping to prevent constipation. Good sources of fiber include fruits, vegetables, and grains such <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based Cereals/oats" target="_blank"><b>oats</b></a>, or ground <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21714" target="_blank"><b>flaxseed</b></a>. But if you take one of the supplements above and experience constipation, you may want to consider trying a different form, when possible, (such as with iron and calcium), or stopping the supplement to see if that helps. <br /> <br /> There are also several&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-treat-constipation/supplements-for-constipation/" target="_blank"><b>supplements that may help</b></a> to relieve constipation.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-cause-constipation/supplements-constipation/46181/22/2019AnswersWhat is inositol hexaphosphate (IP6)? Can it really prevent or treat cancer?Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), more commonly known as phytic acid or phytate (the salt form), is a naturally-occurring compound. It is a source of phosphate in many plants and is abundant in foods such as cereals, grains and legumes. <br /> <br /> IP6 is <i>not digestible by people</i>; in fact, it can chelate minerals in the gut, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/ive-heard-that-soaking-dried-beans-for-24-hours-reduces-the-phytate-level-allowing-for-greater-access-to-nutrients-is-this-true/soaking-beans-phytate/" target="_blank"><strong><i>inhibiting their absorption</i></strong></a>. Only ruminant animals, such as cattle and sheep, that produce the enzyme phytase, are able to digest IP6.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> IP6 alone does not appear to have been used in any clinical studies. However, it has been used in combination with inositol (also known as myo-inositol) in preliminary studies and there is one report of this combination used by a man with stage IV metastatic melanoma who, as reported by his doctors at the Mayo Clinic, entered remission. Do not confuse inositol hexaphosphate with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#inositol" target="_blank"><b>inositol hexanicotinate</b></a> &mdash; a form of niacin found&nbsp;in some supplements.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> See the full answer for details, including information about dosage, marketed products, and safety.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-inositol-hexaphosphate-ip6-can-it-really-prevent-or-treat-cancer/inositol-hexaphosphate-IP6/46171/19/2019AnswersWhat are the symptoms of B12 deficiency?Vitamin B12 helps make the genetic material in all cells, so deficiency can have wide-ranging effects. These commonly include anemia, as well as fatigue, depression, tingling in the arms and legs, loss of balance, as well as skin and hair changes. In some cases, B12 deficiency may reduce immunity. <br /> <br /> Older adults are more likely to experience B12 deficiency. Strict vegetarians and people taking medications that decrease stomach acid, such as Prevacid and Prilosec, or those taking the anti-diabetes drug metformin, are also more likely to become deficient. B12 supplements can correct a deficiency, and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#injection" target="_blank"><b>B12 injections are typically not necessary</b></a>. <br /> <br /> For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin B12</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><b>B Vitamin Supplements Review</b></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#b12" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> for B12 supplements. <br /> <br /> Keep in mind that getting <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-too-much-b-12-be-dangerous/too_much_b12/" target="_blank"><em><b>too much B12</b></em></a> can cause adverse effects, and many B vitamin supplements contain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#b12" target="_blank"><b>more B12 than necessary</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#b12absorption" target="_blank"><b>can be absorbed</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers//b12-deficiency/46161/19/2019AnswersIs canola oil good or bad for you? I heard it can be toxic.<u>Safety</u> <br /> Canola oil, which is derived from hybridized forms of rapeseed, is the second-most commonly used culinary oil in the United States, after soybean oil (<a href="#" target="_blank">Statista 2017</a>). Despite this, it has acquired in some circles an undeserved reputation as unhealthy and even toxic (<a href="#" target="_blank">Canola Council</a>). This misunderstanding appears to have resulted at least in part because of the high erucic acid content of unhybridized rapeseed oil (30% or more of the oil is erucic acid) and animal studies have shown that high intake of erucic acid may be harmful. However, due to extensive selective breeding, canola contains only small amounts of erucic acid (generally below 1% of the oil), which are considered non-toxic (<a href="#" target="_blank">Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2003</a>). <br /> <br /> There has also been concern that much of the canola oil on the market comes from seed varieties that have been genetically modified to be resistant to the weed-killing herbicide <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-concerned-should-i-be-about-glyphosate-in-foods-and-supplements/glyphosate-food-supplements/" target="_blank"><b>glyphosate</b></a> (as is also the case with soy, corn, and other commercial crops). However, there is no evidence that this presents a danger, nor does the genetically modified DNA remain in the processed oil (<a href="#" target="_blank">Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2000</a>). (If you prefer to avoid genetically modified organisms (GMOs), non-GMO canola oil is available.) The maximum amount of glyphosate that is permitted in canola oil in the U.S. is 40 ppm (<a href="#" target="_blank">Federal Register 2013</a>). Even if an oil had the maximum amount, it would contain about 575 mcg per tablespoon of oil, which is below the strict California limit of 1,100 mcg per daily serving of a food -- above which a warning label would be required. <br /> <br /> Another concern that has been raised with canola oil and other sources of linoleic acid is that they may increase the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet and this might increase inflammation. However, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/#inflammation" target="_blank"><b>linoleic acid has generally <i>not</i> been shown to increase inflammation</b></a> and, furthermore, the amount of omega-6 in canola oil is lower than in other culinary oils, such as corn, safflower, and sunflower. <br /> <br /> Canola oil is safe to use in both cooking and in dressings. It has a favorable nutritional profile, a neutral flavor, and a high smoke point (<a href="#" target="_blank">University of Tennessee</a>). <br /> <br /> <u>Benefits</u> <br /> Like <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><b>extra virgin olive oil</b></a>, canola's high monounsaturated fat and low saturated fat content makes it suitable for nutritional prevention and management dietary programs for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21500" target="_blank"><b>cardiovascular disease</b></a>, diabetes, and other metabolic conditions. When used to replace dietary saturated fat, canola oil is among the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-oils-can-help-lower-my-cholesterol-and-risk-of-heart-attack-how-are-coconut-oil-olive-oil-and-fish-oil-for-example/oils-cholesterol-heart-attack-risk/" target="_blank"><b>dietary</b></a> fats that lower cholesterol and the risk of heart attack. <br /> <br /> Canola oil may even be one of the healthier vegetable oils available. It is lower in saturated fat than other culinary oils, at about 7%; its monounsaturated fat content, roughly 60%, is exceeded only by olive oil; and only <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21714" target="_blank"><b>flaxseed</b></a> and walnut oils have a higher omega-3 (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank"><b>alpha-linolenic acid</b></a>) fat content (<a href="#" target="_blank">British Nutrition Foundation 2009</a>). Note that omega-3 fats are prone to breaking down at high temperatures, and very high temperatures over a prolonged time have been shown to lower ALA content of canola oil (<a href="#" target="_blank">Henon, J Am Oil Chem Soc 1997</a>). <br /> <br /> <u>Cholesterol-lowering</u> <br /> As a result of its balance of unsaturated fats, canola oil, used as a replacement for saturated fat, has been found to lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (<a href="#" target="_blank">Lin, Nutr Rev 2013</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Saedi, Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017</a>). In a randomized controlled trial in 101 individuals with abdominal obesity, canola oil significantly reduced abdominal fat mass while other vegetable oils did not. All groups consumed the same amount of calories during the four-week intervention. The authors attributed their findings to canola's monounsaturated fat content (<a href="#" target="_blank">Liu, Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016</a>). <br /> <br /> <u>Blood sugar control</u> <br /> In another randomized controlled trial, type II diabetics were treated with either a low-glycemic load diet enriched with canola oil or a diet that emphasized whole grains. The canola-enriched low-glycemic diet resulted in a significantly reduced hemoglobin A1C compared to the whole-grain diet. The effect was most pronounced in subjects with higher systolic blood pressure. The canola diet, compared to the control diet, also resulted in greater reductions in Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score (<a href="#" target="_blank">Jenkins, Diabetes Care 2014</a>). A randomized trial compared canola and olive oils to a common soybean/safflower mix in South Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Both canola and olive oils resulted in marked improvements in the extent of fatty liver. In the canola group there were significant reductions in fasting blood glucose and triglycerides as well (<a href="#" target="_blank">Nigam, Diabetes Technol Ther 2014</a>). <br /> <br /> <b>The bottom line:</b> <br /> Canola oil is safe and non-toxic, it is the lowest in saturated fat of all culinary oils, and it has shown benefit in trials for lowering cholesterol and managing metabolic disorders. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-canola-oil-good-or-bad-for-you-i-heard-it-can-be-toxic/canola-oil/46151/15/2019AnswersDo pistachio nuts really provide as much melatonin as supplements?A small study in Iran reported extraordinary concentrations of melatonin in locally obtained pistachios -- more than 100 to 1,000 times the concentrations reported in other plants and foods by other researchers. However, the results of this study are questionable, as discussed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#oladi" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Supplements Review</strong></a>. Until another laboratory confirms these findings, don't count on getting significant amounts of melatonin from pistachios.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-pistachio-nuts-really-provide-as-much-melatonin-as-supplements/melatonin-pistachio-nuts/46141/8/2019AnswersIs green tea from Japan contaminated with radiation?Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, radiation levels in foods and beverages in Japan have been closely monitored, and there is currently no indication of excessive levels of radiation in green tea. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#radiation" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><strong>Green Tea Review</strong></a> for more details.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-green-tea-from-japan-contaminated-with-radiation/green-tea-radiation/46131/5/2019AnswersDoes taking curcumin and boswellia together increase their individual anti-inflammatory effects?Research shows that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>curcumin</b></a> (from turmeric) has anti-inflammatory effects, and may be helpful for conditions such as ulcerative colitis, muscle soreness after exercise, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis of the knee. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes-boswellia" target="_blank"><b>Boswellia extract</b></a> contains compounds, such as the boswellic acid AKBA, which also appear to have anti-inflammatory properties. Like curcumin, research suggests boswellia may be helpful for conditions such as ulcerative colitis and osteoarthritis, and can be found as an ingredient in certain&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><b>supplements for joint health</b></a>. <br /> <br /> One small study in men and women with knee osteoarthritis found that taking a combination of boswellia extract and curcumin was slightly more effective in improving physical function than curcumin alone. For more details about the study, including the product used and dosage, see the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#haroyan" target="_blank"><b>Curcumin Supplements Review</b></a>. (Information about this study is also found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#haroyan" target="_blank"><b>Joint Health Supplements Review</b></a>). <br /> <br /> While ConsumerLab has not tested the specific combination product in the study, it has tested <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>curcumin supplements</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><b>boswellia supplements</b></a> that provide the same or similar ingredients, including curcumin and boswellia combinations.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-taking-curcumin-and-boswellia-together-increase-their-individual-anti-inflammatory-effects/curcumin-and-boswellia/461212/18/2018AnswersCan coconut water prevent or dissolve kidney stones?No clinical study has shown coconut water to prevent or treat kidney stones. Research suggesting a possible benefit is limited to a rat model and a study in people showing that massive intake of coconut water increased urinary levels of citrate, a compound that can help block formation of kidney stones &mdash; but there are better ways to increase urinary citrate. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/#kidneystones" target="_blank"><b>Coconut Water Review</b></a>, which includes our tests and comparisons of popular brands of coconut water.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-coconut-water-prevent-or-dissolve-kidney-stones/coconut-water-kidney-stones/461112/11/2018AnswersIs it legal to take cannabidiol oil (CBD) on a flight?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#concerns" target="_blank"><strong>Legality</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>CBD Oils and Hemp Extracts Review</strong></a>, it is only legal to bring CBD aboard a flight in the U.S if the product does not contain more than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis. FDA approved CBD, such as the prescription medication <i>Epidiolex</i>, is also permitted. <br /> <br /> To see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#ratio" target="_blank"><b>how much THC</b></a> ConsumerLab found in popular CBD products, and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> among products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b>What CL Found</b></a> in the Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/air-travel-and-cbd-legal-to-take-on-flights/cbd-on-flights/461012/11/2018AnswersIs avocado oil safe to use?There is no reason to believe that avocado oil is unsafe. As explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/benefits-of-avocado-oil/avocado-oil/#safety" target="_blank"><b>Safety</b></a> section of our other posting about avocado oil, some people may have an allergic reaction to avocado, and the oil may interact with the blood-thinner warfarin, but these are not common issues. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> A laboratory study of human cells found potential genetic toxicity with extracts of the avocado plant; however, the greatest toxicity was with extracts from avocado leaves and not the fruit, from which the oil is made. Concern has also been raised about the compound persin, that can occur in avocados, but this is unlikely to occur in oils made from ripe avocado.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/avocado-oil-safety/avocado-oil-safety/460912/11/2018AnswersWhat are the nutritional benefits of avocado oil? Is it healthier than olive oil? Avocado oil provides similar amounts of heart-healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as olive oil, making both more heart-healthy alternatives to fats and oils with higher levels of saturated fats. Avocado and olive oils differ in terms of other compounds, such as polyphenols, sterols, vitamin E, and lutein, and there is much more clinical research to-date with olive oil than avocado oil.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=avocado-oil"><strong>Get the details in the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/the-health-benefits-of-avocado-oil/avocado-oil/460812/5/2018AnswersWhat's the best protein to keep and gain muscle when you're older?As we age, we tend to lose muscle, but this can be reversed by a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#buildingmuscle" target="_blank"><b>combination</b></a> of resistance exercise and proper intake of protein &mdash; which is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#schoen" target="_blank"><b>more than many older people consume</b></a>. On their own, neither of these approaches will help &mdash; so don't just eat more protein, for example.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> All meats provide complete protein, providing all the amino acids needed for making muscle and in good balance, although some, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>fish</b></a>, are more healthful than others, such as red meat, due to the type of fat they contain. Plant-based foods can also provide protein and build muscle, although, individually, they may not provide the optimal ratio of&nbsp;amino acids.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>Protein powders and protein drinks and shakes</b></a> can also be good sources of protein. In general, whey protein is a great all-around protein for building and maintaining muscle and it contains all the essential amino acids. Be aware that it's made from milk, so it will naturally contain small amounts of fat, cholesterol and lactose. You can lower the amounts of these substances by choosing a&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#formswhey" target="_blank"><b>whey isolate</b></a>, which essentially isolates the whey protein from these other components. Whey and whey isolates taste somewhat like powdered milk. If you have trouble digesting protein or want to absorb it quicker, you can choose a whey hydrolysate in which the protein is, essentially, pre-digested, but be aware that hydrolysates can be somewhat bitter. <br /> <br /> Other types of protein are available and can be beneficial, such as casein (also from milk), pea, egg, rice, soy, and hemp. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>Protein Powder, Shakes &amp; Drinks Review</b></a> for more details about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_ Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#buying" target="_blank"><b>each type of protein</b></a>, using protein to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>build and maintain muscle mass</b></a>, how much protein to consume from food and supplements, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#hudson" target="_blank"><b>when during the day</b></a> it may be best to consume protein. <br /> <br /> Be aware that 28% of the protein products that we tested at ConsumerLab in 2016 failed to pass our tests. Furthermore, among those that passed, the cost to obtain an equivalent amount of protein (20 grams) ranged from just 67 cents to over $5. Check out our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#picks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among the protein powders we tested and see how products compared on quality and cost.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/whats-the-best-protein-to-keep-and-gain-muscle-when-youre-older/best-protein-for-muscle/460712/4/2018AnswersDoes vitamin B12 improve memory?Supplementing daily with vitamin B12 (100 mcg to 500 mcg) and, possibly, folic acid (400 mcg), may help slow age-related declines in memory and cognition <i>if</i> you're not already getting enough vitamin B12 from your diet or not able to extract it from foods -- a common problem in older people. <br /> <br /> The benefit may be enhanced when you're also getting a good amount of omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), such as from <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>oily fish</b></a>. Getting the recommended daily allowance of B6 (about 1.7 mg), which is easily obtained from foods, is also important. <br /> <br /> For more details see the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#memory" target="_blank"><b>Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease</b></a>" section of the B Vitamins Review, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among products we have tested. The Review also includes information about good <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#foods" target="-blank"><b>food sources</b></a> of vitamins B12 and B6. <br /> <br /> To increase omega-3 fatty acid intake from food (while minimizing mercury exposure), see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>Canned Tuna and Canned Salmon Review</b></a> as well as the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><b>Fish Oil Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-vitamin-b12-improve-memory/b12-memory/460612/4/2018AnswersIs it okay to take vitamin D3 and fish oil together? Yes. In fact, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#food" target="_blank"><strong>best absorbed when taken with a meal</strong></a> containing fats or oils, so <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a> can only help with that. Absorption of the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil won't be affected by the vitamin D. <br /> <br /> See the "What to Consider When Using" section of each Review for more tips for taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#food" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#howtotake" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-okay-to-take-vitamin-d3-and-fish-oil-together/vitamin-D-and-fish-oil/460511/29/2018AnswersHow much bone broth do I need to consume in order to get a benefit?That depends on your reason for consuming it. <br /> <br /> Bone broth can be a good source of <b>protein</b> and contribute substantially to your daily protein needs &mdash; although some will provide far more protein than others. Our tests of popular bone broths found the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#graph" target="_blank"><strong>amounts of total protein</strong></a> provided by a one-cup serving ranged from 3.8 grams to 17.6 grams, with the higher amount providing more than one quarter of the daily protein requirement for most adults. <br /> <br /> Many people consume bone broth specifically for its <b>collagen</b> content -- which is part of its total protein. Amounts of collagen in bone broths are rarely listed on labels and ConsumerLab found that some products contained <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#graph" target="_blank"><b>almost 5 times as much collagen</b></a> as others, with amounts ranging from 2.5 grams to 11.5 grams. Be aware, however, that many of the benefits for which collagen is promoted, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#arthritis" target="_blank"><b>reducing joint pain</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#skin" target="_blank"><b>improving skin and reducing wrinkles</b></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#bone" target="_blank"><b>strengthening bones</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#nails" target="_blank"><b>nails</b></a>, are based on results of studies using specific forms of collagen from supplements, not bone broth. Even the evidence for the use of bone broth for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#immune" target="_blank"><b>boosting the immune system</b></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#gut" target="_blank"><b>improving gut health</b></a> is <i>very preliminary</i>. The amount of collagen used in clinical trials has ranged from 2.5 grams to 15 grams, with most studies using 10 to 15 grams, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#dose" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerTips</b></a> section of our Bone Broth Review &mdash; which also explains <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#buyingandusing" target="_blank"><strong>what to look for on labels</strong></a> when choosing a bone broth product. <br /> <br /> Note that bone broth is <i>not</i> generally a significant source of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#vitamins" target="_blank"><b>vitamins and most minerals</b></a> &mdash; although it can contain a substantial amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#potassium" target="_blank"><b>potassium</b></a>. (Also, be aware some bone broths contain much higher <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#sodium" target="_blank"><b>amounts of sodium</b></a> than others &mdash; and ConsumerLab found one product contained much more sodium than listed on its label). <br /> <br /> For more about the evidence for bone broth, tips for taking, and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> based on taste and quality, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><b>Bone Broth Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-bone-broth-do-i-need-to-consume-in-order-to-get-a-benefit/how-much-bone-broth/460411/24/2018AnswersHow do fish oil supplements compare to EPA prescription fish oil like Vascepa?Vascepa, which has been shown to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#bhatt" target="_blank"><b>reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease</b></a> in people with elevated levels of triglycerides, provides 960 mg of EPA per capsule, and two of these capsules are taken twice daily with meals. The cash price for each capsule is about $2.50, or $10 per day (pricing can vary). As discussed in ConsumerLab's Review of Fish Oil Supplements, highly concentrated fish oil&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#toppicks-compare" target="_blank"><b>supplements can provide about the same amount of EPA with little DHA, like Vascepa</b></a>, but for as little as 30% the cost of Vascepa. <br /> <br /> It is also possible to get this amount of EPA at even lower cost from fish oil supplements that are not as highly-concentrated as Vascepa, but they will likely include significant amounts of other omega-3 fatty acids, such as DHA and DPA, and other oils, making the dose larger, i.e. more softgels, capsules, or liquid. While EPA/DHA combinations, as found in the prescription fish oil&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-fish-oil-supplements-as-good-as-prescription-fish-oil-like-lovaza/Lovaza_cost/" target="_blank"><b>Lovaza</b></a> and many supplements, can lower triglycerides, they have not, to-date, been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease like Vascepa. Also keep in mind that prescription drugs are held to higher standards than fish oil dietary supplements, including the clinical demonstration of safety and efficacy and more rigorous manufacturing standards and oversight. This should be considered when comparing products.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Be aware that the fish oil in supplements is typically in the ethyl ester or triglyceride form. Both can raise levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the body (although there is preliminary evidence that the triglyceride form may be more efficient). Nevertheless, Vascepa is in the ethyl ester form, so if you seek to match it, choose a supplement in the ethyl ester form. <br /> <br /> Also be aware that some supplements are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#enteric" target="_blank"><b>enteric-coated</b></a> to delay release of fish oil until after the stomach. While this may reduce &quot;fishy burps,&quot; it&#39;s not clear how this may affect absorption. Vascepa is not enteric-coated and it is possible that its earlier release of oil in the stomach could allow earlier mixing and better stimulate bile production that is needed for absorption of its omega-3 fatty acids the small intestine. For more details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#toppicks-compare" target="_blank"><b>Softgels Compared to Prescription Omega-3s</b></a> section of ConsumerLab's Review of Fish Oil Supplements.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-do-fish-oil-supplements-compare-to-epa-prescription-fish-oil-like-vascepa/fish-oil-supplements-vascepa/460311/13/2018AnswersHow much magnesium from supplements is too much?Even at moderate doses, magnesium from supplements can cause <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>side effects</b></a> such as stomach upset, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. This does not happen with magnesium obtained naturally from foods. Although the daily requirement for magnesium from the total diet ranges from 310 mg to 400 mg (depending on age and gender), you should get no more than 350 mg from a supplement to avoid side effects. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you are not taking magnesium specifically for its laxative effect, there are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><b>forms which are less likely to cause diarrhea</b></a>. Be aware that magnesium-containing supplements and laxatives can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#statin" target="_blank"><b>interact with certain medications</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Know that slightly high blood levels of magnesium have been associated with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cvd" target="_blank"><b>cardiovascular risks</b></a>, and <em>very high</em> blood levels of magnesium, known as&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#birrer" target="_blank"><b>hypermagnesemia</b></a>, can cause more serious symptoms such as low blood pressure and slowed breathing, and can be fatal. Although uncommon, hypermagnesemia can occur with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#birrer" target="_blank"><b>excessive intake of magnesium-containing laxatives or supplements</b></a>, and has also been reported in people ingesting or gargling with large quantities of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#epsomsalt" target="_blank"><b>Epsom salt</b></a> (magnesium sulfate). Magnesium supplements can be dangerous in people with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#kidney" target="_blank"><b>kidney disease</b></a> and should only be used with physician supervision. <br /> A <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><b>healthy diet</b></a> can provide the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><b>recommended daily intake</b></a> of magnesium. But if you are not getting this amount from your diet, it may be beneficial to take a supplement that will provide, for example, 200 mg to safely get you to that level. See our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>Magnesium Supplements Review</b></a> for more information about getting magnesium from foods and supplements, safety and side effects, and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> among products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-magnesium-from-supplements-is-too-much/too-much-magnesium/460211/13/2018AnswersWhen is the best time of day to take a multivitamin?If you need to take a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamin</strong></a>, you'll want to take it in a way that maximizes absorption of its nutrients (i.e., essential vitamins and minerals) but is convenient enough so that you don't skip taking it. For many people, breakfast is the most convenient time to take a multivitamin, but if your breakfast does not include significant amounts of fats or oils, you won't get the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#food" target="_blank"><strong>best absorption of vitamin D</strong></a> and other fat soluble vitamins -- <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>A</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>E</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>K</strong></a>. In that case, take your multivitamin with whichever meal contains the most fats and oils. Taking your multivitamin with a meal may also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#nausea" target="_blank"><b>reduce stomach upset</b></a> or nausea that can occur with these supplements. <br /> <br /> If you take separate supplements providing large amounts of vitamins or minerals, be aware that these can compete with the generally smaller amounts of similar nutrients in your multivitamin. For example, if you take a separate <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium supplement</strong></a>, take it at a different time of day than your multivitamin because the large amount of calcium will <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#iron" target="_blank"><strong>reduce absorption of minerals</strong></a> in your multivitamin, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#macro" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#otherminerals" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21696" target="_blank"><strong>copper</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a>. Similarly, if you take a separate supplement with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a>, A, E, or K, take it at a different time of day than your multivitamin because it may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-vitamins-and-minerals-should-be-taken-together-or-separately/how-to-take-vitamins/#fatsoluble" target="_blank"><strong>reduce absorption of other fat-soluble vitamins</strong></a> in your multivitamin. <br /> <br /> If you take a separate supplement with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B12</strong></a> (which 10 to 30% of older adults don't absorb well from foods), take it at least 6 hours apart from your multivitamin, because you can only <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b12absorption" target="_blank"><strong>absorb a small amount</strong></a> (about 1.5 mcg of B12) at a time. Taking small amounts of B12 twice daily is a good strategy to boost B-12 levels if needed and may be better than taking a large dose once a day. <br /> <br /> Be aware that the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#otherconcerns" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a> and/or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#statin" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a> in multivitamins may interfere with the absorption of certain medications, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-should-be-avoided-when-taking-an-antibiotic-amoxicillin-cipro-levaquin-omnicef/antibiotics-supplements-interactions/" target="_blank"><strong>antibiotics</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-drugs-should-be-avoided-when-taking-statins/statin_supplement_interactions/" target="_blank"><strong>statins</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-interfere-with-thyroid-hormones/hypothyroidism_and_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>thyroid hormones</strong></a>. So, take them at a different time of day than your multivitamin. (Check for drug interactions with other vitamins and minerals in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> section of our site). <br /> <br /> When <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-do-i-pick-the-best-multivitamin/choosing_a_multivitamin/" target="_blank"><strong>choosing a multivitamin</strong></a>, it's generally best to go with one that provides up to the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=" target="_blank"><strong>daily requirement</strong></a> of each nutrient. Many multivitamins <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#exceed" target="_blank"><strong>provide much more than you need</strong></a>, and this can potentially have negative effects. Check our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-general-adult" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> in our Multivitamin Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/when-is-the-best-time-of-day-to-take-a-multivitamin/best-time-to-take-multivitamin/460111/7/2018AnswersCan CBD cause a drop in blood pressure?Yes, CBD (cannabidiol) has been shown to cause a modest drop in blood pressure in people taking high doses. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#bloodpressure" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the CBD and Hemp Extract Supplements Review. (Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Pick</b></i></a> for CBD among tested products.)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-taking-cbd-affect-blood-pressure/CBD-blood-pressure/460011/6/2018AnswersIs it true that there are bits of plastic in drinking water and specialty salts? How concerned should I be?Due to manufacturing and pollution, it is true that tiny fragments and fibers of plastic, known as microplastics, are being found in foods and beverages such as sea salt, Himalayan salt, tap and bottled waters, and beers. Although it's not yet clear what effects they have on human health, it may be best to try to avoid exposure where possible. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=microplastics-water-salt"><strong>full answer</strong></a> to find out the concentrations of microplastic fragments in different salts, waters, and types of beer.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/microplastics---drinking-water-%26-sea-salt/microplastics-water-salt/459911/3/2018AnswersWhat is BioSil? Can it really increase collagen production and strengthen hair, skin, nails and bones?BioSil, a dietary supplement containing a complex of silicon and choline, is promoted as "clinically proven to increase collagen formation, increase skin elasticity, reduce wrinkles, thicken and strengthen hair, increase bone collagen formation, and increase bone mineral density." However, the evidence supporting these claims has weaknesses and there is a possible safety concern with one of the compounds in BioSil, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=biosil"><strong>full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-biosil-can-it-really-increase-collagen-production-and-strengthen-hair-skin-nails-and-bones/biosil/459810/30/2018AnswersWhat is the best way to take curcumin? Is it better to take it all at once or in divided doses?Curcumin is fat-soluble, so if you take regular curcumin with just water, you will absorb very little. Consequently, it is best to take curcumin with a fatty meal. In addition, curcumin has a short-half life, i.e., it does not stay in body. As a result, to keep levels up, it is best to take curcumin twice daily. This is discussed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#howtotake" target="_blank"><strong>Best Way to Take Curcumin and Turmeric</strong></a> section of the Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements and Spices Review. <br /> <br /> Formulated curcumin products such NovaSol, CurcuWIN, Meriva, Theracurmin, and products that contain Bioperine (black pepper extract) can increase the half-life and bioavailability of curcumin (see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#bioavailability" target="_blank"><strong>Absorption and Bioavailability</strong></a> section of the Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements Review.) <br /> <br /> Be aware that supplements don&#39;t always provide what they claim on their labels, so check our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#results" target="_blank"><strong>tests of curcumin and turmeric supplements</strong></a> and see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> based on quality and value. <br /> <br /> If you cook with turmeric, see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#food" target="_blank"><b>tips on how to improve absorption</b></a> of curcumin from turmeric spice.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-best-way-to-take-curcumin/best-way-to-take-curcumin/459710/20/2018AnswersCan I use a home test for mercury to check for mercury in fish, like canned tuna, fresh fish, and sushi?Mercury contamination is a significant problem in fish and it would be great to be able to check mercury levels with an easy home test. However, as explained below,&nbsp;<i>standard home tests for mercury are not well-suited to detect mercury in solid foods, like fish</i>. <br /> <br /> It is <a href="#" target="_blank"><b>recommended</b></a> that consumption of fish be limited to no more than twice a week when mercury levels are above 0.15 ppm, once a week when levels are above 0.23 ppm, and avoided when levels are above 0.46 ppm. <br /> <br /> When ConsumerLab tests fish for mercury (see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>Canned Tuna and Salmon Review</b></a>), the samples must be digested with acids to release mercury &mdash; which is typically bound to the protein in fish meat. This is done with sulfuric and nitric acid in a specialized digestion flask and the solution is heated to evaporate the mercury -- which is collected with a condenser unit. Analysis is then performed by a specialized, automated instrument known as an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer, which can test down to a limit of about 0.007 ppm (parts per million). ConsumerLab has found that canned albacore ("white") tunas generally have mercury levels ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 ppm. Other types of tuna, like skipjack and yellowfin, tend to have lower levels, while mercury levels in canned salmon are lower still -- between 0.02 and 0.04 ppm.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Home tests are typically designed to measure mercury in a liquid, such as urine or saliva. Although some home tests claim they can be used to measure mercury in food, the process to do so can be complicated and time-consuming and could result in inaccurate results. For example, ConsumerLab contacted the maker of one such kit and found the instructions for testing canned tuna involves mixing a chunk of tuna with distilled water (which must be free of metals) and a source of acetic acid (such as white vinegar), heating the resulting liquid to a specific temperature, cooling it to a specific temperature, filtering it, and then repeating the filtering process several times before collecting the resulting liquid for testing. In addition, home tests vary widely in their sensitivity to mercury, with some strips only turning color with levels of at least 10 ppm&nbsp; &mdash; much higher than in any fish, although others claim to test down to a limit of 0.025 ppm or 0.1 ppm. Also, be aware that results from these home kits are typically shown as changes in color on a paper strip that correspond with a certain range of mercury detected, so interpreting the results will rely, to an extent, on one's sight and ability to distinguish color shades.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-i-use-a-home-test-for-mercury-to-check-for-mercury-in-fish-like-canned-tuna-fresh-fish-and-sushi/mercury-home-test/459610/9/2018AnswersAre vitamins and supplements from Canada of better quality because they are licensed? To be sold in Canada, a vitamin or other type of dietary supplement must be approved and licensed, which is not the case in the U.S. However,&nbsp;<i>this does not necessarily assure better quality</i> for Canadian supplements. In fact, tests by ConsumerLab have shown problems with the quality of Canadian supplements, just as it has with U.S. supplements. <br /> <br /> Supplements sold in Canada must be licensed by Health Canada and have a unique eight-digit Natural Product Number (NPN), indicating that it has "been assessed by Health Canada and found to be safe, effective and of high quality." The numbers are preceded by "NPN" and it is possible to&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><b>look up</b></a> a product by this number. <br /> <br /> However, in response to an inquiry to Health Canada by ConsumerLab about its licensing process, it was learned that Health Canada typically does not test products, nor inspect manufacturing facilities: "In a typical application, Health Canada accepts the test results provided by the manufacturer or importer. The testing may be in-house, or performed by a third party laboratory. Both the product license and site license application processes are attestation/paper based..." (Communication from Health Canada to ConsumerLab on 10/1/18). ConsumerLab also learned that licensing in Canada does not occur annually or even biannually. When ConsumerLab found a Canadian&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#jamieson" target="_blank"><b>joint health supplement</b></a> to contain less of a key ingredient than listed, looking up its NPN number showed that its last license renewal was more than 7 years prior to it being purchased by ConsumerLab. It is also important to note that products manufactured in Canada for export only do not have to meet the Canadian regulations. If you don't see an NPN number on a supplement that was made in Canada, you can assume it falls into this category.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Health Canada is relying on the veracity of supplement manufacturers and distributors. This is really not much different from the situation in the U.S. where consumers rely on supplement manufacturers to live up to the law, which requires that products be made according to Good Manufacturing Practices (although these are fairly broadly defined) and that products contain, at the time they are used, 100% of what they claim. <br /> <br /> There are times when Health Canada will test supplements, such as if they have a "history of contamination/adulteration," "complaints," or "adverse reactions." The U.S. FDA, at times, also tests products falling into these categories. <br /> <br /> All of this is not to say that there is no benefit to Canada's licensing requirements. At the very least, maintaining a database of licensed products makes it easier to report, identify, and correct problems that may arise with supplements. There is, unfortunately, no equivalent to this in the U.S. The closest to it is a <a href="#" target="_blank"><b> Dietary Supplement Label Database</b></a> from the National Institutes of Health that is proactively gathering label information for most of the dietary supplements sold in the U.S.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-vitamins-from-canada-of-better-quality-because-they-are-licensed/Canada-vitamins-supplements-natural-product-number/459510/3/2018AnswersIs it okay to break vitamin tablets, pills or capsules to change the dose or make them easier to swallow?It's often okay to break or open a vitamin or other supplement, either by splitting or crushing a tablet or twisting open a capsule. However, if a pill is labeled as enteric-coated (to protect contents from stomach acid or avoid an unpleasant aftertaste), timed-release (to slow the absorption of a key ingredient), or indicates some other type of special coating, you should not break it, as you will lose the benefit of the coating. Some coatings also mask the initial unpleasant taste of an ingredient.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Capsules are usually two-part shells, with their open ends facing one another. Twisting the capsule will separate the two. If you want to reduce the dose of a capsule without wasting the remainder, you can purchase inexpensive empty capsules, twist them open, and pour a portion of the contents from the original capsule into one of the empty capsules and then reclose each capsule. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you want to break a tablet, you can purchase a relatively inexpensive pill cutter to more precisely cut a tablet into parts. You can also use a pill crusher or mortar and pestle to turn a pill, or part of a pill, into a powder that can be taken with food or in a drink. <br /> <br /> While you won't want to break a softgel in half, since it is a one-piece shell that typically contains a liquid ingredient, you can puncture the capsule, squeeze out the contents, and swallow the liquid directly or in food or a drink, although, depending on the contents, it may not have a pleasant taste. <br /> <br /> Regardless of whether you cut, twist, squeeze, or crush a pill, be aware that you are exposing the contents to more oxygen, which can cause oxidation and accelerate decomposition. Use the product soon afterward rather than producing batches for storage.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-okay-to-crush-a-tablet-or-pill-%26-consume-the-powder/cutting-breaking-vitamin-tablets/459410/2/2018AnswersTo avoid mercury, I tried skipjack tuna instead of albacore, but I didn't like the taste. Is it safe to continue to eat albacore if just once a week?ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>tests of popular brands of canned tuna and salmon</b></a> found that all five brands of albacore ("white" tuna) were contaminated with mercury to such an extent that you should limit intake to no more than one serving per week. Brands of skipjack tuna contained less mercury, although, one had a mercury level suggesting consumption not more than twice a week. <br /> <br /> Yellowfin tunas contained the least mercury among the tunas; however, one had a fairly high amount of arsenic (as did most albacore tunas), suggesting that its use also be limited. <br /> <br /> So, while it is safe for you to continue to eat albacore tuna once a week, there are some better tuna alternatives.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Before you settle back to eating albacore tuna, or any tuna, consider canned salmon -- particularly pink salmon, which is mild-flavored and light-colored, like albacore tuna. It is also more "heart healthy" than most tunas because pink salmon tends to provide greater amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA than albacore tuna. Furthermore, the pink salmon brand we tested had the lowest amount of mercury and second lowest amount of arsenic of any of the tested canned tunas and salmons. <br /> <br /> Although it may not appeal to your tastes, if you really want to boost your omega-3 intake, try sockeye ("red") salmon. The three sockeye salmons that we tested all provided very high amounts of omega-3's and low amounts of mercury and arsenic. <br /> <br /> More details our tests are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>Canned Tuna and Salmon Review</b></a>, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/#toppicks" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among tested products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-safe-to-continue-to-eat-albacore-if-just-once-a-week/albacore-tuna-mercury/45939/22/2018AnswersWhy aren't there children's multivitamins specifically for girls vs. boys?The reason why multivitamins are typically not made specifically for girls or boys is that the nutritional needs of young children are the same, regardless of gender. Therefore, a good general "children's" multivitamin will cover both young girls and young boys.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Things change during adolescence when the nutritional needs of girls become those of young women, particularly with regard to iron, due to menstruation. The nutritional needs of adolescent boys become similar to those of men, although they, too, need a bit more iron than men. Teenage girls and boys also need more calcium than people over 18, although it is best to get most of one's calcium requirements from foods due to the large amount needed per day (many hundreds of milligrams in contrast to just a few milligrams or less for many other nutrients) or to take a separate <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong>calcium supplement</strong></a> (although don't take more than 300 mg to 500 mg at a time). <br /> <br /> This is discussed in detail in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-children" target="_blank"><strong>Children's</strong></a> section of ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>Multivitamin Review</strong></a>, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-children" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> for children, adolescent girls, and adolescent boys based on our tests and analyses of products. The <em>Top Picks</em> are what we consider to be the best multivitamins in each category.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Be aware that <i>gummy vitamins typically don't contain iron</i>, but tablets typically do. For this reason, a gummy would likely not be appropriate for an adolescent girl or boy, nor for a younger child, unless you are sure they are getting adequate iron from their diets. Also be aware that a large percentage of multivitamins have failed our testing for not meeting quality specifications, e.g., having far less or far more of a nutrient than listed. For some multis, even listed amounts are not appropriate, as is the case with some "mega" vitamins.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The Multivitamin Review also includes our <i>Top Picks</i> for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-general-adult" target="_blank"><strong>Adults (General)</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-womens" target="_blank"><strong>Women</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-womens-50" target="_blank"><strong>Women 50+</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-mens" target="_blank"><strong>Men</strong></a>, as well as recommendations regarding <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-prenatal" target="_blank"><strong>Prenatal Vitamins</strong></a>. Also see our <i>Top Pick</i> multivitamin for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-pets" target="_blank"><strong>Pets</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> If you would like to know how nutritional needs differ by age and gender throughout life, check the tables at <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><strong>www.consumerlab.com/RDAs/</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-arent-there-childrens-multivitamins-specifically-for-girls-vs-boys/multivitamins-girls-boys/45929/15/2018AnswersWhat are the health benefits of bone broth, and which bone broth is the best? Bone broth can be a good source of protein, an essential nutrient for muscle growth and maintenance. Bone broth is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>especially rich in collagen</strong></a> (the main protein found in bone), and for this reason, is often promoted for a wide range of health benefits. <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Clinical studies</strong></a> show that collagen may help reduce joint pain associated with physical activity and osteoarthritis, increase bone mineral density, and help reduce wrinkles and increase skin elasticity. However, although bone broth has been promoted for such uses, most studies of these conditions have used <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/" target="_blank"><b>collagen supplements</b></a>, not bone broth. Bone broth has also been promoted for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#immune" target="_blank"><strong>boosting the immune system</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#gut" target="_blank"><strong>healing the digestive tract</strong></a>, although, again, these uses have not been proven with bone broth. <br /> <br /> Amounts of collagen are not typically listed on labels, but ConsumerLab <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#results" target="_blank"><strong>tests of popular bone broths</strong></a> showed <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#graph" target="_blank"><strong>how much collagen and total protein</strong></a> is in each. The tests also revealed how much sodium was in bone broth &mdash; and that labels were not always accurate. <br /> <br /> See ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><strong>Bone Broth Review</strong></a> to learn more about the evidence regarding the benefits of bone broth, what to look for on labels, and ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among bone broth liquids and powders based on quality, protein, collagen and sodium content, taste and cost.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bone-broth-health-benefits/bone-broth-benefits/45919/1/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of glucosamine and chondroitin?Glucosamine and chondroitin, common ingredients in supplements for joint pain, are generally well-tolerated, but may cause stomach upset in some people. When taken in typical dosages, glucosamine has also been reported to cause mild to moderate drowsiness, skin reactions and headache in clinical trials. Glucosamine may also increase eye pressure in people with glaucoma and, because it's often derived from shellfish, may cause an allergic reaction in some individuals. (Note: a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#allergic" target="_blank"><strong>vegetable-based glucosamine</strong></a> ingredient is available in some supplements). <br /> <br /> Chondroitin sulfate may worsen symptoms in some people with asthma. <br /> <br /> Both glucosamine and chondroitin may have an anti-coagulant effect and should be used with physician supervision if you are taking blood-thinning medication. Also, be aware that certain forms of glucosamine and chondroitin can contain a significant amount of sodium, so you may want to avoid these forms if you are on a low-sodium diet. <br /> <br /> For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><strong>Joint Health Supplements Review</strong></a>, which includes the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>clinical evidence</strong></a> for glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM, boswellia and other common joint health ingredients, ConsumerLab.com's tests and reviews of popular joint health products, it's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a><strong> </strong>among products. <br /> <br /> (See our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Joint_Supplements_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_and_MSM_Dogs_Cats_Horses/jointsupplements_pets/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Joint Health Supplements for Pets</strong></a> for evidence, safety and our tests of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements for pets.)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-side-effects-of-glucosamine-and-chondroitin/glucosamine-chondroitin-side-effects/45909/1/2018AnswersI asked the distributor of my cacao powder how it checks for metals. They say they do "foreign material detection" to capture "metal fragments." Is this adequate for checking cacao and cocoa for heavy metals, like cadmium, which you've found in other products? No. What that company is describing has nothing to do with detecting elemental metal contamination (as we do) or removing that contamination. The company is describing the way they detect relatively large metal fragments that may be introduced during processing. Such fragments would then, typically, be removed by sifting. <br /> <br /> As shown in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><strong>Dark Chocolate, Cocoa Powder and Nibs Review</strong></a>, heavy metal contamination is very common in cocoa and cacao powders and some dark chocolates. This contamination (typically with cadmium and/or lead) is not due to metal fragments but, most likely, the absorption by cocoa plants of metals in their environment (likely from pesticides and/or volcanic soil). Unfortunately, the levels of cadmium found are often very high -- suggesting that intake should be limited, and it does not seem possible to selectively remove these metals. <br /> <br /> For information about how to choose the best quality cocoa powder and dark chocolate with the least contamination see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>Getting cocoa flavanols without contaminants</strong></a><strong> </strong>and our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#top-picks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a> among products in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><strong>Dark Chocolate, Cocoa Powder and Nibs Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-foreign-metal-metal-detection-show-amounts-of-heavy-metals-in-cocoa/cocoa-metal-contamination/45898/28/2018AnswersCan taurine help reduce muscle cramps? Taurine supplementation has been shown to reduce muscle cramps in people with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21393" target="_blank"><strong>cirrhosis</strong></a> (liver damage) and it may help reduce muscle pain after strenuous exercise. See the full answer for more details, including&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=taurine-cramps"><strong>dosage and side effects</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> For more information about the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/taurine-supplements-review/taurine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>clinical evidence</b></a> for taurine, and our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/taurine-supplements-review/taurine/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among taurine supplements for people and pets, see ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/taurine-supplements-review/taurine/" target="_blank"><b>Taurine Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-taurine-help-reduce-muscle-cramps/taurine-cramps/45888/25/2018AnswersIs there a multivitamin that contains only the recommended daily vitamins and minerals? Most that I have looked at contain more.You probably won't find a multivitamin that contains only the recommended daily vitamins and minerals, i.e., 100% of the recommended daily intakes. If you did, you probably shouldn't take it anyway, because you shouldn't get 100% of certain nutrients (notably <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-can-the-recommended-daily-allowance-rda-for-magnesium-be-higher-than-the-upper-tolerable-intake-levels-ul/magnesium_RDA_UL/" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-safer-to-get-calcium-from-foods-than-from-supplements/calcium_foods_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a>) from a supplement. Some, if not all, of the daily requirements should come from your diet. You can skip vitamins entirely if you eat a very well-balanced diet and don't have trouble absorbing any nutrients (such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B12</strong></a>, which many seniors have trouble absorbing from food). <br /> <br /> For those of us who don't eat quite as well as we should, there are definitely multis that provide each essential vitamin and mineral in amounts that should safely get you where you need to be. Our <i>Top Picks</i> among <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamins</strong></a> tend to be these "conservative" products, as opposed to "megadose" multis. To be a ConsumerLab <i>Top Pick</i>, each of these has also had to pass our rigorous laboratory testing and label review -- which about 30% of multivitamins don't pass -- and be reasonably priced. We identify the&nbsp;<i>Top Picks</i>&nbsp;in our Multivitamin Review by category, including&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-general-adult" target="_blank"><strong>general adult</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-womens" target="_blank"><strong>women</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-womens-50" target="_blank"><strong>women 50+</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-mens" target="_blank"><strong>men</strong></a>, <strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-50-general" target="_blank"><strong>50+ general (seniors)</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-children" target="_blank"><strong>children</strong></a>. You can also use the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/multivitamin_multimineral_supplements/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>Ingredients</strong></a> tables in the Multivitamin Review to compared the amounts of vitamins and minerals in these multis. <br /> <br /> Keep in mind that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-there-a-cause-for-concern-with-gummy-vitamins/gummy_vitamin_concern/" target="_blank"><strong>gummy multivitamins</strong></a>, although tasty and popular, typically won't provide iron &mdash; and this should be of particular concern for children, adolescent girls, and younger women. We also tend to find more problems (like too much folic acid) with the quality of gummy vitamins than with tablets.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you are unsure of your daily requirements for vitamins and minerals, which vary by age, gender, and with pregnancy and lactation, you can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><strong>check the latest nutrient requirements &mdash; as well as the upper tolerable intake limits</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-there-a-multivitamin-that-contains-only-the-recommended-daily-vitamins-and-minerals/multivitamin-rdas/45878/22/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of ashwagandha supplements? Although <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha supplements</strong></a> (typically taken for anxiety or stress) are generally well-tolerated when taken short-term (weeks to a few months) in&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#dosage" target="_blank"><strong>typical dosages</strong></a>, mild to moderate side effects such as headache, sleepiness, and stomach upset have been reported in clinical studies. Rarely, allergic reactions and rapid heartbeat have been reported. There are no long-term studies on the safety of ashwagandha supplements. <br /> <br /> Be aware, however, that ashwagandha can potentially lower blood pressure and blood sugar, and increase thyroid hormone levels as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><strong>Ashwagandha Supplements Review</strong></a>. The Review includes ConsumerLab's tests and reviews of popular ashwagandha supplements, its <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#toppick" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Pick</i></strong></a>, and the evidence regarding ashwagandha for anxiety, physical and cognitive performance, and other uses.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-side-effects-of-ashwagandha-supplements/ashwagandha-side-effects/45868/21/2018AnswersDoes citrulline improve exercise performance or recovery?Citrulline is an amino acid that the body converts to arginine which, in turn, may help with blood flow. Consequently, studies have been done with citrulline, as well as arginine, to assess their effectiveness in improving exercise performance. Although there is some evidence that arginine may help in certain situations, citrulline has not been found to be particularly helpful. Get the details in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/l-arginine-supplements-review/arginine/#citrulline" target="-blank"><strong>Citrulline</strong></a> section of the L-Arginine Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-citrulline-improve-exercise-performance-or-recovery/citrulline/45858/14/2018AnswersDoes arnica gel, cream, or spray reduce bruising, pain, or swelling? Arnica applied topically as a gel, ointment, cream, or spray has only shown modest benefit in minimizing bruising, swelling, and pain in some clinical trials and some trials have shown no benefit. Any potential benefits may depend on the concentration of arnica in the product. Be aware that allergic reactions can occur and that there are two <i>very different</i> types of topical arnica: <i>Herbal</i> arnica and <i>homeopathic</i> arnica, and each of these come in very different concentrations. Learn more in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=arnica-gel"><strong>full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-does-arnica-gel-cream-or-spray-reduce-bruising-pain-or-swelling-reduce-bruising-pain-or-swelling/arnica-gel/45848/12/2018AnswersWhat are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?Long-term, severe vitamin D deficiency can cause <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>bone softening and weakening</strong></a> in children (known as rickets) and adults (osteomalacia). <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#deficiencysymptoms" target="_blank"><strong>Symptoms</strong></a> associated with vitamin D deficiency can include chronic headache, bone pain, muscle weakness, insomnia, depression and hair loss. However, because these symptoms can be vague and/or easily attributed to other causes, the best way to know if you are deficient in vitamin D is to have your blood levels tested. <br /> <br /> Be aware that getting too much vitamin D is associated with a range of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#adverse" target="_blank"><strong>poor health outcomes</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cautions" target="-blank"><strong>side effects</strong></a> such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#sleep" target="_blank"><strong>difficulty sleeping</strong></a> and an increased risk of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#muscle" target="-blank"><strong>fractures and falls</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> For more details about vitamin D deficiency, getting the right amount of vitamin D, and the risks of getting too much, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#howmuch" target="_blank"><strong>How Much Do You Need and How Much is Too Much?</strong></a> section of the Vitamin D Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-symptoms-of-vitamin-d-deficiency/vitamin-D-deficiency/45838/11/2018AnswersDo arnica pills really work to prevent bruising?Arnica is commonly used as a homeopathic preparation to prevent bruising after surgery. However, the clinical evidence of its effectiveness is not compelling and, scientifically, there is little reason to expect it have an effect. For details,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=arnica-bruises"><strong>see the full answer</strong></a> >>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-arnica-pills-really-work-to-prevent-bruising/arnica-bruises/45828/5/2018AnswersCan castor oil eye drops improve or dissolve cataracts?Eye drops containing castor oil can be helpful for dry eye, but there is little evidence that they can improve vision in people with cataracts or "dissolve" cataracts, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=castor-oil-cataracts"><strong>full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-castor-oil-eye-drops-improve-or-dissolve-cataracts/castor-oil-cataracts/45818/5/2018AnswersDoes the talc added to Centrum Silver and other vitamins pose a risk of cancer?Talc is added to supplements to prevent ingredients from clumping and sticking to machinery when forming tablets, and talc as a food additive is "generally recognized as safe" by the FDA, as explained in our article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Inactive_Ingredients_in_Supplements/inactiveingredients/" target="_blank"><strong>Inactive Ingredients</strong></a>. Talc is not known to pose a risk of cancer when consumed from supplements. <br /> <br /> There has been concern about talc potentially causing ovarian cancer, but such cases have generally been associated with the topical or genital use of talc, such as with talcum powder. Furthermore, these cases may relate to talc contaminated with asbestos fibers, as may occur during the mining of talc, and there is a concern of lung disease from continual inhalation of asbestos-contaminated talc. <br /> <br /> Although the FDA does not provide specifications for the quality of talc to be used in supplements ("food-grade" talc) and cosmetics ("cosmetic-grade" talc), asbestos is a known carcinogen, so, technically, the FDA would consider it unacceptable if talc in these products was contaminated with asbestos. It has encouraged mining practices intended to keep talc free of asbestos, and&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>tests by the FDA</strong></a> in 2009 through 2010 found no asbestos contamination in a limited sample of &quot;cosmetic-grade&quot; talc provided by suppliers and cosmetics containing talc.<br /> <br /> Nevertheless, only if a supplement label lists its talc as "talc USP" does it mean that it is free of asbestos, as the USP has stringent requirements for talc, including no detectable asbestos. ConsumerLab has found that most supplements, including many popular <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/multivitamin_multimineral_supplements/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamins</strong></a>, do <em>not</em> list their talc as "USP" grade. However, this does not necessarily mean that these products contain asbestos or that they are unsafe.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-the-talc-added-to-centrum-silver-and-other-vitamins-pose-a-risk-of-cancer/talc-in-supplements/45798/1/2018AnswersDo any supplements help prevent or reduce eye floaters?A variety of supplements have been promoted for preventing or reducing eye floaters including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>lutein</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/" target="_blank"><strong>ginkgo</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/" target="_blank"><strong>milk thistle</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><strong>collagen</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-collagen-or-hyaluronic-acid-supplements-really-help-for-aging-or-wrinkled-skin/collagen-aging-skin/" target="_blank"><strong>hyaluronic acid</strong></a>. Find out if any of these have been shown to be helpful in clinical trials.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=-supplements-eye-floaters"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-prevent-or-reduce-eye-floaters/-supplements-eye-floaters/45787/31/2018AnswersWhat are the health benefits of dark chocolate?Dark chocolate is associated improved <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>cardiovascular health</strong></a> (by improving blood flow and cholesterol levels), <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#patel" target="_blank"><strong>increased exercise endurance</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#bloodsugar" target="_blank"><strong>decreased fasting blood sugar levels</strong></a> and improved insulin resistance, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#memory" target="_blank"><strong>improved memory and cognition</strong></a>. Relative to milk chocolate, dark chocolate may result in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#rabin" target="_blank"><strong>better visual acuity</strong></a> as well as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#marsh" target="_blank"><strong>decreased appetite</strong></a>. Each of these potential health benefits are described in detail in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><strong>Cocoa and Dark Chocolates Review</strong></a>. The evidence for some benefits is stronger than others, as some have been demonstrated in a clinical trial, while others are based on associations made in studies of populations that consume dark chocolate.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> These potential effects are likely due to the cocoa flavanols in dark chocolate. Cocoa flavanols may have a mild, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#skin" target="_blank"><strong>beneficial effect on facial wrinkles and skin elasticity</strong></a> in older women, but there do not yet appear to be studies specifically on the effects of consuming dark chocolate bars on skin. <br /> <br /> Keep in mind that in addition to healthful flavanols, dark chocolate bars can contain significant amounts sugar and fat, and therefore, calories. When choosing a dark chocolate bar, sure to check our chart showing the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#chocolate-bar-chart" target="_blank"><strong>amounts of flavanols and calories in popular dark chocolate bars</strong></a>, and see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#top-picks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/health-benefits-of-dark-chocolate/dark-chocolate-benefits/45777/28/2018AnswersDo any supplements reduce side of effects of chemotherapy?Certain supplements have been shown to reduce side effects associated with chemotherapy, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Furthermore, be aware that some <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>cancer experts</strong></a> suggest avoiding <i>all dietary supplements</i> until cancer treatment is completed. If you are undergoing treatment for cancer, consult your physician before taking any supplement. <br /> <br /> There is mixed evidence as to whether <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#chemo" target="_blank"><strong>ginger</strong></a> helps during chemotherapy treatment. Some studies have shown it can reduce nausea and vomiting in women undergoing chemotherapy but may increase these symptoms in men. <br /> <br /> One study suggests that taking the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#chemo" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic</strong></a> <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> GG may reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. <br /> <br /> Supplementing with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#chemotherapy" target="_blank"><b>whey protein</b></a> may help to maintain muscle during chemotherapy. <br /> <br /> Some, but not all studies, have found that drinking a suspension containing the amino acid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#mucositis" target="_blank"><strong>glutamine</strong></a> can reduce oral mucositis (painful mouth irritation) and/or skin rash in people undergoing chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Glutamine may also help <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21749" target="_blank"><strong>reduce the need for antidiarrheal medication</strong></a> in people undergoing chemotherapy, although the evidence is mixed. <br /> <br /> A study in children suggests that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/#chemo" target="_blank"><strong>milk thistle</strong></a> may reduce liver toxicity associated with chemotherapy, although the benefit was seen only after chemotherapy treatment was complete. <br /> <br /> More details about each of these findings can be found using the links above to the respective reports on ConsumerLab.com. For information about other&nbsp;supplements proposed to help during chemotherapy, see the article on our site about&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35541" target="_blank"><strong>Cancer Treatment Support</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <strong>Be aware that the following supplements may be&nbsp;<i>counterproductive</i> if taken during chemotherapy.</strong>&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#chemo" target="_blank"><strong>Fish oil supplements</strong></a> have been shown to help to prevent weight loss during chemotherapy, however, they may also <i>interfere with chemotherapy treatment</i>. Therefore, fish oil supplements <i>should not be taken</i> within 48 hours of chemotherapy (from the day before chemotherapy until the day after). <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#soycautions" target="_blank"><strong>Soy isoflavones</strong></a> may not be safe for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. <br /> <br /> Men with prostate cancer and/or undergoing treatment for prostate cancer should not take high doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Selenium_Supplements_Review_Ratings/selenium/#kenfield" target="_blank"><strong>selenium</strong></a>, as this may increase the risk of death from prostate cancer. <br /> <br /> Although some research suggests certain antioxidants may help reduce chemotherapy side effects, <b>there is also concern that they may decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy</b>. (See "The Antioxidant Controversy" in the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35541" target="_blank"><b>Cancer Treatment Support</b></a> for more information). <span class="reviewBody" name="jung" id="jung">For example, a study among women with <b>breast cancer</b> in Germany found that those who <i>supplemented with antioxidants during chemotherapy or radiation therapy</i> were 64% more likely to die over a median follow-up period of six years than women who did not use antioxidants during therapy. The chance of surviving without a recurrence was also much lower among the supplemented group. The results suggest that antioxidant supplements should be avoided or used with caution during chemotherapy or radiation therapy.</span> In this study, <b>vitamins A, C, and E, zinc, and selenium, as well as multivitamins</b> were grouped as antioxidants. It is speculated that antioxidants may interfere with cancer-killing properties of anticancer therapies by reducing the effects of reactive oxygen species those therapies intentionally produce (<a href="#" target="_blank">Jung, Am J Clin Nutr 2019</a>). <span class="reviewBody" name="ambrosone" id="ambrosone" style="background-color:#ffff00">Furthermore, a study in the U.S. among 1,340 women with breast cancer who were receiving chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or paclitaxel) found that use of vitamins A, C, or E, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, etc.), or CoQ10 was associated with increased risks of cancer recurrence (41% increase) and cancer death (40% increase). Although not antioxidants, B12 supplementation was associated with much poorer rates of disease-free and overall survival and iron was associated with a 91% higher risk of cancer recurrence. Multivitamin use, however, was not associated with increases in any cancer risks (<a href="#" target="_blank">Ambrosone, J Clin Oncol 2020</a>).</span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Other supplements that should be avoided during chemotherapy include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#Newmaster" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's wort</strong></a>, which can interfere with certain chemotherapy drugs, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Acetyl-L-Carnitine-Supplements-Review/Acetyl-L-Carnitine/#neuropathy" target="_blank"><strong>L-carnitine</strong></a>, which may worsen chemotherapy-related nerve damage.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-reduce-side-of-effects-of-chemotherapy/chemotherapy-side-effects/45767/24/2018AnswersIs it true that glucosamine and chondroitin can reduce the risk of death, like aspirin?A large, multi-year study found a significantly lower risk of death during the study among people taking glucosamine and/or chondroitin, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#bell" target="_blank"><b>Joint Health Supplements Review</b></a>. More research is needed to determine if this is a cause-and-effect relationship.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more information about&nbsp;glucosamine and chondroitin (and other ingredients such as boswellia and MSM) for joint pain, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>What It Does</b></a> section of the Joint Health Supplements Review. (Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#toppicks" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among products.)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-glucosamine-and-chondroitin-reduce-the-risk-of-death/glucosamine-chondroitin/45757/24/2018AnswersCan hemp oil or CBD (cannabidiol) supplements cause me to fail a drug test?It is possible to fail a drug test for marijuana based on THC in a hemp oil, hemp seed, or hemp seed extract -- the ingredient in many CBD supplements. Unusually large amounts of hemp oil or hemp seed would normally be required to cause a positive drug test. However, with hemp extracts, i.e., CBD oils, there is roughly a 10% chance of failing a drug test with low to moderate doses of CBD, and this will be influenced by individual variation in how THC is absorbed and metabolized. As dosage increases, the risk increases. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#thctest" target="_blank"><strong>What CL Found</strong></a> section of the CBD &amp; Hemp Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-hemp-oil-or-cbd-supplements-cause-me-to-fail-a-drug-test/hemp-tests/45747/13/2018AnswersCan CBD help with insomnia or improve sleep?There is preliminary evidence that CBD (cannabidiol) can help improve sleep in people with insomnia and other conditions that can cause difficulty sleeping, such as anxiety and Parkinson's disease. However, dosage appears to be important. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#anxiety" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the CBD and Hemp Supplements Review (which includes ConsumerLab's tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among products.)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-cbd-help-with-insomnia-or-improve-sleep/cbd-insomnia/45737/4/2018AnswersIs it true that magnesium bisglycinate from BioSchwartz is less likely to cause a laxative effect than other forms of magnesium? [<strong><span style="color: red">Update:</span></strong> (1/26/20) A <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14330" target="_blank">recall announcement</a> may affect this product.] <br /> <br /> Certain forms of magnesium, such as magnesium bisglycinate and some others, may be less likely to cause diarrhea, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>Choosing the right form of magnesium</strong></a> section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. However, it appears that BioSchwartz magnesium bisglycinate is not properly labeled and may provide a much lower amount of magnesium that expected. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=magnesium-bisglycinate"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bioschwartz-magnesium-bisglycinate/magnesium-bisglycinate/45727/1/2018AnswersAre liquid vitamins better than pills?There are pros and cons to liquid vitamins. <br /> <br /> <b>Pros:</b> <br /> A benefit of a liquid is that you avoid the risk that an improperly made pill will not <b>break apart</b> and fully release its ingredients. ConsumerLab subjects the tablets and caplets it reviews to a disintegration test for this reason and has come across many pills that don't break apart at all or, more often, only partially break apart. For example, in 2017, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamins</strong></a> from two different companies failed to break apart fully after 30 minutes (the required time as per the U.S. Pharmacopeia) and still had not fully disintegrated after another 30 minutes. <br /> <br /> Another issue avoided with liquids is the trouble some people (particularly young children and older adults) have with <b>swallowing</b> tablets or capsules. <br /> <br /> Liquids may be preferable for people who have <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-powdered-vitamins-more-bioavailable-than-tablets/powder_vs_pill_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>trouble with digestion due to gastric surgery</strong></a> or other reasons. <br /> <br /> Having a supplement in liquid form also makes it <b>easier to modify the dose</b>. For example, if a supplement, like <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> liquid drops or a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a><strong> </strong>liquid, is being shared among family members, it is very easy to give each person their specific dose by changing the number of drops or fraction of a teaspoon that you administer. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Some ingredients in supplements are hygroscopic, i.e., they attract water, and pills containing them can quickly become "wet" from moisture in the air. Magnesium chloride a good example of this, but it is also the preferred form if you need to take high-dose magnesium as it is less likely to cause diarrhea than other forms. It is therefore better to take magnesium chloride as a liquid than as a pill. See our Magnesium Supplements Review for our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i> for magnesium supplements</strong></a>, including magnesium chloride. <br /> <br /> <b>Cons:</b> <br /> A risk of a liquid is that some ingredients are less stable in a liquid environment, resulting in a&nbsp;<b>loss of ingredient</b> over time. This is of particular concern with vitamins such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a><strong> </strong>and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folic acid</strong></a>. ConsumerLab has also come across this problem with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/" target="_blank"><strong>creatine</strong></a> supplements, where creatine breaks down to creati<i>nine</i>. <br /> <br /> You will also need a pill form rather than a liquid if you need to <b>delay the absorption</b> (such as with a timed-release <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin</strong></a>), or are trying to deliver the ingredient intact to the intestine without being digested in the stomach, such as with some <b>enteric-coated</b> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>probiotics</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>fish oils</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Some liquid supplements may require <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-supplements-lose-effectiveness-in-the-heat/vitamin_temperature/" target="_blank"><strong>refrigeration</strong></a> making it difficult to take with you during the day or when travelling.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-liquid-vitamins-better-than-pills/liquid-vitamins/45716/23/2018AnswersIs DPA an important omega-3 fatty acid? It's been promoted as more "powerful" than EPA and DHA.DPA (docosapentaenoic acid) is often the third most prevalent omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil -- although it typically occurs in much lower concentrations than EPA or DHA. Many <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dpa" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil supplements contain at least small amounts of DPA</strong></a>, even if it's not listed on the label, and more substantial amounts can be obtained by consuming certain types of fish. ConsumerLab's tests of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/#dpa" target="_blank"><b>canned tuna and canned salmon</b></a> found as much as 80 mg of DPA per 2-ounce serving, with the highest concentrations in salmon (particularly sockeye) as opposed to tuna. In fact, DPA was not detectable (i.e., below 11 mg per serving) in two popular brands of canned tuna. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Some studies have found an association between higher blood levels of DPA and healthier aging, including lower risk of heart disease, but it is not clear that taking a supplement containing DPA would have this benefit, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dpa" target="_blank"><strong>DPA</strong></a><strong> </strong>section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-dpa-an-important-omega-3-fatty-acid/dpa/45706/19/2018AnswersCan baking soda really help treat rheumatoid arthritis?There is currently no clinical evidence demonstrating that consumption of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) reduces the symptoms rheumatoid arthritis or the risk of developing it. <br /> <br /> The only reason to speculate that baking soda <i>might</i> be helpful was a small study in <i>healthy</i> young people that showed a decrease in cellular inflammatory activity after drinking a <i>single</i> cup of water into which baking soda was dissolved. Although intriguing, this is far from proof that baking soda will help people with rheumatoid arthritis or that daily consumption would have a beneficial effect without harm. <br /> <br /> There are known risks associated with regular or excessive consumption of baking soda. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=baking-soda">Sign in to get the full details >></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-baking-soda-really-help-for-rheumatoid-arthritis/baking-soda/45696/12/2018AnswersDoes Alpha Brain really improve memory, focus and cognition? According to the website for <i>Alpha Brain</i> (from Onnit Labs Inc.), it "<i>...may help you remember names and places, focus on complex tasks, and improve your mental speed in response to stimuli.</i>" However, company-sponsored studies of <i>Alpha Brain</i> suggest it may be helpful for improving only limited aspects of memory and these studies have been conducted only with young adults. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Alpha-Brain"><strong>Sign in and get the details about <i>Alpha Brain</i></strong></a>, including its clinical evidence, ingredients, and potential side effects and drug interactions.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-alpha-brain-really-improve-memory-focus-and-cognition/Alpha-Brain/45686/9/2018AnswersIs it true that taking calcium supplements increases the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD)?The evidence is mixed. One study found that regularly consuming too much calcium from supplements or antacids was associated with a <i>higher</i> risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In contrast, another study did not find a higher risk of AMD with supplements. In fact, it found that women with high intake of calcium from supplements had a <i>lower</i> risk of a particular form of AMD (neovascular or "wet" AMD) than those who did not supplement with calcium. <br /> <br /> Calcium from <i>foods</i> does not appear to have a negative effect on AMD and may, to some extent, reduce the risk of AMD. <br /> <br /> For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#amdrisk" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the Calcium Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> For supplements that can help with AMD, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/calcium-supplements-and-the-risk-of-age-related-macular-degeneration/calcium-macular-degeneration/45675/29/2018AnswersI'm at risk for both macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, according to my doctors. I've read articles about omega-3 oils saying that more EPA than DHA is good for macular degeneration, and the reverse is true for Alzheimer's. What do you recommend? The answer is simple: eat fish (preferably oily fish) at least twice a week. Although we can certainly tell you which fish oil supplements (or other omega-3 supplements) are best <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong>for providing EPA and/or DHA</strong></a>, our analyses of the clinical literature show that, for both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease, supplements have generally <i>not</i> been beneficial, while regular consumption of fish is associated with benefits. Only if you won't or can't eat fish at least twice a week <i>might</i> fish oil supplements be helpful for these conditions.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#alzheimer" target="_blank"><strong>Alzheimer's Disease</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#eyedisease" target="_blank"><strong>Eye Disease</strong></a> sections of the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> For more about other supplements that can help with AMD see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/fish-oil-for-macular-degeneration-and-alzheimer’s-disease/fish-oil-AMD-Alzheimers/45665/29/2018AnswersI bought a lactose-free milk that is "calcium-fortified" and provides 50% of the Daily Value for calcium. Is that too much calcium?If you drink a cup (8 fl oz) or more of milk at a time, then, yes, this milk may provide you with <em>too much calcium</em>. The current Daily Value for calcium is 1,300 mg. Fifty percent of the Daily Value for calcium is 650 mg of calcium, and it's generally advised that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#howtotake" target="_blank"><strong>you not consume more than 500 mg of calcium in a serving</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Be aware that the Daily Value for calcium was officially <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/Updated-Daily-Values-Vitamins-Minerals/7_27_2016/" target="_blank"><strong>increased in 2016</strong></a> from 1,000 mg to 1,300 mg, and that this DV is pegged to the group with the greatest requirement for calcium -- adolescents and teenagers, while younger children and adults need less (see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=rdas" target="_blank"><strong>daily requirements</strong></a> by age.) Also be aware that the FDA has given companies until 2020 to change their labels to reflect the new DV. So, if your brand is still using the old DV, then 50% is 500 mg -- right at the edge of being too much calcium in a serving; if you have the milk along with calcium-containing foods or supplements, you're still getting too much calcium at one time. <br /> <br /> You're probably better off with a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lactose-free-milk_lactase-enzyme-supplement-review/lactose-intolerance/#fortified" target="_blank"><strong>lactose-free milk</strong></a> that is not "calcium fortified," as a cup will naturally provide about 30% of the Daily Value for calcium (390 mg based on the new DV or 300 mg based on the old one), and that's fine.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/too-much-calcium-from-lactose-free-milk/calcium-fortified-milk/45655/24/2018AnswersCan vitamin C reduce the pain of shingles?Having low blood levels of vitamin C is associated with an increased risk post-herpetic neuralgia &mdash; the nerve pain that can persist after an outbreak of shingles (Herpes zoster). There is also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#shingles" target="_blank"><strong>evidence</strong></a> that intravenous vitamin C can help reduce the incidence and intensity of post-herpetic nerve pain. But, so far, there do not appear to be studies on the effects of vitamin C supplements on shingles pain. <br /> <br /> For more about what vitamin C may or may not do, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the Vitamin C Supplements Review. (Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a><strong> </strong>among vitamin C supplements.)&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Also see our Encyclopedia article about other proposed natural treatments for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21722" target="_blank"><strong>Shingles</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-vitamin-c-reduce-the-pain-of-shingles/vitamin-c-shingles/45645/17/2018AnswersI heard that Theracurmin, a form of curcumin, was shown to help with memory, but it's expensive. Does Theracurmin really improve memory and is it worth it? Curcumin has shown some short-term beneficial effects on cognition (thinking and memory). Longer-term studies have generally shown mixed results, although an 18-month study done with Theracurmin (an enhanced bioavailability formula) showed modest improvements in short-term memory, verbal memory, and attention compared to placebo. Be aware that those taking Theracurmin were nearly twice as likely to report gastrointestinal side effects as those taking placebo. Brain scans suggested other possible benefits of Theracurmin, although the value of those findings is unclear. More details about this are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#small" target="_blank"><strong>Memory, Cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease</strong></a> section of our Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review. <br /> <br /> Due to poor bioavailability of curcumin (particularly if not taken with a meal containing fats), many formulas have been developed to enhance curcumin absorption and overall bioavailability. A study of Theracurmin found it to raise blood levels of curcumin much better than regular curcumin powder. However, participants in the study took the products with water, which would greatly limit absorption of regular curcumin powder. If the products had been taken with a fat-containing meal, it's possible that the difference would not have been dramatic. More about this is found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#theracurmin" target="_blank"><strong>Absorption and Bioavailability</strong></a> section of the Turmeric and Cumin Supplements and Spices Review, which also discusses and compares curcumin formulas such as BCM-95, Meriva, and CurcuWin, as well as Bioperine &mdash; an ingredient often added to curcumin formulas to increase bioavailability. Also see our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a> among curcumin supplements in the Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-theracurmin-really-improve-memory/curcumin-memory/45635/16/2018AnswersI started taking a magnesium supplement (400 mg from magnesium oxide) and developed diarrhea. Might there a problem with the supplement?You are taking too much magnesium <i>from a supplement</i>, and diarrhea is known side effect of exceeding the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#ul" target="_blank"><strong>Upper Tolerable Intake Level</strong></a> (the "UL") for magnesium when taken as a supplement. Magnesium that occurs naturally in foods does not cause this. Supplements should only be used to help you get to your requirement. If you must take a high amount of magnesium for medical reasons, certain forms are less likely to cause diarrhea than others.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For details see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#dosing" target="_blank"><strong>Dosing and how to take</strong></a> section of our Magnesium Supplements Review. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a><strong> </strong>among products -- covering moderate-dose as well as high-dose magnesium (in the form less likely to cause diarrhea).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-magnesium-cause-diarrhea/magnesium-diarrhea/45625/15/2018AnswersCoromega Max claims it is uniquely emulsified to provide 300% better absorption than standard fish oil softgels. Is this true? It's more expensive than many fish oils but could potentially provide better overall value. To help absorb the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, the oil is emulsified (broken into smaller droplets) in the small intestine by bile (which is secreted into the intestine when a fatty/oily meal is eaten). <i>Coromega Max</i> is a fish oil (sold in squirt packets) that is <i>already emulsified</i>. This helps explains why a clinical trial found that one of the omega-3s in it was better absorbed than that from a regular fish oil capsule, although not 300% better. The total amount of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA + DHA, however, were not better absorbed from&nbsp;<i>Coromega</i> than from the fish oil capsule. The study was also performed in a way that could favor <i>Coromega</i>. Based on this study, the claim does not appear to be true. <br /> <br /> More details about this are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#howtotake" target="_blank"><strong>How to Take</strong></a> section of the Fish Oil (Omega-3) Supplements Review, which also describes how to maximize absorption and minimize side effects when taking fish oil and other omega-3 oils. Also see information in the Review about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>Forms of Fish Oil &mdash; Natural Triglycerides, Ethyl Esters or Re-esterified Triglycerides</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-coromega-better-absorbed/coromega/45615/13/2018AnswersCan taking too much fish oil be dangerous?Yes, very high doses of fish oil may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#immune" target="_blank"><strong>suppress the immune system</strong></a> as well as have <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#bloodthinning" target="_blank"><strong>blood-thinning effects</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> In people taking highly concentrated <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#lovaza" target="_blank"><strong>prescription fish oil</strong></a>, elevations in "bad" LDL cholesterol and certain liver enzymes, and an increase in episodes of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in people who already have this heart rhythm disorder, have been reported. <br /> <br /> Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#liveroils" target="_blank"><strong>cod and other fish liver oils</strong></a> can be high in vitamins A and D, which can be toxic in high doses. Too much vitamin A, for example, can cause liver damage. Too much vitamin D can cause hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood), resulting in symptoms such as constipation, confusion, weakness and loss of appetite. (See the Concerns and Cautions sections of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin A Supplements Review</strong></a> and the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review</strong></a> for more details and upper intake limits for these vitamins). <br /> <br /> While fish oil is not believed to adversely affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, one study found that taking a large amount of krill oil which contained relatively modest amounts of EPA + DHA (230 mg and 154 mg, respectively) was shown to significantly <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#insulin" target="_blank"><strong>reduce insulin sensitivity</strong></a> in overweight, middle-aged men, which could potentially increase the risk of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. <br /> <br /> Also be aware of potential drug interactions with fish oil, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-taking-too-much-fish-oil-be-dangerous/too-much-fish-oil/45605/12/2018AnswersAre "medical foods" such as VSL 3, proven to work? Does the FDA approve them? Although medical foods were once classified as drugs, they were reclassified as foods in 1983. As such, they do not require a prescription. In fact, medical foods do not get registered with the FDA nor reviewed or approved by the FDA &mdash; much like herbal and vitamin dietary supplements &mdash; although they are intended to be used under medical supervision. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> So what is a medical food? Legally, a medical food is a food intended to meet distinctive nutritional requirements of a disease or condition that can't be met by a normal diet. Examples of conditions that may require a medical food include inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria, which are rare in the population but require significant restriction of particular amino acids and/or total protein. In contrast, conditions in which nutritional needs can be met by diet modification, such as diabetes and pregnancy, are generally not considered conditions for which medical foods can be marketed, according to&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank">FDA guidance</a>. <br /> <br /> Like other foods, medical foods are required to be made in registered food facilities under good manufacturing practices. However, unlike foods and supplements, they are exempt from labeling requirements for nutrient content, although the label must identify the ingredients in order of predominance and total quantity of contents.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> A concern we at ConsumerLab have with medical foods is that consumers, as well as medical professionals, may believe that a medical food has been objectively reviewed by a government agency or other authority and proven to be safe and effective, when this may not be the case. In fact, the medical food <i>Limbrel</i>, marketed for patients with osteoarthritis, was <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14165" target="_blank"><strong>recalled</strong></a> in 2018 after the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14145" target="_blank"><strong>FDA urged consumers not to take it</strong></a> in light of 194 reports of adverse events including liver injury. It is also possible that a medical food that can help manage a real but relatively rare medical condition becomes promoted for conditions for which the product is not known to be necessary or helpful. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com tests the quality of medical foods from time-to-time within relevant Product Reviews. For example, the medical food <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/-vsl-vs-visbiome/vsl-visbiome/" target="_blank"><i><b>VSL#3</b></i></a> has been included among the products tested in CL's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review</strong></a>. [Note: See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic-Supplements-and-Kombucha-Drinks/probiotics/#visbiome" target="_blank">ConsumerTips</a> section of the Review for details about possible changes in the formulation of VSL#3).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/medical-food-information---what-are-medical-foods/medical-foods/45595/8/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of magnesium supplements? The most common <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>side effects of magnesium supplements</strong></a> are stomach upset, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (as nearly all forms of magnesium have a laxative effect). Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) and magnesium citrate, for example, are commonly found in over-the-counter products to treat constipation. Fortunately, if you are taking magnesium for a reason other than its laxative effect &mdash; i.e. because you are not getting adequate magnesium from your diet, there are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>forms which are less likely to cause diarrhea</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Although it's important to get <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>adequate amounts</strong></a> of magnesium, be aware that taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#ul" target="_blank"><strong>excessive amounts</strong></a> of magnesium from supplements or over-the-counter laxatives and antacids can cause elevated blood levels of magnesium, which can lead to low blood pressure, drowsiness, muscle weakness, slowed breathing, and even death. Dangerous blood levels of magnesium have also been reported in people ingesting or gargling with large quantities of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#epsomsalt" target="_blank"><strong>Epsom salt</strong></a> (magnesium sulfate). <br /> <br /> People with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#kidney" target="_blank"><strong>kidney disease</strong></a> should not take magnesium without physician supervision. Magnesium can also interact with a number of medications, including certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>blood-thinning and antidiabetes drugs</strong></a>, and should be <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#statin" target="_blank"><strong>taken at least two or more hours apart</strong></a> from other common medications, including certain statin drugs and antibiotics. Some antacid medications can decrease magnesium's laxative effect &mdash; something to keep in mind if you are taking magnesium for this purpose. <br /> <br /> Topical magnesium products such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#spray" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium creams, sprays and oils</strong></a> can cause skin irritation. <br /> <br /> For more details about magnesium side effects, potential drug interactions, and other concerns, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Magnesium Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-side-effects-of-magnesium-supplements/magnesium-side-effects/45584/28/2018AnswersDoes magnesium help with depression?Low blood levels of magnesium or low intake of magnesium from the diet have each been associated with an increased risk of depression. In addition, several preliminary studies suggest that magnesium supplementation may help reduce symptoms of depression -- although better studies are needed to show if magnesium supplements are truly effective. More details, including dosage, are found in the in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#depression" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> It would seem prudent to make sure you are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>getting adequate amounts of magnesium from your diet</strong></a>. Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21795" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium</strong></a>, which lists amounts of magnesium in common foods. <br /> <br /> Be aware that certain medical conditions and medications can cause low magnesium levels in the body (see&nbsp;Magnesium deficiency and insufficiency). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-magnesium-help-with-depression/magnesium-depression/45564/24/2018AnswersWill an Epsom salt bath increase magnesium levels in my body like a supplement? Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) added to a bath <i>can</i> raise magnesium levels in the body, according to a preliminary study. Details, including the amount of Epsom salt needed, are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#epsom" target="_blank"><strong>Epsom salt</strong></a> section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. Also see the evidence regarding other transdermal methods of obtaining magnesium (e.g., <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#spray" target="_blank"><strong>creams, sprays and oils</strong></a>) and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among magnesium supplements. <br /> <br /> Be aware that it can be dangerous to ingest large amounts of Epsom salt. Learn more about this and other <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#epsomsalt" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a><strong> </strong>with magnesium supplementation. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/will-an-epsom-salt-bath-increase-magnesium-levels-in-my-body-like-a-supplement/epsom-salt/45554/21/2018AnswersDoes tea tree oil work for getting rid of athlete's foot?Applying <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21867" target="_blank"><strong>tea tree oil</strong></a> topically to the feet (typically twice daily) has been shown to be somewhat effective (about 60% cure rate) in treating foot fungus (known as athlete's foot, tinea pedis, or "ringworm" due to the lesion that can occur). Tea tree oil can be as effective as some of the older over-the-counter antifungal treatments such clotrimazole (Lotrimin). However, it is unlikely to be as effective as the newer antifungal terbinafine (Lamisil), which has &gt;80% efficacy and is also available over-the-counter (<a href="#" target="_blank">Patel, Australas J Dermatol</a>). &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Be aware some people may experience allergic inflammation of the skin from tea tree oil. <br /> <br /> See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21867" target="_blank"><strong>Tea Tree Article</strong></a> on our site for more about this essential oil and its uses. <br /> <br /> For more details about tea tree oil and other natural treatments for athlete's foot see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21524" target="_blank"><strong>Athlete's Foot</strong></a> article on our site. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-tea-tree-oil-work-for-getting-rid-of-athletes-foot/tea-tree/45544/18/2018AnswersHow do I choose the best magnesium supplement? Choosing a magnesium supplement can be tricky due to the many different forms of magnesium (e.g., magnesium aspartate, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, gluconate, hydroxide, lactate, malate, orotate, oxide, taurate, threonate, and trisilicate) and wide range in suggested serving sizes (from less than 50 mg to over 1,000 mg). Making matters worse, in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>tests and comparisons of magnesium supplements</b></a>, we've found that you can spend nearly 42 cents to get the same amount of magnesium that you can get for just 3 cents. If you are a CL member, you can check out our latest <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>Review</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Pick</i></strong></a>. But here is some of the good general advice found in our Review: <br /> <br /> First, choose a form of magnesium that matches the reason you're taking it. Some forms, such as magnesium citrate and magnesium chloride, are absorbed better than others -- and magnesium chloride is less likely to cause diarrhea and other side effects. Other forms may be best suited for use as laxatives, or for reducing the frequency and severity of migraines. Some forms, such as magnesium orotate, are much more expensive than others without added benefit. Also be aware that one popular form of magnesium has been shown, as a tablet, to absorb so much water from the air that it can ruin itself and other supplements around it (see&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>Choosing the right form of magnesium</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#humidity" target="_blank"><strong>Storage</strong></a> for details). <br /> <br /> Second, it's important to choose a magnesium supplement that provides the right dose of magnesium to suit your needs and does not exceed the upper tolerable intake level for magnesium and cause adverse side effects (see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#dosing" target="_blank"><strong>Dosing and how to take</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> When looking at a label, be sure it lists the amount of actual magnesium (or "elemental" magnesium) per dosage unit. We've occasionally come across magnesium and other mineral supplements that are incorrectly labeled -- leading you to think you are getting more magnesium than you really are (see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying</strong></a> for an example of such a label). Our tests have also revealed supplements that simply contain less magnesium than claimed, are contaminated with lead, or are tablets that fail to properly disintegrate -- suggesting that they may not fully deliver their ingredients. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although magnesium is often sold in combination with calcium, it may be best to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#calcium" target="_blank"><strong>take these minerals separately</strong></a> when taking high doses, as they can compete for absorption. <br /> <br /> Also, keep in mind that magnesium supplements should be used with caution by people with certain medical conditions (see&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> See our most current <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium Supplements Review</strong></a>, and check out our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Pick</i></strong></a> for highest quality and value. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-do-i-choose-the-best-magnesium-supplement/best-magnesium/45534/17/2018AnswersWhat's really in supplements for "adrenal support" and "adrenal fatigue"? Do they work and are they safe? Supplements promoted to increase energy, reduce stress and other symptoms caused by "adrenal fatigue" may contain a variety of ingredients, including vitamins and minerals, herbs (such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/" target="_blank"><strong>ginseng</strong></a>, holy basil, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>rhodiola</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21719" target="_blank"><strong>schisandra</strong></a>), and/or dehydrated adrenal gland tissue from animals (typically from bovine source, i.e., cows). While some of these ingredients have individually been shown to reduce fatigue or symptoms of stress, there is currently little evidence that "adrenal support formulas" do the same or improve adrenal gland function. Additionally, an analysis of popular adrenal support supplements on the market found that all contained small amounts of thyroid and steroid hormones, which could potentially cause adverse effects or interfere with blood test results. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=adrenal-fatigue"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/whats-really-in-supplements-for-adrenal-support-and-adrenal-fatigue/adrenal-fatigue/45514/13/2018AnswersCan taking NAC (N-acetylcysteine) interfere with blood tests?Although very high doses of NAC can potentially interfere with blood tests for cholesterol, this is unlikely to occur with the dose in typical servings of NAC from supplements. For more details, see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> in the NAC Supplements Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-taking-nac-n-acetylcysteine-interfere-with-blood-tests/NAC-cholesterol/45504/7/2018AnswersDoes soy affect the risk of breast cancer or prostate cancer?The relationship between soy or soy isoflavone intake and the risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer is not clear-cut. Soy contains compounds called <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#soybackground" target="_blank"><strong>phytoestrogens</strong></a>, such as isoflavones, which have weak estrogen-like activity. Soy and soy isoflavones may have varying effects depending on age, estrogen status and type of cancer. <br /> <br /> In women, high soy consumption early in life may help to lower the risk of breast cancer but there is concern that high doses of isoflavones may not be safe in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and may also slightly increase the risk of uterine cancer. For more information, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#soycancer" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#soycautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> sections of the Menopause Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> In men, higher soy intakes are generally associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, but higher intakes of soy isoflavones are associated with an increased risk of <i>advanced</i> prostate cancer. For more details about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#prostate" target="_blank"><strong>Soy section</strong></a> of the Protein Powders and Shakes Review. <br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21778" target="_blank"><strong>Soy Isoflavones</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-soy-affect-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-or-prostate-cancer/soy-cancer/45494/3/2018AnswersCan CoQ10 help lower homocysteine levels?Although several studies have looked at this question, the answer appears to be "no." However, CoQ10 does have other heart-related benefits, such as helping to treat congestive heart failure, lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in people not taking statins, and possibly reducing statin-related muscle pain. For more details about what CoQ10 and ubiquinol can and cannot do for heart health, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#homocysteine" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the CoQ10 Review. <br /> <br /> If you are looking for a supplement that can help to reduce homocysteine levels, a combination of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#background" target="_blank"><strong>B6, B12 and folate</strong></a> has been shown to help. However, be aware that lowering homocysteine levels with B vitamins has not generally been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular <i>events</i>, such as heart attack and stroke. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38394" target="_blank"><strong>High Homocysteine</strong></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-coq10-help-lower-homocysteine-levels/coq10-homocysteine/45483/31/2018AnswersIs it true that iodine can cause acne or other skin problems?Although uncommon, certain individuals who are sensitive to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21693" target="_blank"><strong>iodine</strong></a> can develop acne breakouts, rashes, or other skin reactions when consuming iodine from iodized table salt (specialty salts such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-health-benefits-and-safety-of-himalayan-salt/Himalayan-salt-specialty-salt/" target="_blank"><strong>Himalayan salt</strong></a> are typically <em>not</em> iodized) or supplements such as certain&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamins</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/" target="_blank"><strong>kelp supplements</strong></a>. For more about this, and other potential side effects and drug interactions with iodine-containing supplements, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/#skin" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Kelp Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> People who <i>are</i> sensitive to iodine should be aware that iodine may be present in products that you may not expect, including certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><strong>p</strong><strong>rotein powders and shakes</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/" target="_blank"><strong>nutrition bars</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/meal_replacement_and_weight_management_powders_and_shakes/meal_replacement/" target="_blank"><strong>meal replacement powders and shakes</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Greens_Whole_Foods_Powders_Supplements/greens/" target="_blank"><strong>greens and whole foods supplements</strong></a>, and even some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic supplements</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/" target="_blank"><strong>menopause products</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21693" target="_blank"><strong>Iodine</strong></a> is essential for healthy functioning of the thyroid gland which, among other things, controls the body's metabolism, and, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#iodine" target="_blank"><strong>during pregnancy</strong></a> and infancy, influences bone and brain development. <br /> <br /> Be aware that taking very large doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#acne" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B12 can cause outbreaks of acne</strong></a> -- even in older people.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/iodine-causing-acne-%26-skin-problems/iodine-acne/45473/31/2018AnswersI recently bought a CoQ10 supplement on Amazon. The manufacture date was hidden under a sticker, but was 13 months ago. No "Best By" date is listed. Is this product still good to use? While it&#39;s hard to know if covering that date was intentional or not, by listing only a date of manufacture, the manufacturer is avoiding a claim regarding shelf life. This is allowed -- since&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-difference-between-the-best-by-date-and-the-date-of-manufacture-on-supplement-labels/supplements--best-buy-expiration/" target="_blank"><strong>listing a Best By or expiration date is voluntary</strong></a> -- but it would be better to choose a product that lists a Best By date, as it represents that the manufacturer has stability data to back-up that date. Most supplements that are maintained properly (unopened, out of excessive heat and light) should be fine for at least 2 years. However, since it may take you a few months to use up the pills in your <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a> bottle, it would seem best for you to return it and ask for a more recently-manufactured product. <br /> <br /> See ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements</strong></a> for more about choosing a CoQ10 supplement, and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a> among products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-my-coq10-expired/coq10-manufacture-date/45463/26/2018AnswersAn online supplement seller suggests I pay $10 extra to ship my order of bottled fish oil with freezer packs using priority mail. Is this necessary?It's probably not necessary. Most bottled fish oils are flushed with nitrogen to drive out oxygen and prevent oxidation (until you open it and let in air). Check that this is the case with the product. As long it's not exposed to extremely hot temperatures, it should be fine -- so choose to buy it during a time of year when the weather is cold or mild. Encapsulated fish oil is protected from oxygen by the capsules. For tips for keeping your fish oil fresh once it arrives, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#fresh" target="_blank"><strong>Keep It Fresh</strong></a> section of the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-necessary-to-ship-fish-oil-with-freezer-packs/fish-oil-shipping/45453/26/2018AnswersCan beetroot juice improve my workout performance? Beetroot juice (also known as beet juice) has been shown in clinical trials to improve aspects of exercise endurance or performance but only in certain situations. The effectiveness of beetroot juice may come from its nitrate content, which, when converted in the body into nitrite and nitric oxide, can improve blood flow to muscles. Sign in to&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=beetroot"><strong>get the details about beetroot juice</strong></a> as well as how beetroot juice supplements from different brands compare on nitrate levels.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-beetroot-juice-improve-my-workout-performance/beetroot/45443/21/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of melatonin supplements? <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin supplements</strong></a>, taken in low to moderate doses (0.3 mg to 3 mg per day) for short-term use, are generally safe and well-tolerated. The most commonly reported side effect is drowsiness, followed by headache and dizziness. Drowsiness and impaired mental alertness and balance may occur for about six hours after taking melatonin (these effects may last longer or carry over into the next morning if taking controlled-release, higher dose products). Moderate to very high doses of melatonin have been reported to affect mood and behavior is some people.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Melatonin should not be taken long-term, but only as needed for limited periods of time. Long-term use has been associated with increased risk of fractures in older adults, possibly due to an effect on bone metabolism. Melatonin can may also affect blood pressure, aggressiveness, blood clotting, seizure activity, and, at very high doses, ovulation, depression, and schizophrenia. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a><strong> </strong>section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Supplements Review</strong></a> (which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among products).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/melatonin-side-effects/melatonin/45433/13/2018AnswersDo magnesium creams, sprays and oils help with muscle pain and cramps? How about supplements? Topical magnesium products such as <i>MagPro</i>, <i>Fibro Flex</i> and <i>BetterYou</i> are often promoted as easy, effective ways to get magnesium and to reduce muscle pain and cramps, improve flexibility, and promote relaxation and sleep. However, there is little reliable clinical evidence showing these products are effective and topical magnesium products may cause skin irritation, itching and rash. (Note: Some companies claim this irritation is a sign of magnesium deficiency, but this is not scientifically supported). For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#spray" target="_blank"><b>Magnesium Creams, Sprays and Oils</b></a> section of the Magnesium Supplements Review. Be aware that oral magnesium supplements have also not been found to reduce leg cramps in most people, although <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#legcramps" target="_blank"><b>one particular form of magnesium</b></a> supplement may decrease the frequency and severity of leg cramps in women who are pregnant (see our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a> for magnesium supplements). <br /> <br /> <b>Can other supplements help?</b> <br /> Other supplements can be helpful for muscle cramps and pain caused by specific conditions. For example, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#statins" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10</b></a> can reduce statin-related muscle pain and cramps, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/taurine-supplements-review/taurine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>taurine</b></a> has been shown to reduce the number and severity of muscle cramps in people with cirrhosis. <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#muscle" target="_blank"><b>curcumin</b></a> (from turmeric), <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-tart-cherry-juice/tart_cherry/" target="_blank"><b>tart cherry juice</b></a>, and a particular <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#omegaxl" target="_blank"><b>omega-3 supplement</b></a> may help to reduce exercise-related muscle pain (delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/#cramps" target="_blank"><b>Coconut water</b></a> is sometimes promoted to prevent muscle cramps because it is a rich source of potassium, a mineral which is essential for proper muscle and nerve function. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>Potassium deficiency</b></a> can cause muscle spasms. However, there are no good studies on the effects of coconut water on muscle cramps. Additionally, <i>nighttime</i> muscle cramps and <i>exercise-related</i> muscle cramps do not appear to be related to potassium levels &mdash; but be aware that getting <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/#concerns" target="_blank"><i><b>too much potassium</b></i></a> has actually been reported to <em>cause</em> leg cramps. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> To date, topical <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#topical" target="_blank"><b>CBD (cannabidiol)</b></a> cream has not been found to help with exercise-related muscle pain.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/magnesium-oil-%26-supplements-for-muscle-pain-and-cramps/magnesium-oil/45423/10/2018AnswersCan I take CoQ10 at the same time as my statin, or should I take them separately?CoQ10 can be taken at the same time as statin medication. However, regular CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so it is best absorbed with foods that contain fats. Some statins are better absorbed when taken without food, so, if yours is one of them, it would be better to take CoQ10 separately with a meal that contains fats or oils (preferably unsaturated fats or oil, as these are better for your cardiovascular system). (Note: Some CoQ10 supplements include bioavailability enhancers, allowing them to be taken without food.) <br /> <br /> If you typically take your statin medication at night and want to take CoQ10 at the same time, be aware that taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#insomnia" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10 at bedtime may cause insomnia</strong></a> in some people. <br /> <br /> For more about the best way to take CoQ10, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#buyingandusing" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips</strong></a> section of the CoQ10 Supplements Review. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among CoQ10 supplements.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-and-statins/CoQ10-statins/45413/7/2018AnswersIs it best to take SAMe with or without food? Do I need to take B vitamins when taking SAMe? As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAM-e_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/#homocysteine" target="_blank">SAMe Supplements Review</a>, it may be best to take SAMe on an empty stomach -- unless you have trouble tolerating it. You don't need to take B vitamins along with SAMe, unless you believe you're deficient in B vitamins. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-best-to-take-same-with-or-without-food/SAMe/45402/25/2018AnswersI've read that magnesium deficiency is rare but also that most people don't get enough magnesium. How can these both be true?They are both true. Surveys of the U.S. population show that most people do not get the recommended daily intake of magnesium from what they eat and drink. This is particularly true of older men and adolescent girls. However, our bodies compensate for this to prevent symptoms of overt magnesium deficiency, such as seizures and abnormal heart rhythms. <br /> <br /> Nevertheless, increasing magnesium intake to adequate levels in the diet or with some supplementation has cardiovascular benefits, such as modestly reducing blood pressure and reducing the risk of stroke. It may also help prevent hearing loss from excessive noise, migraine headaches, and menstrual pain, and it can improve insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. This is discussed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium Supplements Review</strong></a>, which includes information about recommended intakes, dosage, and ConsumerLab's tests and comparisons of magnesium supplements.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/magnesium-deficiency-information-%26-studies/magnesium-deficiency/45392/21/2018AnswersDo brain games and apps really work and improve memory?Brain training apps (computer or mobile phone applications and games), known as "brain games,"&nbsp;promise to improve your memory and attention skills, ability to make good decisions, and even vision and hearing. There are numerous products on the market (Brain HQ, Lumosity, Cogmed, Project: EVO, etc.) and the claims of these companies are tantalizing: Who wouldn't want to get smarter by playing a game on their phone? While many of these products originate from scientific research that has shown positive effect in some individuals, the effectiveness of these apps are highly controversial.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> To find out more about brain games, the clinical evidence, potential side effects, cost, and, of course, our bottom line on brain training apps,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=brain-training-games"><strong>sign in and see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-brain-training-games-really-work/brain-training-games/45382/20/2018AnswersI am having trouble sleeping. I regularly take a multivitamin, fish oil, magnesium, calcium, vitamins D and K, and a protein supplement. I also take a low-dose blood pressure medication. Could any of these supplements be causing my insomnia?Among these supplements, vitamin D seems the most likely cause. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>Multivitamins</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><strong>protein supplements</strong></a> are not generally known to cause insomnia. High doses of vitamin D, as well as high blood levels of vitamin D have been associated a deterioration in sleep quality &mdash; and you seem to be supplementing with both vitamin D and a multivitamin that likely provides more vitamin D. High amounts of vitamin D may interfere with the body's production of melatonin.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#melatonin" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review. Also see the section <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#howmuch" target="_blank"><strong>How Much Is Too Much?</strong></a><strong> </strong>regarding getting the right amount of vitamin D.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Be aware that beta blocker medications, such as atenolol (Tenormin) and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) that help lower blood pressure may also lower your body's nighttime production of melatonin and interfere with sleep. A small study suggests that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#sheer" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin supplementation may improve sleep</strong></a> in people taking these medications. However, be aware that melatonin may<em> increase blood pressure</em> in people taking another type of blood pressure lowering medication. See the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#bloodpressure" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Melatonin Supplements Review for more about this.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamins-%26-supplements-that-cause-insomnia/supplements-causing-insomnia/45372/17/2018AnswersRhodiola and ashwagandha are both promoted to help with stress and anxiety. Is it safe to take them at the same time?Although we're not aware of a clinical study of their combined effects, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>rhodiola can cause dizziness</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha can be sedating</strong></a><strong> </strong> -- and both may lower blood pressure, so it may be best not to take them together. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> In general, it is best to first use herbal supplements separately to assess the benefits and potential side effects you experience with each. <br /> <br /> For more about these herbs, plus reviews and comparisons of the specific products we have tested, see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Rhodiola Supplements</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Ashwagandha Supplements</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/taking-ashwagandha-%26-rhodiola-together/rhodiola-ashwagandha/45362/17/2018AnswersWhat are CoQ10 side effects?CoQ10 supplements are generally well-tolerated, even when taken in relatively high doses. Rarely, gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea have been reported, as has mild insomnia. Piperine, which is sometimes added to CoQ10 supplements to increase bioavailability, may also cause side effects, and may interact with certain medications. For more details, plus how to minimize the occurrence of CoQ10 side effects, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-side-effects/CoQ10-side-effects/45352/13/2018AnswersWhat are the symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency?Although mild deficiency may not cause apparent symptoms, severe deficiency in vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can cause changes in the tongue and skin, mood, as well as nerve damage. People with certain medical conditions and those who take certain antibiotics or anti-epileptic medications may be at greater risk of deficiency. B6 supplements can help to correct a deficiency. More details can be found in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin B6</strong></a> section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review (also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b6" target="_blank"><em>T<strong>op Picks</strong></em></a> among B6 supplements). <br /> <br /> Be aware that getting <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b6limit" target="_blank"><strong><em>too much B6</em></strong></a><strong><em> </em></strong>can also cause nerve damage as well as skin lesions, and B6 supplements can increase or decrease the effectiveness of certain drugs. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-b-6-deficiency-symptoms/B6-deficiency/45342/6/2018AnswersCan I trust lab reports and Certificates of Analysis provided by supplement manufacturers?You need to be very skeptical of information provided by supplement manufacturers and sellers. Over the years, we have seen lab reports and certificates that do not accurately reflect the quality of the products sold. How could this be? Reasons include an incorrect or inferior ("forgiving") test; a test that was not performed correctly; results that are not based on the product in question but on a different product or formulation; or, results that are simply <i>made up</i>. Believe it or not, there have been instances where labs don't do <i>any analyses</i> but issue reports nonetheless (a practice known as <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>dry labbing</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> If you request or are shown a report, at a minimum, make sure it's from an independent, third-party laboratory and that it's a test of the specific product in question (preferably the same lot), using an appropriate test method. If you'd like to know the specific test methods and approval criteria used by ConsumerLab.com, we make them freely available <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=methods_index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>here</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Another question we often get is &quot;Which labs does ConsumerLab use and recommend?&quot; Due to the variety of analyses we employ to assess the potency, purity, and freshness of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/" target="_blank"><strong>the products we review</strong></a>, we make use of many specialized outside laboratories. Each is carefully vetted by our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=aboutcl.asp#management" target="_blank"><strong>scientific staff</strong></a> experienced in analytical chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. <br /> <br /> During our first few years of publishing product reviews, starting in 1999, we disclosed the names of some of the laboratories we used. However, we learned that manufacturers began pressuring these labs to not work with us. To help prevent this, we stopped identifying the labs we use. <br /> <br /> Interestingly, just last month, in January 2018, two of the labs with which we have worked for many years informed us that they could no longer work with us due to "corporate policies" of the company that recently acquired both of them. When we pressed the labs about these "policies," the Director of Industry and Regulatory Affairs at Covance Food Solutions (the acquiring company) responded that, "The belief is that Covance has contracts with most of the companies" that make the products ConsumerLab evaluates and that "Testing out customers products for consumerlabs.com [sic] would be a conflict of interest for Covance." We were astounded by this. How could testing a product for ConsumerLab create a conflict of interest? Is there concern that the results might differ from the results produced for the manufacturer of the same product? Moreover, does Covance see itself as representing or, perhaps, defending manufacturers rather than simply providing objective analyses? This is both an unusual and disconcerting policy for an analytical laboratory, in our opinion.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/trusting-certificates-of-analysis-from-supplement-manufacturers/certificates-of-analysis/45332/1/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of curcumin and turmeric?Turmeric/curcumin supplements are generally safe, but gastrointestinal side effects may occur with higher doses and they can cause problems for people with gallbladder disease or kidney stones. They can also interact with medications, such as those for blood-thinning, blood-sugar-lowering, and immunosuppression, as well as the anti-cancer drug tamoxifen. Curcumin may also inhibit iron absorption. Be aware that black pepper extract (piperine) often added to curcumin to increase bioavailability also interacts with a number of medications. <br /> <br /> Although rare, elevated liver enzymes and liver injury have been reported with the use of turmeric/curcumin supplements. <br /> <br /> For more details about dose, side effects, adverse effects and drug interactions with turmeric and curcumin, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><strong>Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements Review</strong></a> (The Review includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong>tests and comparisons</strong></a><strong> </strong>as well as&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><strong>Top Picks</strong></em></a> among curcumin and turmeric products). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/curcumin-and-turmeric-side-effects/curcumin-side-effects/45321/30/2018AnswersCan green tea help prevent the flu?Preliminary research suggests that drinking green tea during flu season may reduce the risk of getting the flu. Gargling with green tea may also help &mdash; a practice that is common in Japan. The evidence for green tea <i>supplements</i> is less clear. More details are in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#flu" target="_blank"><strong>Flu</strong></a> section in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><strong>Green Tea Review</strong></a> (which includes <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#results" target="_blank"><strong>tests and comparisons</strong></a> of brewable green teas, supplements, matcha, and bottled green tea). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/green-tea-for-flu-%26-cold/green-tea-flu/45311/23/2018AnswersWhat are the effects of curcumin on the liver?Some short-term studies suggest that moderate doses of curcumin may be helpful for people with certain liver conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). For details, see information about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#liver" target="_blank"><strong>NAFLD</strong></a> in the Turmeric/Curcumin Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> However, be aware that long-term use of turmeric/curcumin may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#liverconcern" target="_blank"><strong>adversely affect the liver</strong></a> in a small percentage of people. It can also stimulate the gall bladder and worsen pain during stone passage in people with gallbladder disease, as noted in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the Turmeric/Curcumin Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-effects-of-curcumin-on-the-liver/curcumin_effects_on_liver/45301/20/2018AnswersWhat are the side effects of red yeast rice?Red yeast rice supplements contain naturally occurring statin compounds (or monacolins), such as lovastatin, that can help lower elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Like prescription statin drugs, red yeast rice supplements can cause <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>side effects</strong></a> such as altered liver enzymes, muscle pain, and digestive upset. However, studies suggest <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#statins" target="_blank"><strong>certain side effects may be less likely to occur or be less severe</strong></a> with red yeast rice than with prescription statins, likely due to the natural combination of statins in red yeast rice as opposed to a single statin compound in prescription drugs. (Be aware that combining red yeast rice with prescription statin drugs increases the risk of side effects and should be avoided.) <br /> <br /> It's important to keep in mind that ConsumerLab.com has found the amount of lovastatins in red yeast rice <i>varies widely</i> across products. Some also contain citrinin, a potential kidney toxin. This likely affects potency and the potential for side effects. <br /> <br /> To get ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>test results for red yeast rice supplements</strong></a>, as well as more details about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>side effects</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>potential drug interactions</strong></a>, and the best way to take red yeast rice, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/red-yeast-rice-side-effects/red-yeast-rice-side-effects/45291/9/2018AnswersDo Sugar Bear Hair Vitamins make hair shine, nails stronger, and help both to grow? They taste good but are super expensive.These gummy supplements, labeled as "SugarBearHair Hair Vitamins" were launched in 2016, are extensively promoted, and appear to have become popular, particularly on college and high school campuses. The website that promotes them claims that "The majority of our customers found their nails and skin quality improved over time while taking SugarBearHair." However, there doesn't appear to be any published study showing that the specific formula in SugarBearHair improves hair or nails. <br /> <br /> The dominant ingredient in SugarBearHair is biotin. The daily requirement for biotin (vitamin B7) is just 30 mcg (micrograms) for adults and 25 mcg for 14 to 18 year-olds, and nearly everyone gets this and more from the foods they regularly eat (see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotin" target="_blank"><strong>Biotin section of the B Vitamins Review</strong></a>). A daily serving (2 gummies) of SugarBearHair is listed as providing 5,000 mcg of biotin -- <i>167 times</i> the adult daily requirement. The apparent rational for this mega dose is a small study (by a pharmaceutical company) published in 1990 that showed a 25% increase in nail thickness and a reduced tendency for split nails when 2,500 mcg of biotin was taken twice daily for 6 to 9 months, and another study suggested that biotin deficiency may be common among women complaining of hair loss. However, <i>there are no studies to suggest that biotin supplementation improves hair growth or texture in people who are not deficient in biotin</i>. <br /> <br /> On Alpha XR, the current price for SugarBearHair Hair Vitamin is about $30 for a bottle of 60 gummies &mdash; or about 50 cents per gummy, so $1 per day for 2 gummies, which is very expensive based on its ingredients. If you want to get 2,500 mcg of biotin, you can get it for much less from other supplements on the market. For example, in our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b7" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review</strong></a> we've tested and Approved hair, skin, and nails formulas that provide the same 2,500 mcg of biotin but cost just 10 to 13 cents per pill.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> SugarBearHair appears to be safe based its listed ingredients: None of the ingredients exceed&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><strong>Upper Tolerable Intake Levels</strong></a>. The gummies include moderate amounts of vitamins <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>A</strong></a>, B5, B6, B12, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>C</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>D</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>E</strong></a> and relatively small amounts of iodine, choline, and inositol. However, when <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>we tested SugarBearHair gummies in the lab,</strong></a> we found that they&nbsp;<em>contained more than 160% of the listed amounts of certain vitamins</em> and, therefore, was <em>Not Approved for quality</em>. Also, don't expect these gummies to provide all the vitamins and minerals that are found in a multivitamin/multimineral -- it does not contain any iron (important to women prone to iron deficiency) or calcium (to support bone growth, particularly in young women). If you need these, there are&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-womens" target="_blank"><strong>many good multivitamins</strong></a> that provide all the essential vitamins and minerals and cost as little as 7 cents per day. One of these, plus a biotin supplement, would provide everything in SugarBearHair and more at roughly half the price. <br /> <br /> Be aware that high doses of biotin can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#kummer" target="_blank"><b>interfere with certain medications and laboratory tests</b></a>, including tests used to diagnose thyroid disease and heart attacks, so be sure to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14318" target="_blank"><b>tell your doctor if you are taking biotin</b></a>. <br /> <br /> <h2 style="font-weight: bold">The bottom line on SugarBearHair Hair Vitamins:</h2> <br /> <br /> SugarBearHair Hair vitamins are not likely to help you unless you have a vitamin deficiency. If you do a have deficiency, other supplements are available that are much less expensive. Also, be aware that these vitamins don't provide minerals such as iron or calcium, which would be found in a multivitamin/multimineral supplement. If you take SugarBearHair Hair vitamins, tell your doctor that you are taking high-dose biotin, as it may affect results of blood tests. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-sugar-bear-hair-vitamins-work/Sugar-Bear-Hair-Vitamins/452812/13/2017AnswersWhat are the signs of iron deficiency anemia?Iron deficiency anemia, which can be diagnosed with a blood test, is most common in menstruating women, but is also commonly seen in children and women who are pregnant. Few men are deficient in iron, and some may be at<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>risk of excess iron</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia</strong></a> can include fatigue and shortness of breath, rapid or irregular heartbeats, changes in skin and nails, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-for-restless-legs-syndrome/supplements-restless-legs-syndrome/" target="_blank"><strong>restless legs syndrome</strong></a> and others. This can be treated with iron supplementation. Even in women who are not iron deficient, iron supplementation may help to<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#correcting" target="_blank"><strong>improve unexplained fatigue</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Learn <i>how much</i> and <i>which forms</i> of iron to take to prevent or treat iron deficiency in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#consumertips" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips</strong></a> section of the Iron Supplements Review, which also includes information about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>how to avoid an upset stomach when taking iron</strong></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>top choices</strong></a> for iron supplements based on our independent tests of quality and comparison of ingredients and cost. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-signs-of-iron-deficiency-anemia/anemia/452712/12/2017AnswersCan melatonin supplements cause depression or make depression worse?Only when taken at extremely high doses has melatonin has been reported to worsen symptoms of depression or to cause depression. For details, as well as information about other potential side effects of melatonin, see the Concerns and Cautions section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#depression" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/melatonin-and-depression---can-melatonin-cause-depression-|-consumerlabcom/melatonin-depression/452511/28/2017AnswersIs it true that calcium interferes with iron absorption? Is it a problem to take a multivitamin containing both minerals?Taking calcium can inhibit iron absorption by as much as 62%, but this depends on the dose of calcium. This interaction is of greatest concern for younger women, as they are the most likely to suffer iron deficiency. For more details about this interaction and how to avoid or minimize it, and about other minerals and foods that can inhibit iron absorption, see the &quot;What to avoid when taking&quot; section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whattoavoid" target="_blank"><strong>Iron Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/iron-%26-calcium---does-calcium-interfere-with-iron-absorption/calcium-iron-absorption/452411/18/2017AnswersWhy is iron not in many multivitamins? How can I find one that does contain iron?Iron from a supplement, like a multivitamin, is important for those who are most likely to be deficient in iron: women who have not gone through menopause (particularly pregnant women) and children. Men are least likely to be iron deficient. In fact, the CDC has estimated that 29% of men are at-risk for iron <i>excess</i>. <br /> <br /> Consequently, multivitamins for men and older women typically contain little or no iron, while those for younger women and children tend to contain iron. Some general multivitamins contain iron while others don't. <br /> <br /> <i>Disturbingly</i>, in its <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>product review of multivitamins in 2017</strong></a>, ConsumerLab found that <i>half of the multivitamins for children and 20% of those for women</i> (excluding those for post-menopausal women) <i>did not include iron</i>. <br /> <br /> <h2 style="font-weight: bold; font-style: italic">Don't expect iron in gummy vitamins. </h2> <br /> <br /> Likely due to the unpleasant taste of iron, manufacturers appear to be leaving iron out of gummy vitamins. (Another possible reason for excluding iron from gummies for children is to avoid the possiblity of an iron overdose in the event that a child consumes too many gummies due to their candy-like appearance.) Gummy multivitamins also happened to be much more likely to fail ConsumerLab's tests of quality than tablets, as they often contained much less or much more of the listed amounts of ingredients. (Note: Several large tablets also failed testing due to slow disintegration times.) <br /> <br /> In short, for children and young women, a multivitamin with iron may be helpful to avoid iron deficiency &mdash; but be aware that you probably won't get it from a gummy. For men and older women who are not vegetarian, it's usually best to avoid a supplement with iron. <br /> <br /> You can check amounts of iron in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamins tested by ConsumerLab.com</strong></a> by checking the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/multivitamin_multimineral_supplements/multivitamins/#compmin" target="_blank"><strong>Mineral Ingredients</strong></a> page in the review, which lists the amount of each mineral in each product reviewed. The review will also show you which products passed or failed testing and which are ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#what-general-adult" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a> based on quality and cost. <br /> <br /> Also, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#iron" target="_blank"><strong>Iron section</strong></a> of the Multivitamin Review to find out how much iron you need, based on your age, gender and specific needs, and how you can get it from foods. <br /> <br /> If you specifically need an iron supplement, check ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><strong>Iron Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/iron-in-multivitamins-%26-gummies/iron-in-multivitamins/452311/15/2017AnswersHow concerned should I be about glyphosate in foods and supplements?Products that contain more than 1,100 micrograms (mcg) of the herbicide glyphosate per daily serving are required to have a warning label if sold in California, which has applied a fairly strict limit based on current science. The label warns that the product contains <strong>a chemical known to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm</strong>. This level of exposure is estimated to pose a&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>1 in 100,000 lifetime risk of cancer</strong></a>, as determined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer part of the World Health Organization. <em><b>However, as discussed below, it seems unlikely that any food product will exceed this limit</b>. </em>&nbsp;<br /> <br /> In contrast, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that glyphosate is <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>unlikely to pose a carcinogenic hazard</strong></a> (and that it <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>does not have endocrine disrupting properties</strong></a>) but set a maximum acceptable daily intake limit based on reproductive toxicity shown in animal studies. The limit in Europe is currently set at 0.5 milligrams (or 500 mcg) of glyphosate daily per kilogram of body weight, which works out to about 34 milligrams, or 34,000 mcg, for a 150-lb. person. The U.S. daily limit, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, is 3.5 times as high as Europe's, although some have called for a lower limit.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Laboratory studies have shown that glyphosate can affect some bacteria that occur in the digestive system because it blocks a biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid synthesis (the Shikimate pathway) that occurs in some bacteria (as well as in plants, but not in animals). However, short-term <em>in vivo</em> experiments in rats given high doses of glyphosate (equivalent to 50 times the European limit based on body weight) have only shown very limited effects, presumably because of the abundance of amino acids in the gut that alleviate this biochemical effect (<a href="#" target="_blank">Nielsen, Environ Pollution 2018</a>).<br /> <br /> Glyphosate is the synthetic chemical in <i>RoundUp</i> herbicide, designed to kill weeds around plants that have been genetically altered to withstand it, such as genetically modified (GMO) soybeans and corn. It is also sprayed on many types of conventional crops such as wheat, oats, and barley prior to harvest as a drying agent and to even-out maturity. A USDA study in 2012 found that it was also commonly used on cherries, avocados, apples, lemons, grapefruit, peanuts, pecans, and walnuts (<a href="#" target="_blank">https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-pJR4cGo9ckdHpFUmFGUWQzZDQ/view</a>). Glyphosate is also found in processed foods containing these ingredients and cannot be removed by washing, cooking, or baking. It can remain stable in food for a year or more. The risk of autism has been shown to be higher among children born to pregnant women who live within one mile of agricultural areas where pesticides are sprayed than in areas where they are not sprayed, and this risk was highest with glyphosate relative to other chemicals (<a href="#" target="_blank">von Ehrenstein, BMJ 2019</a>). As a widely used herbicide, there are also concerns about the direct and indirect impacts of glyphosate on non-agricultural plant and animal life, including a decline in monarch butterfly populations due to loss of milkweed, a food source,&nbsp;in and around agricultural areas (<a href="#" target="_blank">Friends of the Earth, 2013</a>).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Independent testing commissioned by the advocacy organization Food Democracy Now! and reported in November 2016 showed the <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>concentrations of glyphosate</strong></a><strong> </strong>in popular foods. The highest level was 1,125.3 ppb (or 1.1253 mcg per gram) in&nbsp;<i>Original Cheerios</i>. Based on this, a suggested serving of 28 grams of <i>Original Cheerios</i> would contain 32 mcg of glyphosate. This is much lower than California's 1,100 mcg warning level limit and far from the European daily intake limit of about 34,000 mcg for a 150-lb. adult. Other breakfast cereals, such as <i>Corn Flakes</i>, <i>Raisin Bran</i>, Special K, and <i>Wheaties</i> contained less than one-tenth the amount in <i>Original Cheerios</i>. Although one might expect organic foods to be devoid of glyphosate, Food Democracy Now! actually found a higher concentration (119 ppb) of glyphosate in <i>365 Organic Golden Round Crackers</i> than in most cereals, and even <i>Kashi Organic Promise</i> cereal contained glyphosate at 25 ppb, possibly due to cross-contamination of ingredients. The report notes that "...even organic farmers are having their crops/ our food contaminated." <br /> <br /> <a name="ewg" id="ewg"></a>Interestingly, <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>tests by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) published in 2018</strong></a> found a lower concentration of glyphosate in <em>Cheerios</em> (averaging about 500 ppb) than the earlier studies, although it found 390 ppb to 1,300 ppb in samples of&nbsp;<i>Quaker Old Fashioned Oats</i>. Samples of <i>Bob's Red Mill Organic Old Fashioned Rolled Oats</i> contained just 20 ppb or less and samples of <i>Whole Foods Bulk Bin</i> conventional rolled oats contained 40 ppb or less. Glyphosate in instant oat cereals ranged from no detectable amount in <i>Simple Truth Organic Instant Oatmeal Original</i> to around 700 ppb in <i>Giant Instant Oatmeal Original Flavor</i> and <i>Quaker Dinosaur Eggs, Brown Sugar. </i> EWG found no detectable glyphosate in an organic granola bar from <i>Nature's Path</i><span>, but 30 to 620 ppb in samples of other granola bars.&nbsp;</span><a name="ewg" id="ewg"></a><span style="background-color:#ffff00">Additional testing by&nbsp;<a href="#" target='_blank'><strong>EWG in 2019</strong></a>&nbsp;of 21 oat-based cereal and snack products found a higher glyphosate concentration (729 ppb) in <em>Cheerios</em> than in 2018, while the product with the highest glyphosate concentration was <em>Honey Nut Cheerios Medley Crunch</em> (833 ppb). &nbsp;</span><br /> <br /> It's possible that dietary supplements containing grains, soy, fruits, and whole food supplements could contain glyphosate, as could supplements with other ingredients that are cross- contaminated with glyphosate from other sources. Again, however, it would be highly unlikely that the amount of glyphosate would exceed established safe limits, particularly as serving sizes for supplements are typically smaller than that of foods. <br /> <br /> <h2 style="font-weight: bold">The bottom line: Glyphosate safe or unsafe?</h2> <br /> Glyphosate is known to cause reproductive toxicity bases on animal models, and it may possibly be a carcinogen -- although there is dispute about this. Due to its widespread use as an herbicide, it is found in many foods. However, at&nbsp;standard serving sizes (and even several times those sizes) even foods with the highest known concentrations of glyphosate, such as conventionally grown oats, appear to contain amounts of glyphosate far below those that pose a safety risk or require any type of warning. If you are concerned,&nbsp; glyphosate can be largely avoided by choosing organically grown foods. Be aware that "organic" processed foods, such as cereals, may still contain a very small amount of glyphosate, likely due to cross-contamination of ingredients.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> When evaluating reports on glyphosate, it is important to distinguish between the concentration in a product, typically in ppb (1,000 ppb = 1 mcg per gram), and how much you would consume, i.e., the concentration times the grams in a serving. <br /> <br /> Also see ConsumerLab.com's <strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based%20Cereals/oats/" target="_blank">Oat Cereals Review</a></strong>, which compares amounts of ochratoxin A (a potential carcinogen and kidney toxin) and gluten in popular products. Glyphosate was not tested in the Review, which was conducted prior to the classification of glyphosate as a probable carcinogen in the U.S., but levels would likely be similar to those reported above.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/glyphosate-in-food-%26-supplements/glyphosate-food-supplements/452211/11/2017AnswersHow can I tell if my fish oil supplement is rancid (oxidized) or spoiled? And if it is spoiled, is it still safe to take?Fish oil which is rancid or oxidized may have an unpleasant odor and taste, although it would be hard to tell if you are taking a softgel. Oxidized fish oil may also raise levels of LDL "bad" cholesterol, as explained in the "Quality Concerns" section of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#quality" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> To find a fish oil supplement that has been shown to be fresh and not rancid, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#results" target="_blank"><strong>Results table</strong></a> in our fish oil review and look for products that received a checkmark in the "Freshness" column. <br /> <br /> Some studies have suggested that oxidation of fish oil in supplements is common. These studies have generally not taken into account the fact that the citrus flavoring added to fish oil supplements can interfere with oxidation tests and falsely indicate that an oil is oxidized. ConsumerLab factors this possibility into its reporting to avoid mischaracterizing the quality of a product. <br /> <br /> Be sure to also see our tips for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#fresh" target="_blank"><strong>storing and keeping your fish oil supplement fresh</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/rancid-or-expired-fish-oil---is-it-still-safe-to-take/rancid-oxidized-fish-oil/452111/11/2017AnswersDoes taking a laxative interfere with the absorption of vitamins or minerals?Some laxatives can interfere with the absorption of particular vitamins or minerals, potentially causing vitamin deficiencies or electrolyte imbalances if taken for prolonged periods of time Short-term and occasional use should not cause an issue. Get the details for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=laxatives-vitamin-mineral-absorption"><strong>specific laxatives, such as mineral oil, magnesium, psyllium, oat bran, fiber, bisocodyl, senna, lactulose, and polyethylene glycol &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-taking-laxatives-interfere-with-mineral-absorption/laxatives-vitamin-mineral-absorption/452011/7/2017AnswersI take 1000 mg of a high-absorption curcumin extract. It seems to be working, but would it be safe to take a larger dose?Although as much as 8,000 mg of curcuminoids (mostly curcumin) daily from a formulation that was <em>not </em>enhanced for absorption/bioavailability has been taken safely for as long as 18 months, a dose this high may not be safe with a &quot;high absorption&quot; curcumin. In addition, keep in mind that there are potential side effects and drug interactions with turmeric/curcumin that may increase with higher doses.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=high-dose-curcumin"><strong>For more details, sign in and see the full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/turmeric-curcumin-1000-mg---should-i-take-more/high-dose-curcumin/451910/22/2017AnswersWhat is the difference between the RDA and the DV for vitamins and minerals?The <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=rdas" target="_blank"><strong>RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances)</strong></a> for vitamins and minerals are set by the set by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences and for each nutrient, may vary depending on age, gender, and for women who are pregnant or lactating. The RDAs do not typically appear on food and supplement labels. <br /> <br /> The DVs (Daily Values) are set by the FDA. On food and supplement labels, you will find the "%DV" listed for vitamins and minerals which are required by law to be listed. Until the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/Updated-Daily-Values-Vitamins-Minerals/7_27_2016/" target="_blank"><strong>FDA updated the DVs in 2016</strong></a>, many DVs (which were originally set in 1968) did not necessarily reflect the latest intake recommendations from the IOM, and did not carefully distinguish needs by age and gender -- there was just one DV established for each vitamin and mineral for all healthy adults and children age 4 and over. The new DVs more closely reflect the RDAs and include separate DVs specifically for infants, children 1 to 3 years of age, and pregnant/lactating women, in addition to the original category of all healthy adults and children age 4 and over. The new DVs for this last category of people are now generally based on the highest RDA for this population. <br /> <br /> However, large companies are not required to update labels with the new DVs until January 2020, and smaller companies, until January 2021 &mdash; so labels that you currently see on supplements may very well still show the "%DV" for the old DVs. <br /> <br /> For more details about the updated DVs, and a summary of the most significant changes, see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/Updated-Daily-Values-Vitamins-Minerals/07_27_2016/" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerLab.com Helps Consumers Make Sense of the FDA's Updated Daily Values (DV) for Vitamins and Minerals &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> For the most current RDAs and DVs, as well as Upper Limits, for vitamins and minerals, see ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=resources/RDA_AI_UL_vitamins_minerals/recommended_intakes/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Nutrients page &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-difference-between-the-rda-and-the-dv-for-vitamins-and-minerals/RDA-vs-DV/451810/21/2017AnswersAre there vitamins or supplements that can reduce my risk of breast cancer?There is not enough evidence to support the use of a particular vitamin or supplement to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, associations have been found between intake of certain foods and food-based nutrients - such as omega-3 fatty acids, extra virgin olive oil, vitamin C and others - and a reduced risk of breast cancer.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=vitamins-supplements-breast-cancer"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-vitamins-or-supplements-that-can-reduce-my-risk-of-breast-cancer/vitamins-supplements-breast-cancer/451710/17/2017AnswersDoes Gynostemma pentaphyllum really work as an AMPK activator and help for diabetes?<i>Gynostemma pentaphyllum</i> (also known as jiaogulan) is an herb native to China and Vietnam. As a supplement, an extract of <i>Gynostemma pentaphyllum</i> known as <i>ActivAMP</i> is often promoted as an "AMPK activator," i.e., activating the enzyme AMP-activated protein Kinase (AMPK) which stimulates sugar intake in skeletal muscles. Consequently, it has been promoted for improving metabolism, as well as for increasing energy and for anti-aging effects. This has led to further promotion of it as a treatment for people with diabetes type 2 and for weight loss. We investigated the evidence behind these potential uses. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Gynostemma-pentaphyllum-AMPK"><strong>See our complete answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-ampk-activator-work-gynostemma-pentaphyllum-info/Gynostemma-pentaphyllum-AMPK/451610/11/2017AnswersHow can I get the equivalent of 20 ml of extra virgin olive oil (4 teaspoons) as oleic acid capsules?If you want to get extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a supplement in capsules, you can &mdash; although it will not be as pleasurable as consuming it as a food and it's likely not as healthful as using EVOO to replace saturated fats, such as in butter, in your diet. Studies showing benefits with olive oil (see "What It Does" section of our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Extra Virgin Olive Oil Review</strong></a>) have involved its use as a food, not a supplement.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> A 20 ml serving of EVOO (the amount in 4 teaspoons) is about 18 grams of oil, of which about 13 grams is oleic acid. However, oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid) in itself as a supplement has no special health benefit. Just as important is the polyphenol content in EVOO &mdash; as the polyphenols may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits of olive oil. ConsumerLab.com's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>tests of extra virgin olive oils</strong></a> found the concentration of polyphenols to vary by as much as 72% from product-to-product and, on average, 4 teaspoons of EVOO provides about 5 mg of total polyphenols.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> A large softgel holds about one gram (1,000 mg) of oil, so you would need to take 18 softgels of EVOO to get the equivalent amount of oleic acid in 4 teaspoons of EVOO. That's a lot of capsules to swallow! It's also 162 Calories. Enjoying that olive oil sprinkled over warm focaccia, or over a salad or pasta, would seem more appetizing and, if you're substituting it for butter, may also&nbsp;reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/extra-virgin-olive-oil-consumption-in-oleic-acid-capsules/olive-oil-capsules /451510/11/2017AnswersWill the zinc challenge or taste test really tell if I'm zinc deficient?A test for zinc deficiency, known as the zinc challenge or zinc taste test, has been promoted online and by some health practitioners. It involves putting a liquid zinc dietary supplement, in your mouth. The taste and mouth sensation that develops after doing this will reveal, according to those who advocate for this test, whether or not you have zinc deficiency and need a zinc supplement.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> We purchased a liquid zinc supplement used for this challenge and investigated the evidence and science behind the test. Learn what we found and whether or not this test works in the "Zinc Challenge" section of our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#zinc-challenge" target="_blank"><strong>Zinc Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/will-the-zinc-challenge-or-taste-test-really-tell-if-im-zinc-deficient/zinc-challenge-taste-test/451410/6/2017AnswersI would like to try gotu kola for varicose veins but I've heard it's not safe to take. Is that true?There is preliminary evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21763" target="_blank"><strong>gotu kola</strong></a> (<i>Centella asiatica</i>) can help reduce symptoms of venous insufficiency such as heaviness, discomfort, and swelling, although it is not known if it can make visible varicose veins disappear. (You can read more about this and other proposed uses for gotu kola, such as helping with anxiety and improving cognition, in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21763" target="_blank"><strong>Gotu Kola</strong></a>&nbsp;article which includes dosage information). <br /> <br /> Although generally well tolerated, side effects can occur and liver injury has been reported in rare instances.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=gotu-kola"><strong>Get the details gotu kola's safety, in the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> For information about other proposed treatments, see the Encyclopedia articles about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21853" target="_blank"><strong>Varicose Veins</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38344" target="_blank"><strong>Chronic venous insufficiency</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/gotu-kola-for-varicose-veins-%26-safety-information/gotu-kola/451210/3/2017AnswersWhat is acrylamide? Is it true that coffee and cocoa contain this toxin?Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and probable carcinogen (cancer causing agent) formed when certain starchy foods, such as wheat and potatoes, are cooked at high temperatures (&gt;248 degrees Fahrenheit). <br /> <br /> It can also be produced when coffee and cocoa beans and buckwheat (kasha) are roasted. It is also found in surprisingly high amounts in prune juice and some types of canned olives. <br /> <br /> Although no level of exposure is absolutely safe, amounts of acrylamide consumed by most adults is believed to represent a very low level of risk. Nevertheless, there are steps you can take to reduce your exposure.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=acrylamide-coffee-cocoa"><strong>Get the details in the full answer &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-acrylamide-is-it-true-that-coffee-and-cocoa-contain-this-toxin/acrylamide-coffee-cocoa/451110/1/2017AnswersIs drinking coffee good or bad for heart health?A number of observational and population studies suggest that drinking a moderate amount of coffee may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=coffee-heart-health"><strong>For details, sign in to read the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-coffee-bad-for-your-heart/coffee-heart-health/45109/27/2017AnswersWhat are the health benefits of stevia? Is it safe?Stevia (<i>Stevia rebaudiana</i>) is generally promoted as a natural, non-caloric sweetener and an alternative to other sweeteners such as sucralose (<i>Splenda</i>) and aspartame (<i>Nutrasweet, Equal</i>). It is sometimes promoted for lowering blood sugar, lowering blood pressure, and even as a treatment for Lyme disease, but the evidence behind these claims is weak,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=stevia-benefits-safety"><strong>as explained in the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/stevia-benefits---health-benefits-%26-safety-information/stevia-benefits-safety/45099/23/2017AnswersDo any supplements help for ulcerative colitis?Several types of supplements, when taken along with standard treatment, may help to reduce the severity of symptoms of ulcerative colitis and/or promote remission. <br /> <br /> These include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#colitis" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a>, a form of glucosamine called <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#nag" target="_blank"><strong>N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG)</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#colitis" target="_blank"><strong>Boswellia</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/#colitis" target="_blank"><strong>phosphatidylcholine</strong></a>. (You can use these links for more details, including dosage). <br /> <br /> Although there is some evidence that a specific <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#colitis" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic formula</strong></a> may be helpful, overall, there doesn't appear to be strong evidence to support the use of probiotics for ulcerative colitis. <br /> <br /> There is some very preliminary evidence that supplementation with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#oral" target="_blank"><strong>aloe vera gel</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#colitis" target="_blank"><strong>bromelain</strong></a> may be helpful. <br /> <br /> Reducing or eliminating <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-is-carrageenan-in-my-supplement/carrageenan/" target="_blank"><strong>carrageenan</strong></a> (a substance used to thicken and improve the texture of certain foods and supplements ) from the diet may also helpful. <br /> <br /> Be aware that ulcerative colitis may make some people more prone to deficiencies in minerals such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a><strong> </strong>and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Selenium_Supplements_Review_Ratings/selenium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>selenium</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> For information about other proposed treatments, including fish oil, evening primrose oil, andrographis and wheat grass, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21844" target="_blank"><strong>Ulcerative Colitis</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-ulcerative-colitis/ulcerative-colitis-supplements/45089/23/2017AnswersDo turmeric and curcumin supplements contain significant amounts of oxalates? Can this increase my risk of kidney stones?Yes, turmeric can contain a significant amount of oxalate, which can form calcium oxalate kidney stones (the most common type of kidney stone). However, some curcumin products (which are extracts of turmeric) contain little to no oxalate. Find out which curcumin products are low in oxalate and get more details in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#oxalate" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><strong>Turmeric/Curcumin Supplements Review.</strong></a> <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21459" target="_blank"><strong>Kidney Stones</strong></a> for information about other supplements which may be helpful or harmful.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-turmeric-%26-curcumin-cause-kidney-stones/turmeric-curcumin-kidney-stones/45079/20/2017AnswersDo any supplements help reduce the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?There is fairly good evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a> supplements can significantly reduce the major symptoms of PMS, such as mood swings, pain, bloating, irritability, depression, back pain, and food cravings. There is also some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin E</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/" target="_blank"><strong><i>Gingko biloba</i></strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21770" target="_blank"><strong>royal jelly</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21649" target="_blank"><strong>chasteberry</strong></a>, may be helpful for reducing symptoms of PMS. <br /> <br /> The evidence is mixed on whether or not other supplements which are commonly promoted for PMS, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B6</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21587" target="_blank"><strong>evening primrose oil</strong></a>, are helpful. <br /> <br /> More about the evidence for these supplements, dosage, and information about other proposed treatments, is found in the Encyclopedia article about&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21660" target="_blank"><strong>Premenstrual Syndrome</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> In addition, be aware that women with a high intake of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#pms" target="_blank"><strong>iron from certain sources</strong></a> have been shown to have a lower risk of suffering PMS than those with lower intakes -- while <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>high intakes of potassium</strong></a> have been associated with an <i>increased</i> risk of PMS. <br /> <br /> <b>See these related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/will-pregnenolone-help-slow-down-aging/pregnenolone_aging/" target="_blank">Will pregnenolone help slow down aging?</a></b> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-supplements-help-reduce-premenstrual-syndrome-pms-symptoms/supplements-for-pms/45069/5/2017AnswersCan beta-sitosterol cause erectile dysfunction or low libido? Are there any other side effects?Overall, beta-sitosterol, a common ingredient in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/" target="_blank"><b>supplements for prostate health</b></a>, and, in higher doses, in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Sterols_Policosanol_Guggulsterones/cholesterol/" target="_blank"><b>cholesterol-lowering supplements</b></a>, appears to be well-tolerated. Rarely, however, erectile dysfunction and loss of libido were reported among 1% of men taking beta-sitosterol to treat prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH). For more about this, and other potential side effects (as well as side effects of saw palmetto, which is often combined with beta-sitosterol in prostate supplements) see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>"Concerns and Cautions" section of the Prostate Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</b></a> <br /> <br /> Also see our articles about natural treatments for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21386" target="_blank"><b>Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21720" target="_blank"><strong>Erectile Dysfunction</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> For more about cholesterol-lowering supplements containing beta-sitosterol, and potential side-effects of other common cholesterol-lowering supplements, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Sterols_Policosanol_Guggulsterones/cholesterol/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Cholesterol-lowering Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</b></a> <br /> <br /> <b>See these related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/i-use-beta-sitosterol-for-my-prostate-should-it-be-taken-with-or-without-food/beta-sitosterol-how-to-take-food/" target="_blank">I use beta-sitosterol for my prostate. Should it be taken with or without food? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-negative-interactions-between-the-following-supplements-i-take-twice-each-day-as-well-as-60-mg-of-beta-sitosterol-with-dinner-vitamin-c-5/supplement-interactions/" target="_blank">Are there negative interactions between the following supplements I take twice each day, as well as 60 mg of beta-sitosterol with dinner: Vitamin C (500 mg), CoQ10 (100 mg), grape seed extract (100 mg), fish oil (500 mg), vitamin D3/calcium/magnesium/zinc (200 IU/333 mg/113 mg/5mg)? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-super-beta-prostate-better-than-other-prostate-supplements/Super_Beta_Prostate/" target="_blank">Is Super Beta Prostate better than other prostate supplements? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-super-beta-prostate-better-than-other-prostate-supplements/Super_Beta_Prostate/" target="_blank">Are there supplements which can reduce prostate size? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-help-with-erectile-dysfunction/erectile_dysfunction/" target="_blank">Which supplements help with erectile dysfunction? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-cranberry-supplements-helpful-for-men-can-they-help-with-symptoms-of-an-enlarged-prostate-prostatitis-or-urinary-tract-infections/cranberry-for-prostate/" target="_blank">Are cranberry supplements helpful for men? Can they help with symptoms of an enlarged prostate, prostatitis, or urinary tract infections? &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/beta-sitosterol-side-effects-including-erectile-dysfunction-%26-low-libido/beta-sitosterol-side-effects/45059/2/2017AnswersIs it safe to take Bioperine (which contains piperine from black pepper)?Piperine (from black pepper) can enhance the absorption or bioavailability of certain compounds, such as curcumin from turmeric. Bioperine is a branded extract of black pepper which is 95% piperine and is commonly included in curcumin supplements, but is also sold separately. Be aware that piperine can interact with many medications and may also have anti-platelet effects. In addition, it may cause gastrointestinal side-effects and, potentially, bleeding, at somewhat higher-than-suggested doses. See the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#piperinecautions" target="_blank"><b>"Concerns and Cautions" for black pepper extract</b></a> within the <i>Turmeric/Curcumin Supplements Review</i>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bioperine-containing-piperine-safety-information/bioperine-black-pepper-extract-safety/45048/30/2017AnswersWhat is the best protein supplement for vegetarians and vegans?As discussed in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>review of protein powders</b></a>, two very good sources of protein &mdash; whey and casein protein &mdash; are both derived from milk, so products that contain these may be suitable for vegetarians but not for vegans. Whey and casein are both complete proteins, meaning that they contain all of the essential amino acids. Whey protein is particularly high in branched-chain amino acids, which are important to replenish after exercise and are needed for maintaining muscle. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you prefer plant-based protein or are vegan, protein powders made from soy, rice, pea and hemp, or a mix of these sources, can be good choices. Soy protein is a complete protein, but should not be taken if you have a soy allergy or thyroid condition.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Rice and pea proteins can also provide all of the essential amino acids, and some studies have found them to be equal to whey in increasing strength and muscle when taken after resistance exercise. Hemp can also provide all of the essential amino acids, and is particularly high in the branched-chain amino acid arginine, although there is little research on its use for muscle building or sports recovery. Be aware that although these plant-based proteins provide all the essential amino acids, the ratios of these vary by protein source. Consequently, it's generally recommended that a mixture of sources be used, such as combining a grain-based protein, like rice, with a legume-based protein like pea protein. (Note: Arsenic contamination is a concern in rice-based products -- see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=10363" target="_blank"><b>Warning</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#quality" target="_blank">Quality Concerns</a> for more about this; however, ConsumerLab.com tested protein supplements containing rice for arsenic (see the results in the third column of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#results" target="_blank"><b>Results table</b></a> in the review)). <br /> <br /> See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#forms" target="_blank"><b>ConsumerTips section of the Protein Powders Review</b></a> for more about these different types of protein. <br /> <br /> Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#picks" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among supplements made from each protein source.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> To be sure a protein supplement does not contain any added ingredients which are non-vegetarian or non-vegan ingredients, you can check the full <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank"><b>Ingredients List</b></a> (provided for each protein supplement tested by ConsumerLab.com), or check the last column of the Results table in the Review, which notes products labeled as "Suited for Vegetarians" or "Suitable for Vegans." https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-vegetarians-%26-vegans---which-is-best/best-vegetarian-vegan-protein-supplement/45038/23/2017AnswersWhich supplements can help lower my triglycerides? When it comes to supplements that can help to lower triglyceride levels, the best evidence, by far, is for high-dose <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#ahatriglycerides" target="_blank"><b>fish oil</b></a> (providing high concentrations of DHA and EPA) &mdash; although are some caveats for people who also have high "bad" LDL cholesterol and the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#quality" target="_blank"><b>freshness of your fish oil may matter</b></a>. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#zhang" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>Red yeast rice</b></a>, certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#triglycerides" target="_blank"><b>probiotics</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cinnamon-supplements-review/cinnamon/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>cinnamon</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/berberine-goldenseal-supplements-review/berberine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>berberine</b></a>, liquid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/apple-cider-vinegars-review/apple-cider-vinegar/#johnston" target="_blank"><b>apple cider vinegar</b></a> and other supplements may help to lower triglycerides in certain people, but the evidence for some of these is primarily from a small number of clinical trials (which are often company-funded). For details,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=fish-oil-flaxseed-oil-triglycerides"><strong>sign in and see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=39021" target="_blank"><b>High Triglycerides</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lowering-triglycerides-with-supplements/fish-oil-flaxseed-oil-triglycerides/45028/19/2017AnswersWhen is the best time of day to take red yeast rice?As with certain prescription statin drugs, bedtime is likely the best time to take red yeast rice, as explained in the ConsumerTips section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> (However, be aware that rarely, taking red yeast rice at night has been <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank">reported to cause insomnia</a> in some people.) https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/when-to-take-red-yeast-rice---night-or-day/when-to-take-red-yeast-rice/45018/19/2017AnswersIs Hershey's Special Dark better than other dark chocolate bars or cocoa powders?<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#powders" target="_blank"><strong>Testing by ConsumerLab.com</strong></a> suggests that Hershey&#39;s Special Dark products are actually <em>lower </em>in beneficial cocoa flavanols than many other dark chocolates and cocoa powders. The likely reason for this is that Hershey&#39;s Special Extra Dark chocolate and cocoa powder are &quot;processed with alkali.&quot; This process, also known as &quot;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#dutching" target="_blank"><strong>dutching</strong></a>," makes cocoa and dark chocolate less bitter and a bit darker, but also significantly reduces the flavanol content. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com found that Hershey's Special Dark chocolate bar actually had the <i>lowest</i> concentration of cocoa flavanols among 16 popular dark chocolates it tested. Flavanol levels among the bars ranged from a low of just 3.4 mg per gram in Hershey's Special Dark to a high of 14.8 mg per gram, with most bars providing between 4.5 to 9 mg of flavanols per gram. At a standard serving size of 40 grams, many bars can easily provide at least 200 mg of flavanols &mdash; an amount associated with improved blood flow, but Hershey's Special Dark does not. <br /> <br /> Although ConsumerLab.com did not test Hershey's Special Dark <i>cocoa powder</i>, it did test Hershey's "100% cacao, natural unsweetened" cocoa powder -- which is <i>not</i> treated with alkali. This powder contained one of the <i>highest</i> concentrations of flavanols among the cocoa powders tested, providing about 24 mg of flavanols per gram, while most powders provided between and 12 mg and 26 mg per gram. However, Hershey's natural cocoa powder was found to be contaminated with cadmium -- which is a kidney toxin, although it was not alone in this respect: Every cocoa powder tested was found to be contaminated with cadmium and/or lead, another toxic heavy metal. <br /> <br /> The amount of cadmium found in a 1 tablespoon serving of Hershey's natural cocoa powder was just over the daily limit for chronic (long-term) cadmium exposure as established in Canada (the U.S. has not established a limit). It would seem best to use such products in moderation. Relatively high amounts of cadmium were also found by ConsumerLab in some of the dark chocolates; in fact, two had <i>several times</i> the Canadian limit, although cadmium was not an issue in Hershey's Special Dark chocolate. <br /> <br /> You can compare levels of flavanols and cadmium found in many popular dark chocolates and cocoa powders (as well as cocoa supplements and cacao nibs) in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><strong>Dark Chocolates and Cocoa Powders Review</strong></a>. The review includes additional information about cocoa flavanols and contaminants, as well as caffeine and calories in products. <br /> <br /> Note that Hershey's also makes an "Extra Dark" 60% cacao chocolate. This is very different from the Special Dark in that it is not treated with alkali and is likely to provide a higher amount of flavanols than the Special Dark chocolate. <br /> <br /> In short, the term "Special Dark" on Hershey's products does not mean that it is especially high in cocoa flavanols. If you are seeking the health benefits of cocoa flavanols, you're better off with a "natural" product, i.e., one that has not been processed with alkali. You might also consider a cocoa flavanol supplement, but you need to choose carefully as amounts of flavanols in these supplements vary widely, as found by ConsumerLab. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-hersheys-special-dark-better-than-other-dark-chocolate-bars-or-cocoa-powders/hersheys-special-dark/45008/15/2017AnswersCan coconut water help with muscle cramps or restless legs syndrome?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/" target="_blank"><b>Coconut Waters Review</b></a>, coconut water can be a rich source of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>potassium</b></a>, a mineral which is essential for proper muscle and nerve function. Potassium deficiency can cause muscle spasms, which may be one reason it's sometimes promoted for muscle cramps. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> One preliminary study suggests that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Do+any+supplements+help+for+restless+legs+syndrome/supplements-restless-legs-syndrome/" target="_blank"><b>potassium may be helpful for restless legs syndrome</b></a>, however, there are no clinical studies on the use of coconut water for muscle cramps or restless legs syndrome. Be aware getting too much potassium may also <i>cause</i> leg cramps &mdash; and there have been reports of elevated blood levels of potassium and related serious adverse effects in people who consumed excessive amounts of coconut water. For more information, see the "Concerns and Cautions" sections of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Potassium Supplements Review</b></a> and the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/#concerns" target="_blank"><b>Coconut Waters Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coconut-water-for-muscle-cramps-%26-rls/coconut-water-cramps/44988/5/2017AnswersCan CoQ10 or ubiquinol be ruined by heat? I recently purchased several bottles of Qunol Plus from Costco.com and they arrived hot. The soft gels are not melted, but I am concerned.We generally advise against purchasing supplements by mail during very hot weather, as high temperatures can damage <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><b>probiotics</b></a>, vitamins, and phytochemicals found in herbs. <br /> <br /> Ubiquinol is naturally produced in the body, so it can certainly withstand temperatures in the high 90s Fahrenheit. Exposure to higher temperatures will hasten degradation, but the process takes time. For example, an experiment with CoQ10 (a compound similar to ubiquinol) found a loss of only 15% after two months of being exposed to a temperature of 131 Fahrenheit. However, the addition of antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), could minimize the loss to less than 5% (<a href="#" target="_blank">Kommuru, Chem Pharm Bull, 1999</a>). Ubiquinol and CoQ10 products generally include antioxidant ingredients. <br /> <br /> At a temperature of over 140 degrees, the gelatin in softgels can melt and this heat can also damage ubiquinol and CoQ10. If a break occurred in the softgel shell, exposure to air would speed degradation of the ingredient due to oxidation. <br /> <br /> Since your softgels didn't melt and it is likely that the product may only have been exposed to high heat for a period of hours or days during transport, there was probably little degradation of the ubiquinol and it should be potent. To extend its shelf-life, store it at room temperature and&nbsp;away from light if it is in a clear bottle.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more information, including ConsumerLab.com's tests and comparisons of products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-%26-ubiquinol---destroyed-by-heat/CoQ10-ruined-by-heat/44978/2/2017AnswersDo any supplements help for restless legs syndrome?Although no large studies have been conducted, smaller studies suggest a possible role of supplements in reducing the symptoms of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21806" target="_blank"><b>restless legs syndrome (RLS)</b></a>, a condition that causes uncomfortable "creepy-crawly" sensations, agitation, and the need to move the legs when trying to fall asleep. Women are twice as likely to suffer from restless legs syndrome than men, and it occurs more often with increasing age (<a href="#" target="_blank">Wang, Sleep Med 2009</a>). <br /> <br /> People with deficient or low blood levels of iron are also more likely to experience RLS. As discussed in more detail in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#rls" target="_blank"><b>Iron Supplements Review</b></a>, a study found that taking a combination of high-dose iron and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><b>vitamin C</b></a> (which helps to increase iron absorption) can decrease symptom severity in people whose blood levels of iron are low. However, it's important to consult your physician before supplementing with iron for RLS.<br /> <br /> As discussed in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#rls" target="_blank"><b>Magnesium Supplements Review</b></a>, a preliminary study suggested that taking magnesium in the evening could be helpful for RLS; however, there have not been large, well-controlled studies investigating this treatment. <br /> <br /> Similarly, as discussed in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>Potassium Supplements Review</b></a>, one preliminary study suggested that potassium may help reduce the severity of RLS symptoms, but no well-controlled studies have been conducted to prove this. <br /> <br /> As discussed in our Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21806" target="_blank"><b>Restless Legs Syndrome</b></a>, there is very preliminary evidence that folate and vitamin E might be helpful. <br /> <br /> Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#rls" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin supplements</strong></a> may <i>increase</i> leg movements in people with restless legs syndrome RLS. Caffeine, alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, antihistamines, and most antipsychotic and antinausea medications can potentially increase RLS symptoms (<a href="#" target="_blank">Cotter, Ther Clin Risk Manag 2006</a>). <br /> <br /> Also be aware that RLS can occur as a result of kidney or liver disease. People with these conditions should consult with a healthcare professional before taking supplements (<a href="#" target="_blank">Cotter, Ther Clin Risk Manag 2006</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Franco, J Clin Sleep Med 2008</a>). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements/vitamins-for-restless-leg-syndrome/supplements-restless-legs-syndrome/44968/1/2017AnswersCan taking CoQ10 affect my thyroid levels or interact with my thyroid medication?Having an overactive or underactive thyroid has been shown to affect levels of CoQ10 in the body. However, there doesn't appear to be research on whether CoQ10 supplementation affects thyroid hormone levels or thyroid medication. This is discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#thyroid" target="_blank"><strong>"Cautions and Concerns"</strong></a> section of the <i>CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review</i>, along with information about other potential drug interactions with CoQ10. <br /> <br /> Be aware that other supplements, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and soy can interfere with thyroid medication, and biotin supplements can interfere with thyroid tests. More details about this can be found in our CL Answer about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-interfere-with-thyroid-hormones/hypothyroidism_and_supplements/" target="_blank"><b>supplement interactions with levothyroxine</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Also see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21646" target="_blank"><strong>Thyroid Hormone</strong></a> article in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> section of the Encyclopedia. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-side-effects-on-thyroid-levels-/thyroid-medication/CoQ10-thyroid/44957/25/2017AnswersCan I take cholesterol-lowering statin medication with green tea?Modest daily intake of green tea is not problematic for most people taking statins, but certain individuals may be more sensitive than others and certain statins may be more affected, as described in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#statins" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the Green Tea Review.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Green tea itself can help lower bad "LDL" cholesterol but, if you are on a statin, it may be best to limit green tea intake one cup per day, take your statin at a different time of day than green tea, and eliminate green tea altogether if you experience statin-related muscle pain. <br /> <br /> For information about other potential interactions, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21410" target="_blank"><b>Statin Drugs</b></a> article, which is part of the extensive <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> section of our website (where you can look up interaction for other drugs you may be taking). <br /> <br /> <b>See these related CL Answers:</b> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-drugs-should-be-avoided-when-taking-statins/statin_supplement_interactions/" target="_blank"><strong>When taking a statin drug like Lipitor or Crestor, are there supplements I should avoid, or be taking? &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-green-tea-interact-with-blood-thinning-medications-like-warfarin-coumadin-or-clopidogrel-plavix/green-tea-blood-thinners/" target="_blank"><strong>Is it true that green tea can interact with blood-thinning medications like warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidogrel (Plavix)? &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-true-that-taking-a-statin-drug-negates-the-benefits-of-taking-fish-oil-supplements/statins_effect_on _fatty_acids/" target="_blank"><strong>Is it true that taking a statin drug negates the benefits of taking fish oil supplements? &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-i-need-to-take-curcumin-if-i-take-ubiquinol/CoQ10_curcumin_free_radicals/" target="_blank"><strong>I take ubiquinol to replenish CoQ10 depleted by my statin. I also take curcumin (from turmeric). Since they both manage free radicals, do I need to take the curcumin? &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-i-take-cholesterol-lowering-statin-medication-with-green-tea/green-tea-statins/44947/25/2017AnswersCan bloodroot or "black salve" treat skin cancer? Is it safe?Although bloodroot and black salve are commonly promoted as a "natural" alternative treatment for skin cancer, there is little evidence they are effective treatments. Even more concerning, numerous severe injuries associated with the use of bloodroot and black salve have documented, including cases in which the cancer spread over time. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=bloodroot-black-salve-skin-cancer"><strong>Sign in to read the full answer >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Bloodroot has also been promoted for treatment of warts and gingivitis; see the Encyclopedia article on <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21596" target="_blank"><strong>Bloodroot</strong></a> for details. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bloodroot-salve-black-salve-%26-cancer/bloodroot-black-salve-skin-cancer/44937/25/2017AnswersAre B12 injections "better" than oral supplements? Are they necessary if I have a B12 deficiency?Vitamin B12 injections may be necessary if you have severe neurological symptoms due to a B12 deficiency. If you do not have severe neurological symptoms, however, research suggests that oral supplementation can effectively treat B-12 deficiency &mdash; even in people who have compromised absorption due to lack intrinsic factor or other reasons.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>For more about this, recommended intakes for B12 and oral dosages used to treat deficiency, safety, and symptoms of B12 deficiency, see the "B-12" section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/b12-injections-vs-oral-b12-supplement/B12-injections-vs-pills/44917/23/2017AnswersIs it true that overdoses of vitamin D only occur when you don't get enough vitamin K?The idea has been suggested that adverse effects of very high doses of vitamin D can be eliminated by also administering doses of vitamins A and K. This has not been proven and remains only a hypotheses put forward by an individual, as noted in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#howmuch" target="_blank"><strong>How Much Do You Need and How Much Is Too Much?</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Getting too much vitamin D may have harmful effects, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#muscle" target="_blank"><b>increasing the risk of fractures and falls</b></a> and upper respiratory infections, interfering with sleep (apparently due to reduced production of melatonin), and hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood, causing a variety of symptoms). For more about this, the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-you-prevent-vitamin-d-overdose-by-taking-more-vitamin-k/vitamin-D-overdose/44907/23/2017AnswersAre there drug interactions with magnesium supplements?Magnesium can decrease the absorption and effectiveness of a number of medications, including several common antibiotics, certain statin drugs, and a drug prescribed for atrial fibrillation. On the other hand, one form of magnesium may increase the absorption of certain anti-diabetes drugs, potentially affecting blood sugar control. In some cases, magnesium can still be taken, but only several hours before or after taking these drugs. <br /> <br /> Be aware that these interactions apply not only to magnesium in supplements but also in over-the-counter antacids and laxatives. <br /> <br /> In addition, certain medications can deplete levels of magnesium in the body or interfere with magnesium&#39;s laxative effects.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Cautions and Concerns</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/" target="_blank"><b>Magnesium Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/drug-interactions-with-magnesium-supplements/magnesium-drug-interactions/44897/22/2017AnswersDoes CoQ10 reduce wrinkles, increase skin elasticity, or tighten the skin? Are there any other supplements that can help?Although CoQ10 supplements are sometimes promoted for reducing wrinkles or "rejuvenating" aging skin, only one, small study found that a branded <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#skin" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10 supplement</strong></a> reduced wrinkles around the eyes, nose and lips in middle-aged women. <br /> <br /> There do not appear to be any studies showing that CoQ10, or any other supplement, can tighten loose skin, but there is some evidence that several other supplements may help to reduce wrinkles and/or increase skin elasticity. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#skin" target="_blank"><strong>Cocoa flavanols</strong></a> were found in one study to reduce the depth of "crow's feet" wrinkles around the eyes, and increase skin elasticity in older women with moderate sun damage and visible wrinkles. <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-collagen-or-hyaluronic-acid-supplements-really-help-for-aging-or-wrinkled-skin/collagen-aging-skin/" target="_blank"><strong>collagen supplements</strong></a> may be helpful, but be aware that the best evidence for this has been demonstrated in clinical studies using a specific, branded collagen ingredient. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-bone-broth-supplements-really-better-than-other-types-of-protein/bone-broth-protein/" target="_blank"><strong>Bone broth and bone broth supplements</strong></a> can also be a good source of collagen, but there are no clinical studies on their use for reducing wrinkles or increasing skin elasticity. <br /> <br /> There is preliminary evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Astaxanthin-Supplements-Review/Astaxanthin/#sun" target="_blank"><strong>astaxanthin supplements</strong></a> may reduce the area of wrinkled skin around the eyes &mdash; but not the depth of wrinkles.<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-phytoceramide-supplements-really-work-to-improve-aging-skin/phytoceramides-aging-skin/" target="_blank"><strong>Phytoceramides supplements</strong></a>, derived from plants such as wheat and rice, are promoted to hydrate and "plump" the skin for a more youthful appearance, but there is little evidence to support their use for reducing wrinkles, increasing elasticity, or improving the appearance of aging skin.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Of course, protecting skin from sun damage is an important factor in preventing wrinkles and reducing the appearance of aging skin, and there are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-prevent-sunburn-or-skin-damage-from-sun-exposure/supplements_for_sun_damage/" target="_blank"><strong>several supplements which may be helpful for protecting the skin from sun damage</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Use the links above for more details found on ConsumerLab.com, and see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38389" target="_blank"><strong>Aging Skin</strong></a> for information about other proposed treatments.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-skin-benefits---reduced-wrinkles-%26-increased-skin-elasticity/supplements-for-skin-wrinkles/44887/15/2017AnswersDo CoQ10 levels really decrease with age?Levels of CoQ10 in the <i>blood</i> actually increase from young adulthood through middle age, peaking at around age 60, at which time levels begin to slightly decrease. Meanwhile, CoQ10 levels in <i>brain and heart tissue</i> do decrease with age. However, perhaps of more importance, after age 60 less CoQ10 gets converted in the body into its active form, ubiquinol. This is discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>What It Is</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank" gt strong><strong>CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review</strong></a>, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><i>Top Picks</i></strong></a> among for CoQ10 and ubiquinol. <br /> <br /> Also note that statins, and certain other medications, may decrease your natural production of CoQ10. More about this is found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns</strong></a> section of the Review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/decrease-in-coq10-levels-with-age/CoQ10-age/44877/12/2017AnswersHave you tested vitamin K supplements with MenaQ7? Is this a good source of vitamin K if I need to avoid soy?MenaQ7 (NattoPharma ASA) is a branded vitamin K ingredient in the MK-7 form which is derived from chickpea protein. Its manufacturer claim it is soy-free. As most MK-7 is derived from soy, an alternative like this could be of benefit for&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>people who need to avoid soy</strong></a> due to a soy allergy, or other concerns. <br /> <br /> In 2017, ConsumerLab.com tested a product containing MenaQ7, but the product did not pass testing. To see the results for this or other vitamin K products, as well as our <i>Top Picks</i> and information about usage, dosage, and safety, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin K Supplements Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Be sure not confuse MenaQ7 with an ingredient which has a similar sounding name but <i>is</i> derived from soy. For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns</strong></a> section of the Vitamin K Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-k-supplements-%26-menaq7---good-for-avoiding-soy/MenaQ7-vitamin-K/44857/11/2017AnswersWhich supplements can cause diarrhea?There are a number of supplements which can cause diarrhea. Discussed below are some of the most common culprits. Diarrhea can also be caused by certain medications, illness and infection, and certain health conditions, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs/supplements_for_IBS/" target="_blank"><strong>irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lactose-free-milk_lactase-enzyme-supplement-review/lactose-intolerance/" target="_blank"><strong>lactose intolerance</strong></a> -- so be sure to consult with your physician if you experience severe or chronic diarrhea. <br /> <br /> <u>Supplements with a laxative effect:</u> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium supplements</strong></a> can cause diarrhea and, in fact, are often taken for their laxative effect. However, if you are taking magnesium for other reasons, and want to avoid this effect, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>certain forms of magnesium</strong></a> are less likely to cause diarrhea. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#dosing" target="_blank"><strong>Taking your magnesium supplement with food</strong></a> can also reduce the occurrence of diarrhea. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/" target="_blank"><strong>Aloe supplements</strong></a> containing latex are also known for their laxative effect. If you are taking aloe for a different purpose, be sure to choose a product labeled as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>aloe gel or vera leaf juice</strong></a> which has been processed to remove the latex. <br /> <br /> Be aware that many <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/weight_loss_supplements_7-keto-dhea/WeightLoss/" target="_blank"><strong>weight loss supplements</strong></a> contain herbs with laxative properties, such as cascara, frangula, rhubarb root and senna, so be sure to carefully read the label if you are taking a supplement for weight management or "cleansing", such as certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Acai_Berry_Supplement_Beverage_Review/acai/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>acai supplements and drinks</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Certain types of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank"><strong>fiber</strong></a> can also have a laxative effect, but do not necessarily cause diarrhea &mdash; some forms of fiber, in fact, may be helpful for diarrhea associated with IBS.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <u>Other common supplements that can cause diarrhea:</u> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Fish oil</strong></a> and other supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids, or a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>flaxseed oil and borage oil</strong></a>, can cause diarrhea. Taking smaller doses throughout the day, rather than a single, large dose, may help reduce this effect. <br /> <br /> Taking large doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a> can cause diarrhea. Other supplements which can cause diarrhea when taken in high doses include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine)</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lysine_Review_Comparisons/Lysine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>lysine</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>iodine and kelp supplements</strong></a> which contain iodine, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-d-limonene-help-fight-cancer/d_limonene_cancer/" target="_blank"><strong>D-limonene</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-do-i-find-the-best-yacon-syrup-for-weight-loss/yacon_syrup/" target="_blank"><strong>yacon syrup</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Other supplements which can cause diarrhea include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin/turmeric</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's wort</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-berberine-really-lower-blood-sugar/berberine_blood_sugar/" target="_blank"><strong>berberine</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>creatine</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-tryptophan_5-HTP/tryptophan/#5htpsideeffects" target="_blank"><strong>5-HTP</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/nattokinase-supplement-review/nattokinase/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>nattokinase</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Greens_Whole_Foods_Powders_Supplements/greens/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>chlorella</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-modified-citrus-pectin-mcp-help-with-cancer/modified_citrus_pectin/" target="_blank"><strong>modified citrus pectin (MCP)</strong></a>, and beta-sitosterol, a common ingredient in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/" target="_blank"><strong>cholesterol-lowering supplements</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>prostate supplements</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <u>Unexpected sources:</u> <br /> An often-over-looked cause of diarrhea from supplements can be from added sugar substitutes such as sorbitol. Sorbitol can be found in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/#results" target="_blank"><strong>protein and nutrition bars</strong></a> (ConsumerLab.com lists amounts of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/#results" target="_blank"><strong>sugar alcohols</strong></a> (such as sorbitol and mannitol) in popular bars in its Review) and some <strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/" target="_blank">protein powders and drinks</a></strong> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/meal_replacement_and_weight_management_powders_and_shakes/meal_replacement/" target="_blank"><strong>meal replacement and weight management meals and shakes</strong></a>. These chemicals can also be found in certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><strong>zinc lozenges</strong></a> and some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#taste" target="_blank"><strong>B12 supplements</strong></a>, especially dissolvable tablets, liquids and sprays, although occasionally in regular tablets as well.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-supplements-cause-diarrhea/supplements-diarrhea/44847/8/2017AnswersCan apple cider vinegar really lower blood sugar or help me lose weight?Although several small studies suggest apple cider vinegar may be helpful for weight loss or lowering blood sugar levels in some people, larger studies confirming these findings are needed before apple cider vinegar can be relied upon for these uses. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab has purchased and tested popular apple cider vinegars, including those in pill form. The tests revealed many high-quality products, including those judged to be CL's <em>Top Picks</em>, but also some that may contain so much acetic acid as to be considered <em>poison</em>. See the results in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/apple-cider-vinegars-review/apple-cider-vinegar/" target="_blank"><strong>Apple Cider Vinegars (Bottled Liquids and Pills) Review</strong></a>. The Review also explains, in details, the evidence for and against apple cider vinegar, how to use it, potential side effects, and more. <br /> <br /> <b>Also see these related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-lower-or-control-blood-sugar/supplements_to_lower_blood_sugar/" target="_blank">Which supplements can help lower or control my blood sugar? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-berberine-really-lower-blood-sugar/berberine_blood_sugar/" target="_blank">What is berberine? Can it really lower blood sugar? Are there any cautions? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-should-be-avoided-when-taking-insulin-for-diabetes/insulin_supplement_interaction/" target="_blank">I take insulin (Humalog) for diabetes. Are there supplements which could affect my blood sugar levels, and how much insulin I need to take? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-apple-cider-vinegar-really-lower-blood-sugar-or-help-me-lose-weight/apple-cider-vinegar/44837/4/2017AnswersWhich are the best non-prescription hearing aids? Are any of these low-cost devices as good as more expensive, prescription hearing aids?Devices designed to improve hearing that are sold without a prescription are known as personal sound amplification products, or PSAPs, and are much less expensive than prescription hearing aids. <br /> <br /> It turns out that some PSAPs are just as good as a prescription hearing aid, while others are not, according to independent tests comparing the prescription hearing aid Oticon Nera 2 to the following PSAPs: <i>Sound World Solutions CS50+, Soundhawk, Etymotic BEAN, Tweak Focus,</i> and <i>MSA 30X Sound Amplifier.</i> <strong>Sign in to read the full answer showing how the brands stack up &gt;&gt;</strong><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38739" target="_blank"><strong>Hearing Loss</strong></a> for information about natural treatments which have been used for hearing loss. <br /> <br /> <b>See related answers:</b> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-for-tinnitus/tinnitus/" target="_blank">Do any supplements help for tinnitus? Is it true that some supplements can cause tinnitus?</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-lipo-flavonoid-improve-ear-problems/lipoflavinoid/" target="_blank">What is Lipo-flavonoid and does it work for tinnitus or other ear problems?</a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/non-prescription-hearing-aids-reviews---which-is-best/cheaper-than-hearing-aids/44827/3/2017AnswersWhat's the best way to take vitamin B12?There are different forms of B12 available (cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin). Although there are some differences among them, for most people any of these will be effective. <br /> <br /> <em>Most importantly, be aware that your body can only efficiently absorb a small amount of B12&nbsp;</em>within a given period of time. To absorb more B12, divide the dose over the course of the day and take separately from a B12-containing meal. If you take a higher dose, you will absorb only a small amount of what you take -- although this may be appropriate in some situations. For details, see the&nbsp;<b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank">B12 section of the B Vitamin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</a></b> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/the-best-way-to-take-vitamin-b12/best-way-to-take-B12/44816/30/2017AnswersIs the theobromine in chocolate and cocoa good or bad for me? Theobromine is a caffeine-related stimulant that naturally occurs in cacao beans and is therefore in cocoa powders and chocolates. ConsumerLab's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>tests of dark chocolates and cocoas</b></a> show them to contain about as much theobromine as heart-healthy flavanols. Dark chocolate can be particularly rich in theobromine, with a standard 40-gram serving often providing 300 to 400 mg of theobromine.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#caffeineandtheobromine" target="_blank">t<strong>heobromine lowers LDL &quot;bad&quot; cholesterol</strong></a>, a recent study suggests that an amount of theobromine not much more than in a serving of dark chocolate may be a problem for people who need to control their blood sugar (such as those with diabetes or pre-diabetes). Also, be aware that theobromine can cause side-effects such nausea and headache in some people, and may interact with certain medications. Details are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#theobromine" target="_blank">Review of Cocoa and Dark Chocolates</a></b>, which includes the amounts of theobromine discovered by CL in popular products, as well as their amounts of flavanols, caffeine and contaminants (lead and cadmium).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <b>Also see answers to these questions: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-dark-chocolate-bar-has-the-most-flavanols-with-the-fewest-calories/dark_chocolate_bar_flavanols/" target="_blank">Which dark chocolate bar has the most flavanols with the least calories? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-caffeine-is-really-in-dark-chocolate-bars/caffeine_dark_chocolate/" target="_blank">How much caffeine is really in dark chocolate bars? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-fat-does-chocolate-contain/cocoa_butter_fat_in_chocolate/" target="_blank">How much fat is there in chocolate? Is it saturated fat? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-is-there-so-much-cadmium-in-cocoa-powders-but-not-in-dark-chocolate/cadmium_in_dark_chocolate/" target="_blank">Why is there so much cadmium, a toxin, in cocoa powders but not in dark chocolate? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-cocoa-or-chocolate-is-beneficial/how_much_cocoa_for_a_benefit/" target="_blank">How much cocoa or chocolate do I need to consume in order to get a benefit? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-dark-chocolate-or-cocoa-a-good-source-of-iron/dark_chocolate_cocoa_iron/" target="_blank">Why does dark chocolate have iron in it? Is it, or cocoa, a good dietary source of iron? &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-the-theobromine-in-chocolate-and-cocoa-good-or-bad-for-me/theobromine-cocoa-chocolate/44806/30/2017AnswersDo vitamin patches, such as for B12 or multivitamins, really work? How about those from PatchMD? Patches containing vitamin B12 and/or other vitamins, such as those from PatchMD and Vita Sciences, are often promoted as an alternative to oral supplements for people who have trouble swallowing pills or have difficulty absorbing nutrients in their gut. For example, vitamin B12 is hard to absorb for many people, including older adults, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-drugs-should-be-avoided-when-taking-proton-pump-inhibitors-ppis/omeprazole_minerals_vitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>people who take medication to reduce stomach acid</strong></a>, or people who have had <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-are-important-after-bariatric-surgery/bariatric-surgery_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>gastric bypass surgery</strong></a>. We looked into the research behind these patches. Find out if they are truly a better alternative in our <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=B12-vitamin-patches">full answer &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-patches---do-patches-really-work/B12-vitamin-patches/44796/28/2017AnswersI heard the S-form of alpha-lipoic acid is bad for me. Why is it in my supplement?The R-form of alpha-lipoic acid is the active, natural form. The S-form occurs when alpha lipoic acid is synthetically manufactured, creating both the S-form and the active R-form. The S-form is most likely inactive, although some information suggests it may an analgesic effect. For more information, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Alpha-Lipoic_Acid_Supplements/alphalipoic/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>What It Is</strong></a> section of our <em>Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplements Review</em>, which includes our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Alpha-Lipoic_Acid_Supplements/alphalipoic/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/r-form-alpha-lipoic-acid-vs-s-form-alpha-lipoic-acid/S-Alpha-Lipoic-Acid/44786/23/2017AnswersWhich oils can help lower my cholesterol and risk of heart attack? How are coconut oil, olive oil, and fish oil for example?Lowering intake of saturated fats (and oils, which are fats) in your diet and replacing them with unsaturated fats, particularly polyunsaturated fats, can reduce cardiovascular disease by about 30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment, according to the American Heart Association (AHA) (<a href="#" target="_blank">Sacks, Circulation 2017</a>). This will lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol. <br /> <br /> Ideally, this should be done as part of an overall healthful dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) or Mediterranean diet. Note, however, that reducing saturated fats in the diet only to replace them with carbohydrates from refined grains (as opposed to whole grains) and added sugars does not prevent coronary heart disease.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Here are the foods high in saturated fat that the AHA recommends <em>reducing </em>in the diet, followed by foods containing primarily unsaturated fats which should&nbsp;<em>replace&nbsp;</em>foods in the first list in order&nbsp;to lower LDL cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease:&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a name="saturatedfat" id="saturatedfat"></a>Sources of&nbsp;<em>saturated</em> fat (to be <em>decreased</em> in the diet):&nbsp;<br /> The main sources of saturated fats in the diet are dairy fat (butter), lard (pork), beef tallow, palm kernel oil, and, yes, coconut oil. In fact, 82% of coconut and palm kernel oil is saturated fat. The AHA advises against use of coconut oil because it has been found to increase LDL ("bad") cholesterol with no favorable offsetting effects. (Note: The AHA acknowledges that coconut oil can increase HDL ("good") cholesterol, but changing HDL "... can no longer be linked to changes in&nbsp;CVD [cardiovascular disease], and therefore, the LDL cholesterol-raising effect should be considered on its own.") &nbsp;Hence the AHA recommends substituting unsaturated fats for coconut oil and other sources of saturated fats. Like all fats,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-coconut-oil-used-in-bulletproof-coffee/coconut_oil/" target="_blank"><strong>coconut oil is a source of energy</strong></a> and it has been argued that, because a high proportion of its saturated fat is the medium-chain variety, it may provide energy faster that other fats. While that may be true, it will increase LDL cholesterol relative to oils higher in unsaturated fats. <span style="background-color:#ccffff">[Update: A study in England found that extra virgin coconut oil was, surprisingly, no different in its effect on LDL levels than extra virgin olive oil (discussed below) in healthy, middle-aged adults who added 50 grams (1/4 cup) of either oil per day to their diets for four weeks &mdash; although both were better than adding an equal amount of unsalted butter. No comparison was made to adding a mainly polyunsaturated oil (</span><a href="#" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:#ccffff">Khaw, BMJ 2018</span></a><span style="background-color:#ccffff">).] </span><br /> <br /> Sources of <em>un</em>saturated fats (to <em>replace</em> foods above):<br /> Canola oil, corn oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, and walnuts, are foods containing mainly unsaturated fats which are predominantly polyunsaturated.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><strong>Olive oil (see our Review)</strong></a>, avocados, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pistachios, and pecans also contain mainly unsaturated fats, but these are predominantly as monounsaturated fat, which, according to the AHA, is better than saturated fat and almost as good as polyunsaturated fat, although replacing monounsaturated fat with polyunsaturated fat may further lower LDL cholesterol. Safflower and sunflower oils fall somewhere between the two groups because although both are very low in saturated fat, the most commonly available products on the market are higher in monounsaturated fat (as oleic acid &mdash; the same found in olive oil) than older varieties of these oils which were higher in polyunsaturated fat (as linoleic acid). &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that these sources of unsaturated fat will help your cardiovascular system if they are <i>replacing</i> saturated fat but not if you are just <i>adding</i> them to your existing diet. It takes about 2 years to achieve 60-70% of the full cardiovascular beneficial effects of these changes to your diet (<a href="#" target="_blank">Sacks, Circulation 2017</a>). <br /> <br /> Of course, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease is not the only potential benefit of oils. Olive oil, particularly&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><strong>extra virgin olive oil</strong></a>, contains polyphenols and may improve blood sugar control and even reduce the risk of breast and colorectal cancers. <br /> <br /> Other fats/oils: <br /> The <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA found in fish oil</strong></a> may help treat inflammatory conditions, but they don't reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease when taken as a supplement -- although eating non-fried fish twice a week, instead of other meats, can, and high-dose, highly concentrated EPA and DHA can lower elevated triglycerides although it has not been directly proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank"><strong>Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flaxseed oil</strong></a> does not reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular disease when taken as a supplement, but a diet rich in ALA appears to reduce the risk of high blood pressure and has been associated with a lower risk of fatal heart attacks. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <b>Also see ConsumerLab.com's Reviews of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/" target="_blank">Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements</a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank">Red Yeast Rice Supplements</a>.</b> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/oils-%26-lowering-cholesterol---what-oil-is-best/oils-cholesterol-heart-attack-risk/44766/18/2017AnswersIs there an accurate test for magnesium deficiency?There are a number of tests designed to measure magnesium levels, however, most (including the most common test, serum magnesium concentration, or SMC) do not provide a complete assessment of magnesium status. For this reason, doctors use a combination of testing and evaluation of symptoms to diagnose magnesium deficiency. These include the serum magnesium concentration (SMC) test, the red blood cell (RBC) test, the magnesium loading test, the 24-hour excretion test, and others.&nbsp;<b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#magnesiumtest" target="_blank">Get more details about each of these in the ConsumerTips section of the Magnesium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</a></b> <br /> <br /> <b>Also see related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-is-the-best-form-of-magnesium-to-take/best_form_of_magnesium/" target="_blank">Which is the best form of magnesium to take - one that contains the most magnesium and is best absorbed? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-benefit-of-magnesium-orotate-compared-to-other-forms-of-magnesium/magnesium_orotate/" target="_blank">What is the benefit of magnesium orotate compared to other forms of magnesium? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-actual-magnesium-does-a-supplement-with-500-mg-of-magnesium-citrate-contain/how-much-magnesium-in-my-supplement/" target="_blank">Help! How do I know how much magnesium I am actually getting from my supplement? The label says it contains 500 mg of magnesium "as magnesium citrate" -- but how much of that is magnesium and how much is citrate? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-magnesium-supplements-be-stored-separately-from-other-supplements/storing-magnesium/" target="_blank">Is it true that I should not keep magnesium supplements in a daily pill pack mixed with other supplements and medicines? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-can-the-recommended-daily-allowance-rda-for-magnesium-be-higher-than-the-upper-tolerable-intake-levels-ul/magnesium_RDA_UL/" target="_blank">How can the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium be higher than the Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL)? That is, how can an amount which is healthful also put you at risk for harm? &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/magnesium-deficiency-testing/magnesium-deficiency-test/44756/17/2017AnswersIs it true that low-carb or Mediterranean diets help for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?There are a number of ways to reduce the occurrence and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition which causes heartburn, regurgitation, trouble swallowing and other symptoms. Unfortunately, however, low-carb and Mediterranean diets are not among the approaches with the best supporting evidence. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=low-carb-Mediterranean-diet-GERD"><strong>For details, including what approaches (including dietary, lifestyle, supplements) have been shown to help and what to avoid, see the full answer >></strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/low-carb-mediterranean-diet-for-gerd-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease/low-carb-Mediterranean-diet-GERD/44746/13/2017AnswersI've heard that soaking dried beans for 24 hours reduces the phytate level, allowing for greater access to nutrients. Is this true?Beans and other legumes contain "<i>anti</i>nutrient" compounds, such as phytate, that can limit the body's absorption of nutrients, including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a>. Soaking can help reduce the amount of phytates, but research suggests that 24 hours is too long. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=soaking-beans-phytate"><strong>See the full answer for details and related tips (including tips for grains, such as rice and oats, and whether adding citric acid to the water helps) >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> <b>See these related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+it+safer+to+get+calcium+from+foods+than+from+supplements+How+about+from+calcium-fortified+orange+juice+and+non-dairy+milks/calcium_foods_supplements/" target="_blank">Is it safer to get calcium from foods than from supplements? How about from calcium-fortified orange juice and non-dairy milks? >></a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+it+better+to+get+vitamins+from+foods+or+supplements%2C+and+are+natural+vitamins+better+than+synthetic+vitamins/natural_vs_synthetic_vitamin/" target="_blank">Is it better to get vitamins from foods or supplements, and are natural vitamins better than synthetic vitamins? >></a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+it+true+that+taking+turmeric%2Fcurcumin+with+food+can+reduce+iron+absorption+from+food/turmeric-curcumin-iron/" target="_blank">Is it true that taking turmeric/curcumin with food can reduce iron absorption from food? >></a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/soaking-dried-beans-%26-reduction-in-phytate-level/soaking-beans-phytate/44736/10/2017AnswersI have milk allergy and can't eat dairy. What's the best way for me to get calcium?It can be a challenge to get sufficient calcium from your diet if you cannot eat dairy foods since they are typically the major source of calcium. For example, a cup of milk or yogurt provides 300 to 400 mg of calcium &mdash; about one-third of the daily requirement. However, other foods can provide significant amounts of calcium &mdash; although one must be aware that calcium is not well absorbed from certain plant-based foods. In addition, calcium supplements, if chosen and used properly, can help fulfill the daily requirement for calcium. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=getting-calcium-with-milk-allergy"><strong>See the full answer for details >></strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/milk-allergies-%26-recommended-daily-calcium-intake/getting-calcium-with-milk-allergy/44726/6/2017AnswersWhich supplements help for osteoarthritis of the hip?Several supplements may modestly reduce pain or improve other symptoms of hip osteoarthritis, which is inflammation caused by damage or "wearing away" of cartilage in the hip. Use the links below for more information. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAM-e_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>SAMe</strong></a> supplements have been shown to reduce joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis of the hip, and may be as effective as many of the leading anti-inflammatory drugs. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#osteoarthritis" target="_blank"><strong>Ginger</strong></a> may modestly reduce pain and disability in people with hip osteoarthritis.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> A branded enzyme supplement containing bromelain, trypsin and other ingredients, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#inflammation" target="_blank"><strong>Wobenzym</strong></a>, was found in one clinical study to reduce pain and stiffness, and improve function in men and women with hip osteoarthritis just as well as a prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. <br /> <br /> One small study found that, compared to fish oil, a formula containing green-lipped mussel oil (providing omega-3 fatty acids EPA + DHA), olive oil and vitamin E (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#omegaxl" target="_blank"><strong>Omega XL</strong></a>) reduced pain and improved physical function in men and women with osteoarthritis of the hip. However, there are no studies comparing this formula with a placebo for hip osteoarthritis. (Although there is evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil supplements</strong></a> may help to reduce pain due to <i>rheumatoid</i> arthritis, there is not enough evidence to suggest it's helpful for osteoarthritis of the hip.) <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-collagen-help-with-arthritis/collagen_arthritis/" target="_blank"><strong>collagen hydrolysate</strong></a> may reduce pain associated with hip osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-tart-cherry-juice/tart_cherry/" target="_blank"><strong>Tart cherry</strong></a> juice has been found to reduce markers of inflammation, but not pain, in people with osteoarthritis, although the type (knee or hip) was not specified. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Glucosamine and chondroitin</strong></a> are popular supplements for joint health and some early clinical research suggested a benefit, however, more recent and larger clinical studies have tended to show little or no benefit for osteoarthritis of the hip. <br /> <br /> There is mixed/preliminary evidence that other supplements, such as white willow, rosehip, cat's claw, devil's claw and avocado/soybean unsaponifiables may be beneficial for hip osteoarthritis. These are discussed in the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21505" target="_blank"><strong>Osteoarthritis</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Supplements such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes-boswellia" target="_blank"><strong>boswellia</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21691" target="_blank"><strong>MSM</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha</strong></a>, which have shown some promise for helping with <i>knee</i> osteoarthritis do not appear to have been studied in well-controlled clinical trials for <i>hip</i> osteoarthritis. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-help-for-osteoarthritis-of-the-hip/osteoarthritis-hip-supplements/44716/3/2017AnswersI take VitaPulse dietary supplements from the Princeton Nutrients. Once the bottle is open for a week or so, the contents begin to smell. Should I be concerned?We have not yet tested VitaPulse, but the label states that each capsule contains NAC (250 mg), as well as CoQ10 (100 mg) and PQQ (10 mg). The odor you smell is likely from the sulfur that is part of NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine) &mdash; this is normal. This is discussed in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying</strong></a>" section of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/" target="_blank"><strong>NAC Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> If you want these ingredients, be aware that you can purchase them as individual supplements at a much lower cost than in VitaPulse, which currently sells for $235 for 6 bottles (containing 30 capsules each), i.e., $1.30 per capsule. In our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/" target="_blank"><strong>NAC Supplements Review</strong></a>, capsules with twice as much NAC as in VitaPulse sell for as little as 10 to 20 cents. In our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10 Supplements Review</strong></a>, capsules with 100 mg of CoQ10 sell for as little as 9 cents &mdash; and these are products which we have tested and approved for their quality. We have not tested PQQ (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-pqq-similar-to-coq10/what_is_PQQ/" target="_blank"><strong>but have written about it</strong></a>). It is a relatively expensive ingredient, but you can get 10 mg capsules of PQQ from reputable brands for less than 40 cents. In short, you should be able to cut your cost by at least half by purchasing the individual supplements &mdash; and you will limit the odor issue to just the NAC product. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <b>Also see answers to these related questions: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-nac-powder-spoil/NAC_powder/" target="_blank">If I buy NAC as a loose powder in a large bag, as opposed to in tablet form, will it spoil? I've heard it can spoil or degrade into a harmful by-product. &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-taking-n-acetylcysteine-nac-supplements-reduce-my-risk-of-liver-damage-from-acetaminophen/N-acetylcysteine-NAC-acetaminophen/" target="_blank">Can taking N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplements reduce my risk of liver damage from acetaminophen? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-true-that-nac-can-help-clear-nasal-passages/NAC_nasal_congestion/" target="_blank">Is it true that NAC can help clear nasal passages? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-difference-between-cysteine-and-cystine/cysteine_and_cystine/" target="_blank">What is the difference between cysteine and cystine? &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-does-my-nac-supplement-have-a-strange-smell/VitaPulse-smell/44706/2/2017AnswersDo glutathione supplements work to prevent aging or for other conditions?Although glutathione plays an important role in the body as an antioxidant, supplementing with glutathione has not been shown to slow aging or help with conditions associated with reduced levels of glutathione, such as cancer, cataracts, diabetes, and HIV infection. <br /> <br /> Glutathione is a protein normally made in the body from three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. We get small amounts of glutathione from foods, and this is normally broken back down to amino acids by enzymes in the digestive tract. <br /> <br /> As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=108306" target="_blank"><strong>Glutathione</strong></a><strong> </strong>article on ConsumerLab.com, taking a very large (3,000 mg) single dose was not shown to raise glutathione levels in the body. However, a study in which large amounts of glutathione were given daily for six months did show an increase in glutathione levels. Taking large amounts of the amino acids of which glutathione is comprised, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/" target="_blank"><strong>cysteine</strong></a>, or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#Immunocal" target="_blank"><strong>whey protein</strong></a> (which is high in cysteine), may also raise glutathione levels, as may taking other antioxidants, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Alpha-Lipoic_Acid_Supplements/alphalipoic/" target="_blank"><strong>lipoic acid</strong></a>, which spare glutathione from being used in the body. <br /> <br /> Nevertheless, there are no studies showing a clinical benefit on any disease or medical condition from taking glutathione supplements. <br /> <br /> For more information, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=108306" target="_blank"><strong>Glutathione</strong></a> article on ConsumerLab.com. <br /> <br /> Also see this Warning: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=10453" target="_blank">Glutathione Supplement Maker Warned For Manufacturing Violations and Drug Claims </a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/glutathione-supplements-for-aging/glutathione-aging/44695/30/2017AnswersTaking 2 grams of L-glutamine in water on an empty stomach (as directed) caused me to be nauseous, dizzy and anxious. Is this a normal side effect of glutamine?Glutamine is a naturally occurring amino acid and is generally safe at the dose you used and even several times higher. However, as noted in the "Safety Issues" section of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21749" target="_blank"><strong>Glutamine article</strong></a>, people who are sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG -- a food flavoring agent) should use glutamine with caution, as the body metabolizes glutamine to glutamate. The most common side effects reported with MSG are headache and nausea and only occur when it is taken without food. <br /> <br /> More about the safety and therapeutic uses of glutamine are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21749" target="_blank"><strong>Glutamine</strong></a> article. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-side-effects-of-l-glutamine-on-an-empty-stomach/glutamine-side-effects/44685/25/2017AnswersIs it true that calcium citrate increases the absorption of aluminum?Yes, the citrate from calcium citrate can increase absorption of aluminum from medications (such as aluminum hydroxide in the antacid Maalox). It can also increase absorption of aluminum from foods but, in individuals with normal kidney function, this does not result in increased retention of aluminum in the body. If you need supplemental calcium and an antacid, consider taking Tums, which contains calcium carbonate rather than calcium citrate. For more details see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#otherconcerns" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions section of the Calcium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21407" target="_blank"><strong>Antacids</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <b>See these related CL Answers: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+there+a+danger+of+getting+too+much+calcium+from+Tums+I+take+them+frequently+for+heartburn./calcium_from_tums/" target="_blank">Is there a danger of getting too much calcium from Tums? I take them frequently for heartburn. &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/ng+calcium+supplements+--+such+as+the+risk+of+developing+arterial+calcifications.+I+can%27t+seem+to+find+a+multivitamin+without+calcium.+Can+you+help+me/calcium-arterial-calcification/" target="_blank">I've read of dangers from taking calcium supplements -- such as the risk of developing arterial calcifications. I can't seem to find a multivitamin without calcium. Can you help me? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+it+safer+to+get+calcium+from+foods+than+from+supplements+How+about+from+calcium-fortified+orange+juice+and+non-dairy+milks/calcium_foods_supplements/" target="_blank">Is it safer to get calcium from foods than from supplements? How about from calcium-fortified orange juice and non-dairy milks? &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/How+much+calcium+from+supplements+is+too+much/how_much_calcium_is_too_much/" target="_blank">How much calcium from supplements is too much? &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/calcium-citrates-impact-on-the-absorption-of-aluminum/calcium-citrate-aluminum/44675/24/2017AnswersDoes saffron really improve vision or prevent age-related macular degeneration?Saffron, derived from the crocus flower (<i>Crocus sativus</i>) is added as an ingredient in some vision supplements. Several small studies suggest saffron may be beneficial in the early stages of age-related macular degeneration. For more details, and our tests of popular vision products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#saffron" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/saffron-for-macular-degeneration-%26-eyesight/saffron-age-related-macular-degeneration/44665/23/2017AnswersTablets I purchased are becoming "crumbly" after a few weeks and are easy to break. Is there a problem with this supplement?Some ingredients in supplements are hygroscopic, that is, they attract water. If sold as uncoated tablets and exposed to humidity, the tablets may become soft, crumbly, and fall apart. Examples of such supplements include&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/l-arginine-supplements-review/arginine/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>L-arginine</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>chondroitin</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Do+reishi+mushroom+supplements+boost+the+immune+system%2C+or+have+other+benefits/reishi_mushroom/" target="_blank"><strong>mushroom powders</strong></a>. This also occurs with minerals in a chloride or hydrochloride form, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium hydrochloride</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> If a tablet made with one of these ingredients becomes soft, it does not necessarily mean the ingredient is inactive, but it may be harder to swallow. You can avoid this problem by purchasing these ingredients in capsules or caplets rather than tablets, or in formulations which microencapsulate the ingredient. If you purchase a tablet, keep it out of humidity and keep a desiccant packet in the closed bottle. If a desiccant packet is not included with the product, you can add some dry rice &mdash; this absorbs water and is the reason rice is often put in shakers of salt (which is sodium chloride). Although the air in a refrigerator is low in humidity, refrigeration is not recommended with these types of pills because once you open the bottle outside the refrigerator, humid air can condense on the cold inner wall of the container and, thus, damage the tablets. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Keep these pills away from other pills (including softgels) and&nbsp;don't put them in a daily pill container, because the water they&nbsp;absorb can cause disintegration of nearby pills and prematurely activate enzymes and probiotics. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> It is wise to keep most supplements, including other forms of magnesium, out of humidity, although they can be stored with other pills.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplement-tablets-have-started-to-crumble-%26-break/tablet-crumbles/44645/11/2017AnswersDo biotin supplements really improve hair and nails?Biotin supplements are often promoted to improve hair growth, strength, or sheen -- possibly because biotin deficiency can cause symptoms such as dry, thinning hair and loss of hair color. However, biotin deficiency is quite rare -- the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/#Biotin" target="_blank"><strong>recommended daily intake of biotin</strong></a> is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotinfood" target="_blank"><strong>easily obtained from food</strong></a>, and there is no evidence biotin improves the growth or texture of hair in people who are not deficient. <br /> <br /> Preliminary evidence that biotin supplementation may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-vitamin-supplements-strengthen-brittle-nails/brittle_nail_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>strengthen brittle nails</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Be aware that biotin, especially taken at high doses, can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#kummer" target="_blank"><b>interfere with certain medications and laboratory tests</b></a>, including tests used to diagnose thyroid disease and heart attacks, so be sure to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14318" target="_blank"><b>tell your doctor if you are taking biotin</b></a>. <br /> <br /> For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotin" target="_blank"><b>Biotin</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotin" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review</strong></a>, which includes CL's tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b7" target="_blank"><em><strong>Top Pick</strong></em></a> among biotin supplements. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/biotin-for-nails-%26-hair---do-supplements-work/biotin-hair-nails/44635/9/2017AnswersWhich bottled green teas have the most EGCG?Many of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>health benefits associated with green tea</strong></a> are thought to be due, in part, to natural antioxidant compounds in green tea called catechins, the most notable of these being EGCG.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com tests found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#bottle" target="_blank"><strong>amounts of EGCG in bottled green teas</strong></a> to vary widely &mdash; with some providing as much EGCG as brewable teas, and others providing almost none!&nbsp;<br /> <br /> In general, bottled green teas are a costly way to get EGCG, and some contain so little EGCG that you would have to drink an <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#bottledtea" target="_blank"><strong>unrealistic amount</strong></a> in order to get the amount of EGCG found in brewable teas or supplements (which are, by far, the most cost effective way to get EGCG). <br /> <br /> If you enjoy bottled tea, see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#bottle" target="_blank"><strong>test results</strong></a> to see which contains the most EGCG &mdash; as well the amounts of caffeine we found in each, the sweeteners and calories they contain, and cost comparisons. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more about the best way to get EGCG and how the various forms of green tea compare, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying section of the Green Tea Review &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-bottled-green-teas-have-the-most-egcg/green-tea-EGCG/44625/9/2017AnswersCan melatonin help with stomach pain?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#stomach" target="_blank"><b>What It Does</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><b>Melatonin Supplements Review</b></a>, melatonin appears to play a protective role in the stomach and is produced by cells in the gut (as well as by the pineal gland in the brain, which controls sleep cycles). Animal studies and several preliminary human clinical trials have evaluated the effects of melatonin and melatonin supplements in reducing symptoms of stomach ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and functional dyspepsia (stomach pain not caused by an ulcer). The results have been mixed and better studies are needed to determine if melatonin is effective for these uses. <br /> <br /> Be aware that a small percentage of people who have taken melatonin in clinical trials have reported nausea as a side effect. However, other side effects such, as drowsiness, are more common, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the Melatonin Review. Note that the safety of long-term, daily use of melatonin (which might be required for conditions such as GERD) has not been determined (melatonin is approved for only up to 13 weeks of daily use in the U.K., for example, where it is a prescription drug for insomnia).https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-melatonin-supplements-help-with-stomach-pain/melatonin-stomach-pain/44615/7/2017AnswersWhich supplements reduce the risk of stroke? Which increase the risk of stroke?Certain supplements have been shown to reduce the risk of stroke, while others may increase that risk. In addition, certain nutrients from foods may reduce the risk of stroke &mdash; although the benefit does not necessarily carry over to those nutrients when obtained from supplements, as discussed below. Also be aware that some supplements may increase the risk of stroke, as noted below.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that there are different causes of stroke. The <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>most common type of stroke</strong></a>, called ischemic stroke, occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is blocked, either by a blood clot or plaque build-up in arteries (atherosclerosis), depriving the brain of oxygen. The second, less common, type of stroke is hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when a blood vessel inside the brain leaks blood or ruptures, creating pressure which damages brain cells. Risk factors for stroke include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-lower-blood-pressure/supplements_high_blood_pressure/" target="_blank"><strong>high blood pressure</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-lower-or-control-blood-sugar/supplements_to_lower_blood_sugar/" target="-blank"><strong>diabetes</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/" target="_blank"><strong>high cholesterol</strong></a>, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and carotid artery disease (build up of plaque in the main artery in the neck which carries blood to the brain). Lack of physical exercise and being overweight, frequent use of NSAIDS (such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-any-supplements-i-should-avoid-when-taking-aspirin-ibuprofen-or-other-nsaids/aspirin_ibuprofen_NSAIDS/" target="_blank"><strong>ibuprofen</strong></a>), <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-relieve-stress/supplements_for_stress/" target="_blank"><strong>stress</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-help-with-depression-and-anxiety/supplements_depression_anxiety/" target="_blank"><strong>depression</strong></a> also increase the risk of stroke. <br /> <br /> <b>Supplements that may reduce the risk of stroke:</b> (Use the links for more details such as dose.) <br /> <br /> Getting a moderate amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#cvd" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> per day from food and/or supplements may reduce the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in men, but this benefit has not been shown in women. Among people with sufficient levels of vitamin D, taking high doses of vitamin D has not been shown to reduce the risk of stroke. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>Folic acid</strong></a> (vitamin B-9) supplementation may decrease the risk of stroke in people who have very low or deficient levels of folic acid. However, be aware that there are risks associated with getting too much folate, and current supplement labels may mislead you to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folatelabels" target="_blank"><strong>consume more folate</strong></a> than you need or is safe for you. It's also important to note that consuming high doses of other B vitamins from supplements, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-too-much-b-6-be-dangerous/too_much_b6/" target="_blank"><strong>B-6</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-too-much-b-12-be-dangerous/too_much_b12/" target="_blank"><strong>B-12</strong></a>, may increase the risk of stroke, as well as heart attack and death, in people with diabetes who also have advanced kidney disease. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/nattokinase-supplement-review/nattokinase/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Nattokinase supplements</strong></a> may decrease blood-clotting factors in the blood, however, there are no published clinical studies in people showing that these supplements reduce the risk of blood clots (which, as discussed above, can cause ischemic stroke). <br /> <br /> A daily dose of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#stroke" target="_blank"><strong>NAC (N-acetyl cysteine)</strong></a> was found to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke and heart attack, by 40% compared to placebo in people with end-stage renal failure.<br /> <br /> As discussed in the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38643" target="_blank"><strong>Strokes</strong></a>, several other supplements, such as policosanol, vinpocetine and glycine have been proposed to help reduce the risk or improve recovery from stroke, although the evidence for these is not strong. <br /> <br /> Be aware that taking a daily <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#background" target="_blank"><strong>multivitamin</strong></a> has not been found to reduce the risk of stroke. <br /> <br /> <b>Foods that may <i>reduce</i> the risk of stroke:</b> <br /> <br /> The following types of foods may reduce the risk of stroke &mdash; although the substances in these foods have not been shown to provide the same benefit when given as supplements.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Higher intakes of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#Anderson" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a> from foods are associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery calcification (a form of atherosclerosis), while the use of calcium supplements is associated with an increased risk. <br /> <br /> Higher intakes of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#heartdisease" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K<sub>2</sub></strong></a> from foods are also associated with a reduced risk of coronary calcification &mdash; while this benefit has not been shown from vitamin K supplements.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Eating one to two <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/#whatitis"target="_blank"><b>servings of fish</b></a> per week may lower the risk of ischemic stroke. Taking a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#bhatt"target="_blank"><b>particular prescription fish oil</b></a> product has also been associated with a reduced risk of first-time heart attack, stroke or other major cardiac event. <br /> <br /> Getting more <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#stroke" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a> from your food can help reduce the risk of stroke: One study found that people who consumed more magnesium per day than average had an 8% lower risk of strokes of any kind and a 9% lower risk of ischemic stroke. However, this does not mean that magnesium supplements necessarily have the same risk-lowering effect. <br /> <br /> In men and women at high risk for cardiovascular disease, consuming a certain amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#stroke" target="_blank"><strong>extra-virgin olive oil</strong></a><strong> </strong>daily, as part of a Mediterranean diet was found to reduce the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, heart attack and death by 30%.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> In observational studies, drinking several cups of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#stroke" target="_blank"><strong>green tea</strong></a> per day was found to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke by up to 21%. <br /> <br /> <b>Supplements that may <i>increase</i> the risk of stroke:</b> <br /> <br /> There is concern <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>choline</strong></a> from supplements and foods can increase the risk of stroke. However, a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/#stroke" target="_blank"><strong>specific form of choline</strong></a> may help to improve recovery from stroke. <br /> <br /> People who have had a stroke or are at risk for a stroke, should not take <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong><i>Ginkgo biloba</i></strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Be aware that a case of hemorrhagic stroke associated with the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14023" target="_blank"><strong>consumption of a popular energy drink</strong></a> has been reported. <br /> <br /> Also, be careful if you choose to use a weight loss supplement &mdash; the FDA has issued many warnings about weight loss supplements found to contain undeclared sibutramine, a drug which can substantially increase blood pressure and pulse rate in some individuals, and may present a significant risk for people with a history of stroke (Scroll down to the "Warnings" section&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=Search/stroke-Review" target="_blank"><strong>here</strong></a> for a list of some of these products). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-reduce/increase-the-risk-of-stroke/supplements-stroke/44605/6/2017AnswersI take melatonin to help me fall asleep. Are there any drugs that interact with melatonin that I should be aware of ?Melatonin supplements may <i>increase</i> the effects of certain drugs, and may <i>decrease</i> the effectiveness of others, including blood pressure medications. Also be aware that certain drugs (and even caffeine) may increase the amount of melatonin you absorb from supplements, potentially increasing its effects. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Caution and Concerns</b></a> section of the <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Melatonin Supplements Review</b></a>.</b></b> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/melatonin-interactions/melatonin-drug-interactions/44595/2/2017AnswersIs it true that yogurt and kefir can trigger migraines?Fermented dairy products such as kefir and yogurt may contain substances which some evidence suggests may trigger migraine headache. In fact, a leading organization suggests that migraine sufferers limit their consumption of fermented foods. However, the risk seems lower with kefir than with other fermented dairy products, such as cheeses, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#migraine" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns</strong></a> section of ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Probiotic Supplements and Kefirs</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-yogurt-%26-kefir-cause-migraines/yogurt-kefir-migraine/44585/2/2017AnswersDoes taking one slow-release calcium tablet of 600 mg (such as Citracal) per day pose a risk for heart disease?It depends on how much calcium you are already getting each day from other sources. As discussed in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#heartattack" target="_blank"><strong>Heart attack risk</strong></a>&quot; section of ConsumerLab.com&#39;s Calcium Supplements Review, a study determined that the risk of heart attack with calcium supplementation tends to be greater in those already getting more than 805 mg of calcium from their diet (excluding supplements). &nbsp;<br /> <br /> To get an idea of how much calcium is in common foods, see "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#food" target="_blank"><strong>How much calcium do you already get from food?</strong></a>" section of the report. <br /> <br /> It is generally thought that one can't absorb more than about 500 mg of calcium at time, so supplements with higher doses may not be worthwhile. However, an extended-release calcium supplement might help increase the amount absorbed. Nevertheless, 600 mg may still be more than you need. <br /> <br /> Too much calcium also increases the risk of kidney stones, and 5% to 8% of men and women have idiopathic calciuria (too much calcium in the urine for unknown reasons), which is a risk factor for kidney stones. Even 600 mg of calcium may be too much for such people, despite a diet somewhat low in calcium, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#stones" target="_blank"><strong>kidney stones</strong></a><strong> </strong>section of the report.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Also be sure you are getting adequate amounts of vitamin D, as it is necessary for your body to absorb and utilize calcium from both foods and supplements. For extensive information about vitamin D, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-taking-one-slow-release-calcium-pill-pose-a-risk-for-heart-disease/calcium-heart-disease/44574/28/2017AnswersWhat B-vitamin complex do you recommend for older people?To get the best B vitamin complex, you need to focus on two things: getting the specific B vitamins you're most likely to need, and not taking potentially harmful amounts of any them. &nbsp;In ConsumerLab.com's latest&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/https:/www.consumerlab.com/reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review</strong></a>, we identify our current&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#bcomplex" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Pick</em></strong></a>, which accomplishes these goals, is inexpensive, and has been shown in our independent tests to provide its listed ingredients and properly break apart to release those ingredients.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although you need a laboratory to know what's truly in a supplement and if it's made properly, you can use the following information to judge B-complexes:<br /> <br /> <span style="text-decoration:underline">What you absolutely want:</span><br /> <strong>B-12:&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;The B vitamin older people are most likely to need is vitamin B-12 because absorption of B-12 from foods can decrease with age, while B-12 from supplements is easier to absorb. The recommended intake of B-12 is quite small &mdash; just 2.4 mcg per day. While B-12 is quite safe and there is no established upper intake limit, people with diabetes or kidney disease should stay under 1,000 mcg or 1 mg per day.<br /> <br /> <strong>Pyridoxine (B-6): </strong>Althogh it's easy to get enough B-6 from your diet, mild deficiency is common, particularly in the elderly and children. You need 1.3 mg (under age 51), 1.7 mg (men 51+), and 1.5 mg (women 51+). However, there is an upper tolerable intake limit of 100 mg, which some B-complexes exceed and you should avoid.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <span style="text-decoration:underline">What to watch out for:</span><br /> Other B vitamins you should get from a B-complex but have upper limits are:<br /> <br /> <strong>Folate (B-9): </strong>&nbsp;You need 400 mcg daily. The upper limit is 1,000 mcg, but be aware that synthetic forms count as 170% of the listed amount. This means that <em>a supplement with more than 588 mcg of folic acid or methylfolate, exceeds the tolerable daily intake limit</em>. In addition, most Americans and Canadians get enough folate from their diet because of fortification of enriched flour with folic acid. Stick with a product that provides no more than 400 mcg from folic acid or other synthetic folate.<br /> <br /> <strong>Niacin (B-3):</strong> You need 16 mg (men) or 14 mg (women): Many B-complexes exceed the upper tolerable intake limit which is 35 mg.<br /> <br /> <span style="text-decoration:underline">Other B-vitamins:</span><br /> It is rare to be deficient in the other B vitamins if you are relatively well-nourished, but it's fine to get the daily requirements from a B-complex and no upper limits have been established for these. They, and their daily requirements, are:&nbsp;<strong>thiamin (B1)</strong>: 1.2 mg (men) and 1.1 mg (women); <strong>riboflavin (B-2)</strong>: 1.3 mg (men), 1.1 mg (women);&nbsp;<strong>pantothenic acid (B-5)</strong>: 5 mg, and <strong>biotin (B-7)</strong>: 30 mcg.<br /> <br /> More information about each of these B vitamins, their different forms, what they do, and potential concerns are found in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/https:/www.consumerlab.com/reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-b-complex-recommendations-for-older-people/best-B-complex/44554/26/2017AnswersWhich supplements help to improve energy and decrease fatigue?Getting adequate sleep, eating a healthy, well-balanced diet, and regular exercise are the best ways to maintain your energy. However, we all have times when we could benefit from an energy boost. (If you are frequently tired, be sure to consult your physician about potential causes, as discussed below). <br /> <br /> Certain supplements may help increase energy and decrease fatigue. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, which plays a role in energy production in cells, has been shown to decrease fatigue in people with conditions such as heart failure and Gulf War Illness. One small study suggested it may increase self-assessed "vitality" in older adults. (Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/could-my-coq10-supplement-be-causing-my-insomnia/coq10_insomnia/" target="_blank"><strong>taking CoQ10 in the evening can cause insomnia in some people</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/?clinicalid=250#cox" target="_blank"><strong>Curcumin</strong></a> (from turmeric) has been shown to reduce fatigue in older men and women using a particular branded formula. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Ashwagandha</strong></a> may reduce fatigue in middle-aged adults with moderate to severe anxiety. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#massee" target="_blank"><strong>Cocoa</strong></a> flavanols may help reduce self-reported mental fatigue in healthy adults, according to one study. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Ginseng</strong></a> is a popular ingredient in supplements promoted for increasing energy and vitality. Although there is little evidence to support this effect in healthy people, there is some evidence it may increase energy in people with cancer-related fatigue. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21450" target="_blank"><strong>Carnitine</strong></a> may help reduce fatigue in older men with symptoms of sexual dysfunction, depression and fatigue. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#metabolism" target="_blank"><strong>B vitamins</strong></a><strong> </strong>are involved in the metabolism of food to release energy, and deficiency in&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B-12</strong></a> is known to cause fatigue. However, if you already get an adequate amount of the B vitamins in your diet and are not deficient in them, supplementing with additional amounts of B vitamins is not known to improve performance. Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#energydrinks" target="_blank"><strong>energy drinks</strong></a> often contain much higher doses of B vitamins than needed &mdash; sometimes amounts above tolerable limits. Energy drinks also commonly contain significant amounts of caffeine or ingredients which naturally contain caffeine such as&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104598" target="_blank"><strong>guarana</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21686" target="_blank"><strong>cola nut</strong></a>. Although caffeine does not actually provide energy, it acts as a stimulant and can reduce fatigue. Be aware that energy drinks can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=11876" target="-blank"><strong>increase blood pressure</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14023" target="_blank"><strong>stroke</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14009" target="_blank"><strong>liver injury</strong></a> have been reported in people consuming certain energy drinks. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/" target="_blank"><strong>Energy bars</strong></a>, or nutrition bars, can be a good source of real energy (calories), especially if you are on the go and haven't had a chance to eat a real meal, and also provide vitamins and minerals. It's important to choose carefully as some are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>high in sugar</strong></a>, or contain sugar substitutes that may upset your stomach. Some also contain caffeine. <br /> <br /> Supplements that provide iodine, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Kelp_Supplements_Review/Kelp/" target="_blank"><strong>kelp supplements</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#iodine" target="_blank"><strong>potassium iodide</strong></a>, are often promoted to increase energy. However, there is little evidence for this effect unless they are being used to treat hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency. <br /> <br /> <strong><i><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/" target="_blank">Rhodiola rosea</a></i></strong> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/maca-supplement-review/maca/" target="_blank"><strong>maca supplements</strong></a> are sometimes promoted to increase energy or reduce fatigue, however, there is not enough evidence to support these supplements for this use. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Iron</strong></a> deficiency can cause fatigue. Consequently, correcting iron deficiency with iron supplementation can reduce related fatigue. Interestingly, iron supplementation has even been shown to reduce fatigue in women who are <i>not</i> anemic but have ferritin levels in the lower end of normal range. <br /> <br /> If your fatigue is caused by difficulty sleeping, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="-blank"><strong>melatonin</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-me-sleep/supplements_for_sleep/" target="_blank"><strong>other supplements for sleep</strong></a> may be helpful. (Note that taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-vitamin-d-reduce-your-natural-production-of-melatonin-and-interfere-with-sleep/vitamin_D_melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>high-dose vitamin D</strong></a> may reduce your body's natural production of melatonin). <br /> <br /> Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's wort</strong></a><strong> </strong>can&nbsp;<i>cause</i> fatigue when you take it, or if you abruptly <i>stop</i> taking it. <br /> <br /> Because there are many possible causes of fatigue, it's important to consult with your doctor if you feel tired frequently. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38391" target="_blank"><strong>Fatigue</strong></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/energy-supplements-to-help-improve-energy-%26-decrease-fatigue/supplements-for-energy/44544/25/2017AnswersNow that it was shown that Ginkgo biloba is not an effective memory enhancer, are there any other health enhancing benefits from taking it, and, if so, what dose should one take daily?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#whatdoes" target="_blank"><strong>"What It Does" section of the Ginkgo Supplements Review</strong></a>, it is true that most evidence indicates no significant benefit for <i>Ginkgo biloba</i> in preventing or treating Alzheimer's disease or other dementias. In healthy individuals, it may modestly improve limited aspects of memory and cognition &mdash; although this evidence comes from small, company-funded studies.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> There is some evidence that ginkgo may reduce the frequency of attacks of Raynaud's disease and may decrease symptoms of vertigo and vestibular disturbances. The dose and type of ginkgo used in each of these conditions is noted in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#tipsusing" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Using</strong></a>" section of the Review &mdash; which includes ConsumerLab's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#found" target="_blank"><strong>tests and comparisons</strong></a> of marketed <em>Gingko biloba </em>supplements.&nbsp; https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-health-benefits-from-taking-ginkgo-biloba-and-what-is-the-correct-dose/other-ginkgo-benefits/44524/21/2017AnswersDo collagen or hyaluronic acid supplements really help aging or wrinkled skin?Adults lose about 1% of the collagen in their skin each year, which contributes to thinning and wrinkling in aging skin. This loss of collagen may be more evident at an earlier age in women, who have lower collagen density in their skin than men. Hyaluronic acid (also called hyaluronan) is another component of skin that decreases with age. Many supplements containing collagen and/or hyaluronic acid, such as,&nbsp;<i>NeoCell Derma Matrix Collagen Skin Complex, Life Extension Hair, Skin and Nails Rejuvenation Formula</i>, <i>Lindberg Skin Rejuvenator,</i> and <em>Natural Factor's</em>&nbsp;<i>Hyabest&reg; Hyaluronic Acid</i>, are promoted to improve the skin and some contain branded collagen ingredients such as <i>VERISOL</i> and <i>BioCell Collagen</i> or <i>Hyabest Hyaluronic Acid</i>, which have been tested in studies. <br /> <br /> But can taking collagen and/or hyaluronic acid supplements, in the form of capsules, tablets, or powders, actually increase the collagen in skin, or improve the skin's appearance?&nbsp;The evidence suggests that some products may have modest effects, but the evidence for other products is weak. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>Aging Skin and Wrinkles</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/" target="_blank"><b>Collagen Supplements Review</b></a>, which includes our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Collagen_Supplements_Review_Peptides_Hydrolysate/collagen/#toppick-skin" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> for collagen supplements for skin. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38389" target="_blank"><strong>Aging Skin</strong></a> for information about other proposed treatments.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/collagen-%26-hyaluronic-acid-supplements-for-skin-care/collagen-aging-skin/44504/19/2017AnswersCan N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG) really help improve symptoms of bowel disease such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)? There is currently only preliminary evidence to support the use of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG) in treating inflammatory bowel diseases such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21611" target="_blank"><strong>Crohn's disease</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21844" target="_blank"><strong>ulcerative coliti</strong>s</a>. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#nag" target="_blank"><strong>"NAG" section of the Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements Review >></strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-n-acetyl-glucosamine-nag-really-help-improve-symptoms-of-bowel-disease-such-as-crohns-disease/N-acetyl-glucosamine/44464/15/2017AnswersWhich foods are a good source of B vitamins?B vitamins are essential vitamins, meaning that your body needs them but cannot make them. You must get them through foods in your diet and/or supplements. Fortunately, most B vitamins are easily obtained from foods and people should be able to get adequate intakes through their diets &mdash; although there are exceptions, as noted below. The B Vitamins include&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#thiamin" target="_blank"><strong>thiamin</strong></a>, <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#riboflavin"><strong>riboflavin</strong></a>, <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin"><strong>niacin</strong></a>, <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b5"><strong>pantothenic acid</strong></a>, <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6"><strong>B-6</strong></a>, <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotin"><strong>biotin</strong></a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folate</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>B-12</strong></a>.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <strong>Foods that are good sources of each of the B vitamins and the amounts they contain</strong> are listed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips</strong></a> section of the B Vitamins Supplements Review. <br /> <br /> You may be surprised to see how much folate you are getting from foods fortified with folic acid (such as breakfast cereals), because folic acid provides much more folate than currently reflected on labels (e.g., 400 mcg of folic acid provides the equivalent of 680 mcg of natural folate). This is a concern because there are risks associated with getting too much folate from folic acid. Learn more about this in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tipsFolate" target="_blank"><strong>Folate</strong></a> section of the review.)&nbsp;<br /> <br /> People who may need to supplement their diet include: <ul> <li>&nbsp;Older men and women and those taking medications to reduce stomach acid, who may be low in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>B-12</strong></a> due to reduced absorption</li> <li>&nbsp;Pregnant woman, who should get <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folate</strong></a> in the form of folic acid from a supplement to help prevent birth defects&nbsp;</li> <li>&nbsp;People with certain genetic variants who may also benefit from special forms of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank">&nbsp;<strong>folate</strong></a></li> <li>&nbsp;Individuals who have high cholesterol and are instructed by a health professional to take high-dose of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a> to help lower it</li> </ul> <p><br /> For more about getting the right amount of B vitamins from your diet or supplements, as well as our tests of products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamins Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a></p>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/b-vitamins---food-sources-that-provide-b-vitamins/b_vitamins_in_food/44454/12/2017AnswersCan prenatal vitamins have too much folic acid? Mine has 800 mcg, but isn't that more than what's recommended? Is this dangerous to me or my baby?Prenatal vitamins <i>can</i> have too much folic acid, many do, and there is potential risk associated with this. <br /> <br /> Folic acid is a synthetic form of the B vitamin <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tipsFolate" target="_blank"><strong>folate</strong></a><strong> </strong>(B9) which naturally occurs in foods, such as green leafy vegetables. Folate can help&nbsp;<i>reduce the risk of your baby being born with spina bifida (a leading cause of childhood paralysis) and other birth defects</i>. While most adults need 400 mcg of folate daily, pregnant women need 600 mcg. To be sure you get this, it's suggested that you take a supplement with 400 mcg of folic acid and that you get the rest of your folate from your diet &mdash; from foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, oranges, and grain products enriched with folic acid.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Unfortunately, many prenatal supplements provide 800 mcg or more of folic acid &mdash;&nbsp;<i>double the recommended amount from a supplement</i>. That's not all. Folic acid is absorbed much better (about 70% better) than folate from foods. This means that a prenatal supplement with 800 mcg of folic acid gives you the equivalent of 1,360 mcg of folate. (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#updateonfolate" target="_blank"><strong>Labels will start making this clear 2018, but current labels don't</strong></a>). On top of this, many manufacturers put in extra folic acid (30% or more is not uncommon), so it's quite possible that your supplement which lists 800 mcg of folate from folic acid is giving you the equivalent of about 1,800 mcg of folate. Add to that the 300 to 400 mcg of folate you're likely already getting from foods and you can see that this can easily total of over 2,000 mcg of folate per day! <br /> <br /> The upper tolerable intake level (UL) for folate is 1,000 mcg (which applies only to that consumed from supplements and fortified foods from synthetic forms like folic acid) &mdash; so any supplement with more than 586 mcg of folic acid will cause you to exceed the limit. It's best not to exceed this because prolonged intake of excessive folic acid can cause kidney damage and can complicate the diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency (folic acid supplementation can mask a symptom of vitamin B-12 deficiency). Of particular concern to pregnant women is that excessively high blood levels of folate (&gt;59 nmol/L) in their blood was found to be associated with an approximate twofold increased risk of autism in their children according to an observational study in Baltimore in which 10% of women exceeded this level (<a href="#" target="_blank">Raghavan, International Meeting for Autism Research 2016</a>). The study also found that when blood levels of both folate and vitamin B-12 were excessively high, the risk of autism was 17.6 times greater. (Note: Getting adequate folate during pregnancy may <i>reduce</i> the risk of autism; the concern is with getting <i>too much</i>). <br /> <br /> So what should you do? <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com has tested and compared many <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>prenatal supplements</strong></a> and other multivitamins. Unfortunately, most on the market tested by CL to-date have too much folic acid (more will be tested in mid-2017). For now it may be safest to skip a "prenatal" vitamin with 800 mcg of folic acid and, instead, choose a daily multivitamin which provides 400 mcg of folic acid. The multi should also provide other nutrients of particular importance during pregnancy such as iodine (150 mcg), vitamin D (600 IU), and calcium (1,000 mg per day is the daily requirement, but don't take more than 500 mg at a time from a supplement). A challenge, however, is getting adequate iron, since the daily requirement during pregnancy (27 mg) is higher than for other pre-menopausal women (18 mg). A women's multi can provide all the nutrients listed above, but typically just 18 mg of iron, so you'll need to get extra iron from your diet. Alternatively, you can choose another multi and take a separate <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><strong>iron supplement</strong></a> providing about 27 mg of iron. <p style="text-align:center">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 700; text-align: -webkit-center; background-color: #ffffff">Your Prenatal Vitamin Needs a Check-up with CL founder, Dr. Tod Cooperman</span>&nbsp;</p> <a name="video" id="video"></a> <p style="text-align:center"><iframe width="560" height="318" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/l2jVql5NDac?rel=0" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen>Default preview for : Iframe</iframe></p>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-prenatal-vitamins-have-too-much-folic-acid/prenatal-vitamins-folic-acid/44444/9/2017AnswersI read on your website that some B-12 vitamins can cause diarrhea due to added sugar substitutes like sorbitol. I have had diarrhea and never thought it could be caused by my vitamin B-12 supplement, until I read your article and stopped taking the supplement. My diarrhea stopped immediately. Can you help me find a brand of B-12 that doesn't contain sorbitol or sugar substitutes that could cause this problem?It's true that in order to taste good, some B-12 supplements (such as dissolvable tablets, liquids, and sprays) contain sugar substitutes which can cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#taste" target="_blank"><strong>B-12 section</strong></a> of the B Vitamins Review. <br /> <br /> If you want to avoid these ingredients, you can check and compare the complete <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>list of ingredients</strong></a> for each product, or see <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b12" target="-blank"><i>CL's Top Picks</i> among B-12 supplements</a></b>, where there are specific product suggestions, including those which don't contain gas-causing ingredients. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-best-b-12-brand-that-doesnt-contain-sugar-substitutes/B-12-without-sugar-substitutes/44413/28/2017AnswersIs it true that milk thistle supplements can be contaminated with toxins that can be harmful to the liver?Milk thistle is often taken to help protect the liver, but ironically, it can be contaminated with yeast and mold (fungi) which create toxins that are potentially <i>harmful</i> to the liver. These organisms are known to grow on milk thistle if not properly dried and stored after harvest. The yeast and mold, and significant levels of toxins, are most commonly found in products made of whole milk thistle seed and cut herbs, but are less likely in other types of milk thistle supplements, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/#mold" target="_blank"><strong>"Concerns and Cautions" section of the Milk Thistle Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-milk-thistle-supplements-be-contaminated-with-toxins-that-are-harmful-to-the-liver/milk-thistle-toxins/44403/25/2017AnswersCan taking N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplements reduce my risk of liver damage from acetaminophen?Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used medically to <i>treat</i> acetaminophen (<i>Tylenol</i>) overdose, no studies in people have evaluated the effects of taking NAC with acetaminophen to <i>prevent</i> acetaminophen-related liver damage. The only studies like this to-date have been in animals. For more details about this and other uses of NAC, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#acetaminophen" target="_blank"><strong>"What It Does" section of the NAC Supplements Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/nac-n-acetylcysteine-supplements-%26-liver-damage-reduction/N-acetylcysteine-NAC-acetaminophen/44383/24/2017AnswersHow does white tea compare to green tea and black tea in terms of antioxidant catechins? How about caffeine levels and lead contamination?White tea is made from the same leaves as green tea, but picked at a less mature stage. When brewed, white tea tends to provide comparable amounts of catechins (although, according to one study, much lower antioxidant activity overall), lower amounts of caffeine, and is less likely to be contaminated with lead than green tea. Bear in mind, however, that there can be considerable variation from product to product. For more details about how teas differ, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>"What to Consider When Buying" section of the Green Tea Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/white-tea-green-tea-%26-black-tea-comparison/white-tea/44373/22/2017AnswersAre there any supplements I should avoid when taking acetaminophen (Tylenol)?Acetaminophen (<i>Tylenol</i>, paracetamol) is the <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>most common drug ingredient</strong></a> in the U.S. and is found in more than 600 combination formulas, including <em>Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold formula</em> and the drug <em>Percocet</em>. Although few supplement interactions with acetaminophen have been reported in people, research suggests certain vitamins and herbs may affect how acetaminophen is metabolized in the body &mdash; increasing its potential for adverse effects or decreasing its effectiveness. In addition, if you are taking high doses of acetaminophen (which can cause liver damage), it may be best to avoid supplements with the potential to damage the liver. Certain foods can also interact with acetaminophen. There has been some concern over the risk of bleeding when using herbal supplements along with acetaminophen, although recent evidence argues against this. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=acetaminophen-supplement-interactions"><strong>For details, including the specific supplements of concern, see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplement-interactions-with-acetaminophen/acetaminophen-supplement-interactions/44363/21/2017AnswersHow does regular black pepper compare with black pepper extract used in supplements? Will sprinkling it on food with turmeric help increase the bioavailability of curcumin compounds from turmeric?Black pepper contains piperine, a compound which has been shown to increase the bioavailability of curcumin &mdash; a key anti-inflammatory compound in turmeric. Piperine appears to do this inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down curcumin in the body. Piperine may similarly increase the bioavailability of certain supplement ingredients, such as&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, as well as drugs (as discussed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#piperine" target="_blank">Concerns and Cautions in the Turmeric Supplements Review</a>).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> While regular black pepper (used as a spice in foods) contains a much smaller percentage of piperine than black pepper <i>extracts</i>, which are highly concentrated (such as <em>Bioperine</em>) &mdash; it is possible to get enough piperine from regular black pepper to significantly increase the bioavailability of turmeric in food.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=black-pepper-turmeric-food"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/black-pepper-extract-supplements-vs-regular-black-pepper/black-pepper-turmeric-food/44353/18/2017AnswersI've read of dangers from taking calcium supplements -- such as the risk of developing arterial calcifications. I can't seem to find a multivitamin without calcium. Can you help me?It's true that getting too much calcium from supplements can increase the risk of arterial calcifications,&nbsp;and this should be avoided. More information about this risk is found in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#heartattack " target="_blank"><strong>"Concerns and Cautions" section of the Calcium Supplements Review.</strong></a> <br /> <br /> As to finding a multivitamin without calcium, first be aware that most multivitamins provide less than 20% of the 1,000 - 1,200 mg adult&nbsp;daily requirement of calcium. There is little safety concern with this amount of calcium from a supplement if you&#39;re not getting quite enough from your diet. However, if you&#39;re sure that you get sufficient calcium from your diet and want to avoid getting more from a multivitamin, there are multivitamins that contain only tiny amounts (under 20 mg) of calcium -- usually as incidental part of another ingredient in the supplement. You can easily find products like this by comparing the amounts of calcium listed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/multivitamin_multimineral_supplements/multivitamins/#compmin" target="_blank"><strong>"Minerals" comparison table of ConsumerLab.com's Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplements Review &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-dangers-from-getting-too-much-calcium-from-supplements/calcium-arterial-calcification/44343/15/2017AnswersHow much dark chocolate equals a tablespoon of cocoa powder?ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#results-powder" target="_blank"><b>tests of popular brands of unsweetened cocoa powder</b></a> show that a tablespoon (5 grams) provides from 37 to 130 milligrams of cocoa flavanols, depending on the brand. Cocoa flavanols are key compounds associated with cocoa's health benefits.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> ConsumerLab's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#results" target="_blank"><b>tests of popular sweetened dark chocolates</b></a> found that a 40 gram serving (the size of a medium bar)&nbsp;provides from 136 mg to 440 mg of flavanols depending on the brand. The same amount of unsweetened baking chocolate provides a whopping 592 mg of flavanols.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> As you can see, a tablespoon of cocoa powder rich in flavanols will provide about as many milligrams of flavanols as an <em>entire</em> bar of the weakest dark chocolate or <em>just one-quarter </em>of a bar that is rich in flavanols. It all depends on the product you choose. A benefit of choosing a dark chocolate rich in flavanols is that you&#39;ll&nbsp;get those flavanols while minimizing calories. Unfortunately, you won&#39;t be able determine flavanol content from reading labels because flavanols are&nbsp;rarely listed and even the &quot;% cacao&quot; shown on some labels is not a reliable indicator.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> You can find out the flavanol (and calorie) content of cocoa powders and dark chocolates tested by ConsumerLab.com in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#results" target="_blank"><strong>Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolate, Extracts, Nibs, &amp; Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-dark-chocolate-equals-a-tablespoon-of-cocoa-powder/dark-chocolate-cocoa-flavanols/44333/7/2017AnswersThe vision supplement I take is based on the AREDS2 formula, but it contains a lot of zinc -- 80 mg in the recommended daily serving. Is it necessary, and safe, to take this much zinc every day?The Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#areds" target="_blank"><strong>AREDS and AREDS 2</strong></a>) are two of the largest studies on supplements for eye health. The formulation used in the first AREDS study included 80 mg of zinc (as well as other ingredients) and was shown to slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) when taken on a daily basis. However, this amount of zinc is <i>double</i> the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=resources/RDA_AI_UL_vitamins_minerals/recommended_intakes/index.asp#Zinc" target="_blank"><strong>upper tolerable level</strong></a> for adults (see the Cautions section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Zinc Review</strong></a> for concerns with excessive intake of zinc) -- and may not be necessary. In fact, the second AREDS study, AREDS2, found that a formulation which contained a much lower dose of zinc was just as effective in helping to slow the progression of AMD as the formulation with the higher dose of zinc. <br /> <br /> For more details, including tests and comparisons of supplements based on the AREDS2 formula, see the special section <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#areds" target="_blank">"V<strong>ision Formulas Used in the AREDS Studies" in the Vision Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/areds-study-info-on-vision-supplements-with-zinc/vision-supplement-zinc/44323/7/2017AnswersDoes turmeric/curcumin help for osteoarthritis in dogs and cats? Is it safe?Some small studies have suggested that curcumin may reduce markers of inflammation in dogs and cats, but studies have not shown a direct benefit on the symptoms of osteoarthritis in pets. Curcumin appears to be safe for dogs and cats, but be aware that, as with people, there are safety concerns with certain medications and medical conditions &mdash; as well as with an absorption enhancer found in some formulations. For more details, including typical doses, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#dogsandcats" target="_blank"><strong>"What It Does Section" of the Turmeric/Curcumin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Although ConsumerLab.com has not tested curcumin supplements for pets, we have tested other <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Joint_Supplements_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Dogs_Cats/jointsupplements_pets/" target="_blank"><strong>Joint Health Supplements for Pets (with glucosamine and chondroitin)</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Tests of other pet supplements for other uses can be found within larger reviews focusing on supplements for people, including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>Multivitamins</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements</strong></a><strong>,</strong> and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank"><strong>Seed Oils (Flaxseed, Evening Primrose, and Borage)</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAMe_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/" target="_blank"><strong>SAMe</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotics</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/turmeric-for-dogs-%26-cats/turmeric-curcumin-dogs-cats/44313/4/2017AnswersI'm a vegan but my doctor wants me to take fish oil with EPA and DHA. Is there something I can take that would be as good as fish oil capsules but would satisfy the needs of a vegan?You can get the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA from the same place that fish get theirs &mdash; algae. Because algae is lower on the food chain than fish, omega-3's from algal oils are naturally less contaminated than oils from fish (although fish oil in supplements is purified, removing most of these contaminants, as shown by&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>tests by ConsumerLab.com</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> Another advantage of algal oil over fish oil is that the EPA and DHA are in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>triglyceride form</strong></a> &mdash; which may be somewhat better absorbed than the ethyl ester form found in many fish oil supplements In fact, an increasing percentage of fish oils are now sold in the triglyceride form, possibly for this reason.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> However, algal oil is typically more expensive that fish oil and, based on tests by ConsumerLab.com, algal oil supplements do not contain the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#omega7" target="_blank"><strong>omega-7 fatty acids</strong></a> found naturally in fish oil, which, preliminary research suggests, may help reduce inflammation and improve cholesterol levels. (Be aware that <i>highly concentrated</i> fish oils also tend to have very little omega-7, as it is removed during processing in order to increase the concentrations of EPA and DHA). &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Flaxseed oil, echium oil and chia seeds are sometimes promoted as alternative sources of omega-3 fatty acids. However, be aware that they do not contain EPA and DHA. Rather, they contain a different omega-3 fatty acid -- alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). While ALA has some benefits, they are not the same as those for EPA and DHA and the body can convert only a very small percentage ALA into EPA and DHA. More details about these and other seed-based sources of fatty acids are found in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>Product Review of Flaxseed Oil, Evening Primrose Oil, Borage Oil, and Black Currant Oil Supplements: Sources of ALA and GLA (Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids)</strong></a>.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The bottom line: You can certainly get EPA and DHA from algal oil -- it will just cost you a bit more than from most fish oils. Other alternatives, such as flaxseed oil, echium oil and chia seeds provide the omega-3 ALA, but do not provide the EPA and DHA found in fish and algal oil. <br /> <br /> You can see ConsumerLab.com's test results for algal oil supplements in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#results-vegetarian" target="_blank"><strong>Vegetarian Source (Algal) Oil section of the Fish Oil/Omega-3 Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/epa-and-dha-supplements-that-are-vegan-friendly/vegan-epa-dha/44303/2/2017AnswersI recently read that a gluten-free diet may increase your exposure to arsenic and mercury. Is this true?It is true that a study found that people who reported to be on gluten-free diets had levels of arsenic in their urine that averaged about 50% to 90% more than found in people not eating gluten-free diets. The study (based on the U.S. population from 2009 to 2014) also found 70% more mercury in the blood of gluten-free eaters.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The researchers speculated that rice may be contributing to the higher concentrations of arsenic in gluten-free eaters because it is the primary substitute grain in gluten-free products. It is true that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=10363" target="_blank"><b>certain rice products are known to contain higher amounts of arsenic, particularly brown rice</b></a>. <br /> <br /> <i>However, a careful review of this study by ConsumerLab.com indicates that the amounts of arsenic and mercury found do not pose a health risk and, furthermore, the primary source of these compounds is quite possibly not gluten-free foods.</i> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=gluten-free-arsenic-mercury"><strong>See the full answer for the details &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> (If you are on a gluten-free diet, be aware that oats are naturally gluten-free, but that some oat cereals contain significant amounts of gluten due to cross-contamination during processing. See ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based Cereals/oats/" target="_blank"><b>Oat Cereals Review</b></a> for results by product -- none of which, by the way, were found to be contaminated with heavy metals such as arsenic.)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/gluten-free-diet-increasing-exposure-to-arsenic-%26-mercury/gluten-free-arsenic-mercury/44282/15/2017AnswersI'm interested in using Himalayan salt. What are the health benefits with it and other specialty salts? Are there contaminants in these salts?Himalayan salt and other specialty or gourmet salts from ancient mineral deposits, as well as Hawaiian, Mediterranean, and French sea salts, and Australian river salts, have become popular -- due to their flavor and suggested health benefits. <br /> <br /> One of the potential health benefits commonly ascribed to these salts is that they have higher concentrations of essential minerals (like <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements/potassium/" target="_blank"><strong>potassium</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Magnesium_Supplements/magnesium/" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Chromium/chromium/" target="_blank"><strong>chromium</strong></a>) than ordinary table salt (purified sodium chloride). In addition, if you have high blood pressure and are trying to limit sodium intake, these more flavorful salts may allow you to use less salt, therefore, consuming less sodium. <br /> <br /> At the same time, there has been concern that specialty salts contain heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic, which are toxic compounds &mdash; although it has also been claimed that salts mined from ancient mineral deposits may contain lower amounts of heavy metals which have entered the environment due to industrialization.&nbsp; &nbsp;<br /> <br /> To determine just how much of these minerals and heavy metals occur in specialty salts, a chemical analysis was performed on a dozen products including Himalayan Pink Fine Salt and Primordial Himalayan Salt, as well as Cyprus Black, Mediterranean Sea Salt, Sel Gris De Guerande, Aleaa Hawaiian Sea Salt, Hawaii Kai Black Salt, Murray River Pink Flake Salt, Sel de Mer, Kala Namak Black Salt, and Fumee de Sel Chardonnay Oak Smoked Salt. The amounts of minerals and heavy metals found in the salts may surprise you. <br /> <br /> There is also concern about contamination of salts, particularly Himalayan salts, with fragments of plastic ("microplastics"). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Himalayan-salt-specialty-salt"><strong>For the details about what was found in Himalayan salt and ConsumerLab.com's bottom line on what this means, see the full answer &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/himalayan-salt-health-benefits/Himalayan-salt-specialty-salt/44272/11/2017AnswersJust one dose of a horse chestnut extract (standardized to 20% aescin) caused me to have significant nausea and vomiting. Might there be a problem with the product?As discussed in our article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21758" target="_blank"><strong>Horse Chestnut</strong></a>, stomach irritation can be caused by a compound naturally found in horse chestnut -- even in extracts. By taking the extract in a controlled release formulation, the incidence of irritation may be reduced. So if the product you used was not controlled release, the side effects you experienced may not be unusual.<br /> <br /> Horse chestnut is typically used to reduce inflammation and swelling, particularly associated with varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Be aware that consuming "whole" horse chestnut (as opposed to extracts from which a toxin, esculin, has been removed) is dangerous. For more information about uses, evidence, dosing, side effects, and drug interactions, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21758" target="_blank"><strong>Horse Chestnut</strong></a> article. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/horse-chestnut-side-effects-%26-nausea/horse-chestnut-side-effects/44262/10/2017AnswersI've heard fish oil may be helpful for dry eye. Is this true? How much should I take?Several small studies suggest that EPA and DHA from fish oil (sometimes in combination with other ingredients, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/flaxseed/#dryeye" target="-blank"><strong>black currant seed oil</strong></a>) can help to improve the symptoms of dry eye. For details, including formulas and dosage, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#dryeye" target="_blank">"<strong>What It Does" section of the Fish Oil Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/castor-oil-eye-drops-for-cataracts/castor-oil-cataracts/" target="_blank"><strong>Castor oil eye drops</strong></a> (applied directly to the eye, not taken orally) may also help for dry eye. <br /> <br /> For people who suffer dry eye due to&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38401" target="_blank"><strong>Sjogren's syndrome</strong></a> (an autoimmune condition), supplementation with flaxseed oil may be beneficial. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/#using" target="_blank"><strong>"What to Consider When Using" section of the Flaxseed Oil, Evening Primrose Oil, Borage Oil, and Black Currant Oil Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> For information about supplements for other eye conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, and our tests of related supplements, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> (Note: Several of these supplements contain DHA and EPA, but not in doses found to improve dry eye). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/fish-oil-for-dry-eyes/fish-oil-dry-eye/44252/7/2017AnswersCan I just stop taking alpha lipoic acid, or do I need to taper down?First, if you take any of the medications with which alpha lipoic acid potentially interacts, stopping alpha lipoic acid may cause you to have to adjust the doses you take of such medications. These medications are discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Alpha-Lipoic_Acid_Supplements/alphalipoic/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>"Concerns and Cautions" section of the Alpha Lipoic Acid Review</strong></a>. If you are on one of these medications, you may want to discuss your change in alpha-lipoic acid use with your healthcare practitioner. <br /> <br /> In light of the above, and even if you are not taking other medications, it may be best to taper off alpha-lipoic acid, such as cutting to a half-dose for a week before stopping completely &mdash; although we are not aware of studies looking at this or other procedures for discontinuing alpha-lipoic acid treatment.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-to-stop-taking-alpha-lipoic-acid/alpha-lipoic-acid-stop-taking/44242/7/2017AnswersDo either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine help with memory and cognition? How are these supplements different?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21843" target="_blank"><strong>Phosphatidylserine</strong></a> article on our site, studies have shown it to be effective in treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of age-related mental decline. However, the phosphatidylserine used in these studies was derived from cow brain tissue, which, due to safety concerns, is now rarely sold. <br /> <br /> Nearly all phosphatidylserine supplements on the market today use ingredients derived from soy (which is also the main source of phosphatidylcholine). This plant-derived form has a different fatty acid composition than phosphatidylserine from brain tissue and, unfortunately, studies using the plant-derived form have shown very modest or no benefit for cognitive function or age-related memory impairment (<a href="#" target="_blank">Kato-Kataoka, J Clin Biochem Nutr 2010</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Jorissen, Nutr Neurosci 2001</a>). <br /> <br /> There is also not much evidence that phosphatidylcholine can improve memory or cognition. However, it does provide choline, which is a component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Another chemical form of choline sold in supplements has shown some promise in improving memory and cognition as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/" target="_blank"><strong>Choline Supplements Review</strong></a> (which includes our tests and comparisons of marketed supplements). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-either-phosphatidylserine-or-phosphatidylcholine-help-with-memory-and-cognition-how-are-these-supplements-different/phosphatidylserine-phosphatidylcholine/44231/31/2017AnswersIs it safe to take arginine, or other supplements for sexual enhancement, while taking Viagra or Cialis?In general, it may be best to avoid taking sexual enhancement supplements if you are taking a prescription medication for erectile function, such as sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis). There are concerns of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-yohimbe-horny-goat-weed-arginine/sexenhancers/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>potential interactions</strong></a> when taking these drugs with arginine, and certain other common ingredients in sexual enhancement supplements, such as horny goat weed. <br /> <br /> In addition, many sexual enhancement supplements have been found to contain undeclared sildenafil and tadalafil, so that taking them along with the same prescribed medications for erectile dysfunction may result in too large a dose and an increase in side-effects associated with these drugs (see the list of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=condition_supplements/sexual+enhancement-supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>Recalls and Warning</strong>s</a> for supplements found to contain these drugs). <br /> <br /> That being said, a particular form of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21450" target="_blank"><strong>carnitine</strong></a>, may increase the effectiveness of sildenafil in men with diabetes who had previously failed to respond to the drug, without serious adverse effects (mild gastric pain was reported). <br /> <br /> Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#sildenafil" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's Wort</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Pomegranate_Juice_and_Supplements/pomegranate/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>pomegranate juice</strong></a> may also interact with sildenafil and/or tadalafil. In addition, grapefruit juice and orange juice made from Seville oranges may interact with sildenafil, potentially increasing its effects (<a href="#" target="_blank">Jetter, Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Abdelkawy, Drugs R D 2016</a>). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/viagra-%26-cialis-interactions-with-arginine-or-others/supplement-interactions-viagra/44211/24/2017AnswersIs it true that glutamine powder can help protect the stomach when taking NSAIDs like ibuprofen?While glutamine has been promoted as protecting the stomach and gastrointestinal tract from NSAIDs, the evidence for this is very limited and multiple doses may be required, as explained in the <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#glutamine" target="_blank">"Glutamine" section of the Muscle Enhancer Supplements Review >></a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/glutamine-powder-to-protect-the-stomach-when-taking-nsaids/glutamine-NSAIDs/44201/17/2017AnswersIs it true that taking turmeric/curcumin with food can reduce iron absorption from food?First, it's important to know that you're usually better off taking turmeric and curcumin <i>with</i> food because the fats and oils in foods significantly enhance the absorption of key compounds &mdash; curcuminoids. However, these same compounds can bind to iron and may reduce its availability &mdash; which should be of concern to people who are anemic or have low iron stores. The concern is greater with curcumin than with turmeric spice as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#iron" target="_blank"><strong>"Cautions and Concerns" section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-turmeric-curcumin-interfere-with-iron-absorption-from-food/turmeric-curcumin-iron/44191/14/2017AnswersIs bromelain a good alternative to NSAIDs, like ibuprofen, for muscle or joint pain?<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=146651" target="_blank"><strong>Bromelain</strong></a> is a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21671" target="_blank"><strong>proteolytic enzyme</strong></a> found in pineapple which is often promoted for reducing pain and inflammation. Unfortunately, as discussed in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#inflammation" target="_blank"><strong>Digestive Enzyme Supplements Review</strong></a>, studies have failed to show benefit from bromelain alone, and there is only preliminary evidence that it may be as helpful as the NSAID diclofenac (Volaren) when combined with additional ingredients. Although the bromelain combination formula was tolerated better or equal to diclofenac, there are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>potential side effects and drug interactions</strong></a><strong> </strong>when taking bromelain. &nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bromelain-benefits---alternative-to-nsaids-ibuprofen/bromelain-pain-nsaids/44181/7/2017AnswersI'm worried that I'm not getting enough potassium in my diet, but potassium supplements only seem to provide a very small dose -- much less than what we are supposed to get on a daily basis. Why is this, and how can increase my daily intake?Although most Americans get enough potassium from their diets and <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#foods" target="_blank">many common foods are rich in potassium</a></b>, there is evidence that many Americans may not be getting adequate potassium, which, for most adults is 4,700 mg per day. <br /> <br /> Many potassium supplements provide just a small fraction of this amount, often 99 mg of potassium per daily serving. The reasons for this are explained in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying</strong></a>" section of the Potassium Supplements Review. However, as also noted in the Review, supplements providing larger doses of potassium are now available on the market. These may be more practical for people who take larger doses of potassium for a specific reason, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>lowering high blood pressure</strong></a>, or for those who are unable to get enough potassium in their diet. <br /> <br /> For more about this, as well as our tests of products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Potassium_Supplements_Review/Potassium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Potassium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/amount-of-potassium-in-a-potassium-supplement-dosage/getting-enough-potassium/44161/3/2017AnswersAre the inactive ingredients I see listed on my supplement label necessary? Are they dangerous?Inactive ingredients (technically called "excipients") in supplements, which are listed as "Other Ingredients" on supplement labels, are used to help stabilize ingredients and increase shelf life, improve consistency, improve resistance to moisture, hold tablets together, add bulk (facilitating manufacturing with small amounts of key ingredient), add color, or add flavor. <br /> <br /> These ingredients are regulated by the FDA as food additives and are generally considered to be safe in the small quantities used in dietary supplements. However, some ingredients, such as certain coloring agents, may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. For details about the various inactive ingredients found in supplements, the reason for their use, and safety, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Inactive_Ingredients_in_Supplements/inactiveingredients/" target="_blank"><strong>Review Article on Inactive Ingredients >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> If you want to avoid certain inactive ingredients, ConsumerLab.com publishes the full list of these for every product it reviews. Just check the &quot;Ingredients&quot; page associated with each<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Product Review</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-the-inactive-ingredients-i-see-listed-on-my-supplement-label-necessary-and-safe/inactive-ingredients-excipients/441512/27/2016AnswersIs it better to buy supplements which are combination formulas or single-ingredient?It's generally best to buy and use single-ingredient supplements. There are several reasons for this.<br /> <br /> First, you are more likely to get what's listed on the label with a single-ingredient supplement. Years of testing by ConsumerLab.com have shown that combination products are more likely to contain incorrect amounts of one or more ingredients -- and they are more likely to be contaminated.<br /> <br /> Second, with a single-ingredient supplement, the recommended daily serving of that ingredient is more likely to be clinically relevant than if the ingredient is part of a combination formula, where a tiny amount may be included merely as "window dressing." In addition, most combinations on the market have not been clinically tested.<br /> <br /> Third, using single-ingredient supplements gives you a better idea of which ingredients work and which do not, as well as which are causing side-effects. This allows you to adjust your supplements and dosage to better suit your needs.<br /> <br /> Finally, you may find it actually costs <em>less</em> to purchase ingredients as separate supplements than in a combination formula. Many single-ingredient products of high quality and low cost are identified in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerLab.com's Product Reviews</strong></a>.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> With that said, an appropriate time to use a combination formula is when that exact combination has been shown to work in a well-controlled clinical trial and it is less expensive to purchase (or much more convenient to use) than the corresponding collection of single-ingredient supplements.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/combination-vs-individual-supplements/single-ingredient-vs-combination/441312/22/2016AnswersIs Esberitox effective for treating a cold?<i>Esberitox</i> (from Enzymatic Therapy) is a blended extract of <i>Echinacea purpurea</i> and <i>pallida</i> root, wild indigo (<i>Baptisia tinctorial</i>) root, and <i>Thuja occidentalis</i> leaf. Several small studies suggest that it may shorten the duration of cold symptoms, but it must be taken several times a day. Get the details in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/#esberitox" target="_blank"><strong>"What It Does" section of the Echinacea Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/esberitox-%26-its-effectiveness-for-treating-a-cold/Esberitox-colds/441212/20/2016AnswersAre lithium orotate supplements as effective and safe as prescription lithium for bipolar disease and depression?It's not known if lithium orotate is as effective for bipolar disease as lithium carbonate and lithium citrate (which are both FDA-approved drugs) and there is preliminary evidence that it is not as safe at the high doses of lithium used to treat bipolar disease. However, very low-dose lithium may have behavioral and cognitive benefits.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=lithium_orotate"><strong>For more details, see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><br /> <br /> <em><strong>NOTE:</strong> ConsumerLab.com has now tested low-dose lithium&nbsp;</em><em>supplements</em><em>, analyzing them for their amounts of lithium as well as for&nbsp;</em><em>contamination with heavy metals (lead, arsenic, and cadmium). See the </em><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lithium-Low-Dose-Supplements/lithium/" target="_blank"><strong><em>Low-Dose Lithium Supplements Review</em></strong></a><em>, which includes the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lithium-Low-Dose-Supplements/lithium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>clinical evidence</strong></a> for lithium, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lithium-Low-Dose-Supplements/lithium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>safety and side effects</strong></a>, and our </em><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lithium-Low-Dose-Supplements/lithium/#toppicks" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Picks</em></strong></a><em> among products tested.</em> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lithium-orotate-supplements-effectiveness-%26-safety-info-for-bipolar/lithium_orotate/441012/7/2016AnswersIs it true that fish oil is better absorbed when taken with a fatty meal?Yes, the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil have been shown to be better absorbed when taken with a high-fat meal rather than on an empty stomach. One particular form of fish oil may be better absorbed than the others. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#forms" target="_blank">"<strong>Forms of Fish Oil" section of the Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Review</strong></a>. You can easily find out the form of fish oil (i.e. ethyl ester or triglyceride) in the products we reviewed by looking in the second column of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#results" target="_blank"><strong>Results Table</strong></a> in the Review. (If a product is listed in the table as "triglyceride" but not "natural triglyceride," it is most likely a re-esterified triglyceride.)&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/taking-fish-oil-on-an-empty-stomach-or-with-fatty-foods/fish-oil-absorption/440912/6/2016AnswersI've heard it's best to take fat-soluble supplements, like CoQ10, curcumin, and vitamin D, with fats or oils to increase absorption. Would taking them with a fish oil capsule be enough?The amount of fat in a fish oil supplement is only about 1 gram. While that might help a little, studies which have shown increased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins have involved taking them with a high-fat meal (i.e., about 15 grams or more -- that's at least 3 teaspoons of oil or other fats).&nbsp;Most meals provide at least 5 grams of fat (the amount of fat in a single egg, for instance), while a tuna wrap with mayo can have 40 grams.<br /> <br /> In the case of vitamin D, taking it with a meal has increased absorption by 32% to 57% compared to taking it with just water. The bigger (and fattier) the meal, the better &mdash; at least for absorption!&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Of course, you can also purchase special formulations of some fat-soluble vitamins and other supplements which enhance their absorption &mdash; in some cases, even more than taking them with fats. These are described in our reviews of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#absorption" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#bioavailability" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#food" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a>. Other supplement ingredients which are fat soluble and are best absorbed with fats are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin A</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin E</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K</strong></a>, as well as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Astaxanthin-Supplements-Review/Astaxanthin/" target="_blank"><strong>astaxanthin</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#bos_absorb" target="_blank"><strong>boswellia</strong> (and its key component AKBA)</a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/taking-fat-soluble-supplements-with-fats-to-increase-absorption/fat-soluble-vitamins-fish-oil/440812/3/2016AnswersHave any supplements been shown to increase women's libido? As discussed in the article "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21482" target="_blank"><strong>Sexual Dysfunction in Women</strong></a>" on ConsumerLab.com, there is no solid evidence for natural treatments for sexual dysfunction in women but several substances have shown promising results in preliminary trials. <br /> <br /> As discussed in that article, one of the most promising approaches is DHEA, which may benefit older women but not younger women -- likely because levels of this natural hormone decline with age. ConsumerLab.com has tested and reviewed DHEA supplements in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/DHEA_Supplements/DHEA/" target="_blank"><strong>DHEA Supplements Review</strong></a>. Be sure to take note, however, of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/DHEA_Supplements/DHEA/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>concerns and cautions</strong></a> associated DHEA. <br /> <br /> As discussed on ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/maca-supplement-review/maca/#brooks" target="_blank"><strong>Maca Supplements Review</strong></a>, a small study found that maca powder may improve mood and increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Another small study in women taking SSRI antidepressant medication (which can cause low sexual desire) found that maca root powder significantly improved sexual desire and the number of enjoyable sexual experiences. (Small studies also suggest that maca may increase sexual desire and, possibly, erectile dysfunction, in men). <br /> <br /> L-arginine has been promoted for increasing sexual desire and/or arousal in women, despite the fact that arginine <i>alone</i> has not been studied as a treatment for women. However, as noted in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/l-arginine-supplements-review/arginine/#enhancement" target="_blank"><strong>L-Arginine Supplements Review</strong></a>, a combination formula containing L-arginine as well <em>Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba</em> extract, damiana, and various vitamins and minerals was found to increase sexual desire, frequency of orgasm, and satisfaction with sex life in women with decreased libido, compared to placebo.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Kava, which is typically taken to relieve anxiety, was shown to increase sexual desire in women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Information regarding dosage and safety with this herb are discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21785" target="_blank"><strong>Kava</strong></a> article on ConsumerLab.com. <br /> <br /> Ashwagandha extract has been shown in one study to increase sexual arousal, lubrication and satisfaction, but not sexual desire, in women with low desire and arousal, as discussed in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#dongre" target="_blank"><strong>Ashwagandha Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Ginseng may also improve sexual arousal in menopausal women, as noted in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/#sexualfunction" target="_blank"><strong>Ginseng Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <strong>Also see:&nbsp;</strong><br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-yohimbe-horny-goat-weed-arginine/sexenhancers/" target="_blank"><strong>Sexual Enhancer's Review</strong></a> (including tests of yohimbe and horny goat weed supplements)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-any-supplements-increase-a-womans-sex-drive/supplements-for-women/440712/3/2016AnswersCan lysine, vitamin B-12, or other vitamins or minerals help prevent or reduce canker sores?There is some evidence that the amino acid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lysine_Review_Comparisons/Lysine/#wright" target="_blank"><b>lysine (L-lysine) may help to prevent canker sores</b></a> (also known as aphthous stomatitis) and reduce healing time. Lysine may also help to reduce the occurrence and severity of cold sores (herpes simplex labialis), although the evidence is mixed. For details, including dosage, and our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lysine_Review_Comparisons/Lysine/#bestvalue" target="_blank"><b>top picks</b></a> among lysine supplements, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Lysine_Review_Comparisons/Lysine/#wright" target="_blank"><b>Lysine Supplements Review</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Deficiencies in certain B vitamins, including thiamin, riboflavin, folate, B-6 and B-12 have been associated with the development of recurrent canker sores. Even in people not deficient in vitamin B-12, a daily dose of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#volkov" target="_blank"><b>vitamin B-12 was found to reduce the number and duration of canker sore outbreaks</b></a> as well as decrease pain. More details, including dosage, and our tests of B-12 supplements and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#toppicks" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a>, can be found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#volkov" target="_blank"><b>B Vitamins Supplements Review</b></a>. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" style="background-color:#ccffff"><a name="zinc" id="zinc"></a>Deficiencies in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>zinc</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#whatitis" target="_blank"><b>iron</b></a> have also been associated with recurrent canker sores, and correcting these deficiencies may reduce the occurrence of sores.</span> <br /> <br /> For information about other proposed treatments, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21479" target="_blank"><b>Canker Sores</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamins-for-canker-sore-prevention-or-improvement/cancer-sores-aphthous-stomatitis/440611/29/2016AnswersCan lemon juice or lemonade reduce my chances of getting kidney stones? Yes, lemon juice can help reduce the risk of kidney stones. However, research suggests that other beverages, or supplements, may be preferable. Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/_/cranberry_urinary_infection/" target="_blank"><b>cranberry juice</b></a> (promoted to help with urinary tract infections) contains moderately high levels of oxalates, which may&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/_/cranberry_urinary_infection/#sideeffects" target="_blank"><strong><i>increase the risk</i></strong></a> of kidney stones. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=stones_lemon"><strong>Sign in for the details &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lemon-juice-%26-lemonade-for-kidney-stones/stones_lemon/440511/26/2016AnswersAre cocoa and chocolate products contaminated with the fungal toxin ochratoxin A? Although it is common for cocoa beans to be contaminated with the fungal toxin ochratoxin A (OTA), most of the toxin is found in the <em>shell</em> of the bean, which is removed during processing. Levels of OTA in processed cocoa products, such as cocoa powder, liquor and chocolate have generally been found to be quite low and not of concern. Consequently, ConsumerLab.com has not included OTA testing in its analyses of cocoa products. <em>However, these tests have revealed disturbing levels of&nbsp;toxic heavy metals</em> such as cadmium and lead in most cocoa powders and some dark chocolates. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#OTA" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolate, Extracts, Nibs, &amp; Supplements &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cocoa-%26-chocolate-products---common-fungal-toxin-ochratoxin-a/cocoa-chocolate-OTA/440411/25/2016AnswersAre cranberry supplements helpful for men? Can they help with symptoms of an enlarged prostate, prostatitis, or urinary tract infections? There is some clinical evidence that cranberry powders and extracts may be helpful for reducing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, urgency and nighttime urination, in men with non-bacterial prostatitis or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21386" target="_blank"><strong>benign prostatic hyperplasia</strong></a> (BPH), as well as in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. Two studies have also found cranberry supplements to lower blood levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), and one study suggested slight protection from UTIs during radiation treatment . Be aware that men who are taking certain medications or who have certain conditions should not take cranberry supplements. Sign in to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=cranberry-for-prostate"><strong>see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cranberry-pills-for-uti---cranberry-juice-%26-supplements/cranberry-for-prostate/440311/20/2016AnswersI do moderate exercise for about an hour a few times a week. Which supplements might help me?When working out, nutritional needs to consider include hydration and electrolytes, energy, and protein. So let's discuss each of these briefly, as well as supplements providing other vitamins or ingredients &mdash; some of which you may want to&nbsp;<i>avoid</i> when working out. <br /> <br /> <b>Hydration/Electrolytes/Energy:</b> As long as you are fairly healthy and eating a balanced diet, if you work out for an hour, you only need water to recover; you don't need an "electrolyte" supplement. This was shown in a study which compared water to coconut water and a rehydration sports drink (as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-water-one-vita-coco-zico-review/coconut-water/" target="_blank"><strong>Coconut Waters Review</strong></a>). Only when doing <i>strenuous</i> exercise for long periods of time (i.e., 90 minutes or more) are you likely to be sweating out enough electrolytes (primarily sodium) to require replenishment. However, after a long-period of strenuous exercise, a drink or food which provides some sugar (energy) may help restore blood sugar levels. <br /> <br /> <b>Protein:</b> Extra protein from a powder or drink can help athletes build muscle and older people prevent or reverse age-related loss of muscle strength when used in conjunction with <i>resistance</i>-type exercise (such as free weights, weight machines, resistance bands, or your own body weight &mdash; as with squats). If you are not doing resistance-type exercise, extra protein won't help. (However, be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#schoen" target="_blank">many older adults do not get even adequate protein from their diets</a> and intakes higher than current daily recommendations may be needed to reduce muscle loss.) This is discussed in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Protein Powders and Drinks Review</strong></a>, which includes information about types of protein, dosing, and our ratings and comparisons of products. <br /> <br /> <u>Evidence for Other Supplements:</u> <br /> <b>Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)</b> may help reduce muscle breakdown during exercise (and reduce soreness from long-distance intense exercise,) but BCAAs do not appear to have performance-enhancing effects. (BCAAs may reduce muscle loss due to inactivity, such as around the time of knee surgery). For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#knee" target="_blank"><strong>Muscle Enhancers Review (Creatine and BCAAs)</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <b>Creatine</b> may improve muscle strength and endurance during repeated high-intensity exercise of short duration, such as weight lifting and sprinting. It is not of benefit in purely aerobic exercises. For more information about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Muscle Enhancers Review (Creatine and BCAAs)</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <b>Curcumin (from turmeric)</b> has reduced muscle soreness due to intense exercise in some studies, but not all. For details see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/?clinicalid=2391#McFarlin" target="_blank"><strong>Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <b>Fish oil</b> has been shown to help increase strength from training in women but not in men. For details see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#muscle" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> <b>Vitamin D</b> supplementation helps increase strength from training among people deficient in vitamin D. <i>However, among people who are not deficient, supplementing with vitamin D may reduce the benefits of exercise.</i> This is explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#muscle" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Vitamin D isn't the only anti-oxidant which can potentially <i>blunt the benefits effects of exercise</i>. This has also been shown with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/#scribbans" target="_blank"><strong>resveratrol</strong></a><strong> </strong>and high-doses of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#exercise" target="_blank"><strong>vitamins C and E</strong></a>. It has been speculated that during exercise, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are created which trigger positive changes in muscle, but anti-oxidants remove ROS, preventing this from happening.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-supplements-should-i-take-when-i-work-out/supplements-for-exercise/440211/19/2016AnswersWhat is shilajit? Does it have any proven health benefits, and is heavy metal contamination a concern?Shilajit is a black-brown substance, sometimes called "mineral pitch," which is produced from the decomposition of plant material and is found in mountain rocks. It contains fulvic acid which preliminary studies suggest has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as very small amounts of minerals such as potassium, calcium and magnesium. There is limited clinical evidence that shilajit may increase testosterone levels in men. For more about the clinical evidence, heavy metal contamination and more, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=shilajit"><strong>sign in and see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-shilajit-shilajit-uses-%26-benefits/shilajit/440111/8/2016AnswersIs CBD oil (cannabidiol) effective and safe? Is it legal? <p> [<strong>NOTE:</strong> In February 2018, ConsumerLab.com published its<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of CBD and Hemp Oils and Pills</strong></a>, providing tests, comparisons, and reviews of popular CBD-containing supplements, such as oils and capsules, for people and pets, and updated information about CBD. CL also tested hempseed oils as part of its<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank">review of seed oil supplements as sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids</a>.]<br /><br /> <strong><a name="efficacy" id="efficacy"> </a>Efficacy:</strong> <br /> Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound derived from cannabis (a hemp plant also known as marijuana). However, unlike other compounds found in cannabis, such as THC, cannabidiol is not believed to be a psychoactive compound affecting perception, and behavior. Preliminary evidence suggests CBD may modestly reduce anxiety, certain measures of dystonia (a movement disorder), and glaucoma (<a href="#" target="_blank">Health Canada 2013</a>). <br /> <br /> A placebo-controlled clinical trial found a high daily dose of CBD (20 mg per kg of body weight, i.e., hundreds of milligrams) to reduce the frequency of convulsions in a rare form of epilepsy known as&nbsp;<b>Dravet syndrome</b> in children and young adults, although it was also associated with a higher rate of adverse effects including diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, pyrexia, somnolence, and abnormal results on liver-function tests&nbsp;(<a href="#" target="_blank">Devinsky, New Eng J Med 2017</a>). <span class="reviewBody">Similarly, the same high daily dose reduced the number of drop&nbsp;</span><span class="reviewBody"> <b>seizures</b></span><span class="reviewBody"> among people with treatment-resistant </span><span class="reviewBody"> <b>Lennox-Gastaut syndrome</b></span><span class="reviewBody"> in a 3-month study. Seizures per month decreased 44% with CBD compared to 22% with placebo; however, again, those taking CBD also had a higher rate of adverse effects including diarrhea, somnolence, fever, decreased appetite, and vomiting (<a href="#" target="_blank">Thiele, Lancet 2018</a></span><span class="reviewBody">). </span><br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody"> A study of high-dose CBD (1,000 mg per day) among adults with <b>schizophrenia</b> found that adding CBD rather than placebo to existing treatments for six weeks reduced psychotic symptoms and caused a trend, although not statistically significant, toward improved performance on cognitive tasks. In this study, CBD was given in two divided doses (morning and evening) and was well tolerated with no increase in adverse effects (<a href="#" target="_blank">McGuire, Am J Psy 2017</a>).</span> <br /> <br /> <strong>Legality:</strong> <br /> Although CBD is not psychoactive, it is <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>not permitted</strong></a> to be sold an ingredient in dietary supplements, as the FDA considers it an investigational new drug. (Note: If an ingredient is marketed as a supplement prior to the FDA authorizing its investigation as a drug, it may continue to be marketed as a supplement, but this was not the case with CBD, according to the FDA). Two conditions for which CBD has been or is being investigated as a new drug are cancer pain and, as noted above, Dravet syndrome&nbsp;(view a list&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>here</strong></a> of completed, ongoing, and planned studies with cannabidiol). In Canada, cannabidiol is a controlled substance.&nbsp; <br /> <br /> Despite the fact that CBD cannot be legally sold in the U.S. as a dietary supplement, many CBD products are available. These include oils and capsules sold as supplements and CBC waters sold as foods. In February 2016, the U.S. FDA issued <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=12916" target="_blank"><strong>warning letters</strong></a> to eight companies selling products containing cannabidiol. The FDA also published the amounts of CBD, THC and other cannabis compounds it found in these products and those tested in 2015 (click <b><a href="#" target="_blank">here</a></b> and select the year to view). Many products did not contain the levels of CBD they claimed. The FDA cautions that "Consumers should beware purchasing and using any such products." Most products contained very small concentrations of CBD &mdash; similar to what is normally found in hemp oil (about 0.0025% CBD) while others contained very large concentrations (25% to 35% CBD) yielding doses similar to those used in clinical trials (typically 200 mg or more per day).<br /> <br /> The reason why hemp oils would not be expected to contain much CBD is that hemp oil is typically made from hemp seeds (i.e., hempseed oil), which contain little CBD. CBD is not found within in the seed (although some may contaminate the surface); it is principally found in the flowers and, to a lesser extent, the upper leaves of the hemp plant. A "CBD oil" product is typically an oil, such as from hemp seed or other sources, to which a CBD extract (from hemp flowers) has been added (<a href="#" target="_blank">Mead, Epilepsy &amp; Behavior 2017</a>). [<strong>NOTE:</strong> <strong>In February 2018, ConsumerLab.com published its </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of CBD and Hemp Oils and Pills</strong></a><strong>, providing tests, comparisons, and reviews of popular CBD-containing supplements, such as oils and capsules, for people and pets, and</strong><strong> updated information about CBD. </strong><strong>CL </strong><strong>also tested hempseed oils as part of its&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank"><strong>review of seed oil supplements as sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids</strong></a>.]&nbsp;<br /> <br /> At least one seller of CBD supplements to the public, PlusCBD LTD, appears to claim that is not illegal to sell these products if they are derived from "industrial" or "agricultural" hemp. Industrial hemp is typically a larger plant with more stalk and less leaves and flowers than that used to produce marijuana or CBD for medical use. It is grown for its fiber (for textiles) and seeds (as food and oil), which would be very low in THC (less than 0.3%) and CBD. It is true that the&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) has stated</strong>&nbsp;</a>that CBD in trace amounts from cannabis stalk or seeds is not a controlled substance, in contrast to CBD derived from cannabis flower which is a controlled substance -- despite the compound being the same. However, this does not seem to override the FDA's position that CBD cannot be sold as dietary supplement. It would also seem difficult to obtain large quantities of CBD from industrial hemp or cannabis stalk. <br /> <br /> <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>Many states now have medical marijuana laws</strong></a> that permit products with high CBD content to be sold by approved dispensaries and used by residents for medical purposes recommended by a healthcare provider. In addition, several states without medical marijuana laws allow products that are high in CBD (e.g., at least 5%, 10%, or 15% CBD) and low in THC (typically less than 0.3%) to be used for&nbsp;specific medical purposes (typically intractable epilepsy) as approved or recommended by a healthcare professional (See <a href="#" target="_blank">list of states on ProCon.org</a>). However, these state laws do not make the general sale of such products legal, and some specifically require that the products be purchased out-of-state.<br /> <br /> <a name="safety" id="safety"></a><b>Side effects and safety concerns:</b> <br /> CBD can cause side effects and interact with certain medications and conditions, <i>although these effects have typically been reported only with very high daily intake, i.e., hundreds of milligrams daily.</i> <br /> </p> <ul> <li class="recallText">High daily doses of CBD (20 mg per kg of body weight, i.e., hundreds of milligrams) may cause decreased appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, somnolence, and abnormal results on liver-function tests (<a href="#" target="_blank">Devinsky, New Eng J Med 2017; <a href="#" target="_blank">Thiele, Lancet 2018</a>).</a></li> <br /> <br /> <li class="recallText">CBD at a dose of 300 mg has been shown to worsen symptoms of <strong>Parkinson's disease</strong> (<a href="#" target="_blank">Consroe, Int J Neurosci, 1986</a>).</li> <br /> <br /> <li class="recallText">CBD should be used with caution with <strong>sedative and sleep-inducing medications</strong>, as it may enhance their effects.</li> <br /> <br /> <li class="recallText">CBD can increase blood serum levels of <strong>antiepleptic drugs</strong> (<a href="#" target="_blank">Gaston, Epilepsia 2017</a>). <span style="background-color:#ccffff">CBD may increase the blood-thinning effects of&nbsp;</span><span style="background-color:#ccffff"><strong>warfarin</strong></span><span style="background-color:#ccffff"> (Coumadin, Jantoven) likely because CBD competes for the same liver enzymes that break down warfarin and other drugs. This was observed in a man with post-stroke epilepsy taking warfarin: His INR (a measure of how long it takes blood to clot) began increasing several weeks after starting CBD (</span><span style="background-color:#ccffff"><i>Epidiolex</i></span><span style="background-color:#ccffff">, Greenwich Biosciences, Inc.) for his seizures. His CBD dosing started with several hundred milligrams daily and increased to over 1,000 mg, at which point his warfarin dose had been reduced by approximately 30% (</span><a href="#" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:#ccffff">Grayson, Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2017</span></a><span style="background-color:#ccffff">).</span></li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 700; text-align: -webkit-center; background-color: #ffffff">CBD Oil and Supplements with CL founder, Dr. Tod Cooperman</span>&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align:center"><iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/IpC8Z790LwY?rel=0" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen >Youtube movie:https://www.youtube.com/embed/IpC8Z790LwY?rel=0<hr /><img src='http://img.youtube.com/vi/IpC8Z790LwY/hqdefault.jpg' alt="" /></iframe></p>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cbd-safety-and-reviews/cbd/440011/7/2016AnswersShould I be concerned about phytic acid in oat cereals? I've heard that it can be harmful, but also that it can have health benefits.Phytic acid occurs naturally in grains such as oats and is an energy source for sprouting grain seeds. Although it can inhibit the absorption of minerals, this shouldn't be a problem if you maintain a well-balanced diet. Interestingly, phytic acid is also sold as a supplement (as inositol hexaphosphate or IP6) due to preliminary evidence of benefits. For details, see the information in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based%20Cereals/oats/#concerns" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based%20Cereals/oats/" target="_blank"><strong>Oat Cereals Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/phytic-acid-in-oat-cereals/phytic-acid/439911/6/2016AnswersWhat is pterostilbene? Can it really improve cardiovascular and cognitive health?Pterostilbene is an antioxidant compound found in grapes, blueberries, and heartwood (<i>Pterocarpus marsupium</i>). It is chemically related to resveratrol, and can be found in some resveratrol supplements, although it is also sold as a single ingredient supplement. <br /> <br /> Unfortunately, many of the uses for which pterostilbene is promoted are not supported by clinical evidence. For details, see information about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/#buying" target="_blank"><b>Pterostilbene</b></a> within the Resveratrol Supplements Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/pterostilbene-supplement-health-benefits/what-is-pterostilbene/439811/1/2016AnswersAre there drug interactions with curcumin or turmeric?Curcumin/turmeric supplements may increase the effects of several drugs, including blood-thinning and blood-sugar lowering medications, as discussed in detail in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of ConsumerLab.com's <i>Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements & Spice Review</i>. <br /> <br /> Curcumin may also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Is+it+true+that+taking+turmeric%2Fcurcumin+with+food+can+reduce+iron+absorption+from+food/turmeric-curcumin-iron/" target="_blank"><strong>reduce iron absorption from foods</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Also, be aware that piperine (from black pepper extract) found in many curcumin supplements may also increase the effects of a number of medications, just as it increases the bioavailability of curcumin. <br /> <br /> Turmeric itself has a lower concentration of curcumin than the purified forms used in curcumin supplements. Although <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#food" target="_blank"><strong>diets high in turmeric tend to provide far less curcumin</strong></a> than found in such supplements, adding a <i>very large</i> amount of turmeric spice to food was reported in one case to cause a <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#tacrolimus" target="_blank">serious drug interaction</a></b>. <br /> <br /> For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns Section of the Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements & Spices Review >> </strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/turmeric-%26-curcumin-interactions-with-medications/curcumin-turmeric-drug-interactions/439710/25/2016AnswersIs Boswellia not well absorbed? Should I take it with food?Yes, the key compound in <i>Boswellia serrata</i> extracts, AKBA, is fat-soluble and not well absorbed if taken only with water. Taking Boswellia extracts with fatty foods may greatly increase absorption. Certain special formulations of Boswellia extract may also enhance its bioavailability, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#bos_absorb" target="_blank"><strong>Joint Health Supplements Review (Covering Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM and Boswellia) &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/boswellia-absorption---should-boswellia-be-taken-with-food/boswellia-food/439510/10/2016AnswersHow should curcumin dose be adjusted if using formulations with enhanced bioavailability such as Meriva, BCM-95, CurcuWin, Theracurmin, Bioperine, and C3? If you're taking curcumin with just water (and not with foods containing fats or oils), these formulations can greatly increase the absorption and/or bioavailability of curcumin and other curcuminoid compounds, which will affect the dose you need to take. Find out more about each of these formulations and their suggested dosage in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#bioavailability" target="_blank"><strong>Absorption and Bioavailability</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><strong>Turmeric/Curcumin Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-curcumin-should-i-take-%26-how-to-increase-bioavailability/curcumin-biovailability-dose/439110/9/2016AnswersI've heard that having low B-12 or B-6 can cause depression. Is that true?Yes, being deficient in vitamin B-12 or B-6 can cause depression. Correcting a deficiency in one of these vitamins may help improve symptoms of depression, and some B vitamins may increase the effectiveness certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-drugs-should-be-avoided-when-taking-ssri-antidepressants/SSRI_supplement_interactions/" target="_blank"><strong>antidepressant medications</strong></a>, such as SSRI's. For more about B vitamins and depression, see the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#depression" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamins Supplements Review >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-b-12-or-b-6-deficiency-%26-depression/low-b-vitamins-depression/439010/1/2016AnswersIs the probiotic "Milk Test," as described on many websites, really an effective way to test the quality of the bacteria in probiotic supplements at home?Generally not. The "milk test" described on websites will not reliably tell you if a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic supplement</strong></a> contains viable organisms or not. The "test" is often described as checking for the formation of curds or clumps a day or two after putting the contents of a probiotic supplement into a small amount of milk and leaving it at room temperature. <br /> <br /> It is true that certain probiotic bacteria can cause milk to clump, but not all probiotic bacteria will do this in the "milk test." Clumping in milk is caused when proteins (which are normally free floating) join together when the milk becomes acidic. Certain probiotic bacteria can make milk more acidic by fermenting lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid &mdash; the process used to create yogurt, kefir, and cheese. A significant amount of lactic acid has to be produced to make the milk acidic enough for it to curdle.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Probiotic bacteria which can convert lactose to lactic acid include those of the genus <i>Lactobacillus</i> (such as <i>L. acidophilus</i>). However, another common genus of probiotic, <i>Bifidobacterium</i> (such as <i>B. animalis</i>, also called Bb12), can only do this conversion when little oxygen is present and would, therefore, fail to curdle milk in the "milk test." <br /> <br /> Some harmful bacteria, such as species of <i>Streptococcus</i>, can also digest lactose and curdle milk, which could mislead you to believe that only healthful bacteria are present. <br /> <br /> The enzyme, chymosin (also known as rennin) can also cause milk to curdle by acting directly on proteins. It is commonly used in making cheese. The "milk test" has been misleadingly used to promote probiotic products in which chymosin has been added as an ingredient because the "test" will show the product to curdle milk relatively quickly. This, of course, does not prove that the probiotic organisms are present and active. <br /> <br /> The milk test is also not valid when using tablets which have not been crushed (they are only expected to properly break apart when subjected to heat and agitation, as in the stomach), particularly chewable tablets, or those with enteric coatings which would first need to have their coatings removed. If the probiotic organisms cannot be released and exposed to the milk, they won't be active. <br /> <br /> Not surprisingly, ConsumerLab.com does not use the "milk test" in its <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>independent tests of probiotics</strong></a>, which it conducts every two years and publishes online. The products are purchased off the shelf and are tested in expert microbiology laboratories by plating their contents on culture media which is then incubated. The quantity of viable organisms is determined by the resulting growth of bacterial colonies. The products are also tested for possible contamination with mold, yeast, and pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, such as <i>E. coli</i> and <i>Salmonella</i>. For ConsumerLab.com's most recent tests of probiotic supplements (as well quality ratings, ingredient and cost comparisons, and information about the clinical uses, dosage, and potential side effects of probiotics) see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotics and Kefirs Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/probiotic-milk-test---is-it-effective-in-testing-the-quality-of-the-bacteria-in-probiotics/probiotic-milk-test/43899/30/2016AnswersCan glycine really help improve my sleep?Glycine is a non-essential amino acid (meaning that it can be made in the body and is not required from the diet) which acts as a neurotransmitter. Although glycine supplements are sometimes promoted as having a calming effect or improving sleep, the studies supporting these claims have been small, short-term, and involved a company which sells glycine. For more details, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=glycine-for-sleep"><strong>see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> For more information, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21751" target="_blank"><strong>Glycine</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/improving-sleep-with-glycine/glycine-for-sleep/43889/27/2016AnswersWhat is graviola? Can it really help fight cancer?Graviola (<i>Annona muricata</i>) also known as soursop, is the edible fruit of a tree native to tropical regions of Central and South America, Western Africa and Southeast Asia. Graviola supplements have been promoted to for a wide range of uses, from boosting the immune system and lowering blood sugar and blood pressure, to treating cancer. However, most of these claims are not based on human clinical studies but on laboratory and animal studies, and there are potential safety concerns. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=graviola-cancer"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-graviola-and-can-it-really-help-fight-cancer/graviola-cancer/43879/24/2016AnswersWhat are the health benefits of grapefruit seed extract (GSE)? Is it safe?Grapefruit seed extract (GSE or GFSE) supplements are promoted for a wide range of uses, from treating fungal infections and bacterial infections (such as urinary tract infections) to lowering blood sugar and cholesterol, and alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the evidence supporting many for these uses is limited. There are also potential drug interactions of which you need to be mindful. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=grapefruit-seed-extract"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/grapefruit-seed-extract-health-benefits/grapefruit-seed-extract/43869/14/2016AnswersIs it okay to freeze fish oil to keep it from becoming rancid?As noted in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil Supplements Review</strong></a> (which includes tests and comparisons of fish oil supplements), you can certainly freeze fish oil. This will not adversely affect the oil and will help keep it fresh. For more about this and for other tips when buying and using fish oil, see the Review&#39;s&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#fresh" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips section&gt;&gt;</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/freezing-fish-oil-%26-fish-oil-pills/freeze_fish_oil/43839/13/2016AnswersI've read that fish oil supplements may help with gout, but I've also been told to avoid oily fish because it can increase my uric acid levels. Are fish oil supplements safe for me to take and do they really help with gout?Eating fish low in purines may be helpful for people with gout, but there is no evidence that taking fish oil supplements is helpful for gout. For more about this, plus information about fish oil for other forms of arthritis and inflammatory conditions, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#gout" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplements Review</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/gout-supplements---does-fish-oil-help/fish-oil-gout/43829/3/2016AnswersWhich supplements help with Raynaud's phenomenon?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21804" target="_blank"><strong>Raynaud's phenomenon</strong></a> article in the Encyclopedia, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#otheruses" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a><strong>, </strong><strong><i><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#raynauds" target="_blank">Ginkgo biloba</a></i></strong><strong>, </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>inositol hexanicotinate</strong></a> (a form of the B vitamin niacin), and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/#park" target="_blank"><strong>ginseng</strong></a> have shown some benefit in Raynaud's phenomenon (abnormal sensitivity of hands and feet to cold). <br /> <br /> Combined with standard management (avoiding cold, wearing gloves, etc.) <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-pycnogenol-work/pycnogenol/#hu" target="_blank"><strong><i>Pycnogenol</i></strong></a>, a branded pine bark extract supplement, was shown to reduce pain and discoloration, and increase finger temperature compared to standard management alone in a preliminary study. <br /> <br /> Several other types of supplements have been tried without success. For example, <a name="shepherd" id="shepherd"></a><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-beetroot-juice-or-supplements-help-lower-my-blood-pressure/beetroot-juice/" target="_blank"><b>beetroot juice</b></a> was found to provide little benefit to people with Raynaud's in a small study of older adults. In comparison to the reaction to cold before being given beetroot juice, the reaction to cold after taking beetroot juice daily for two weeks (2.4 oz for 13 days and 4.7 oz. on the fourteenth day), showed modestly increased blood flow to the thumb but not to all fingers (averaged) and improved vasodilation in the forearm. However, it did not reduce pain or increase skin temperature and it had no effect on the feet (<a href="#" target="_blank">Shepherd, J Appl Physiol 2019</a>). (See the CL Answers about beetroot juice for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-beetroot-juice-or-supplements-help-lower-my-blood-pressure/beetroot-juice/" target="_blank"><b>lowering blood pressure</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/beetroot-exercise-endurance/beetroot/" target="_blank"><b>improving exercise performance</b></a>). <br /> <br /> For more information, including dosage and clinical evidence, use the links above, and see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21804" target="_blank"><strong>Raynaud's phenomenon</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> You can find information for many other medical conditions in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33800" target="_blank"><strong>Conditions</strong></a> section of the Encyclopedia, and by searching our index of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=health_conditions.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Health Conditions</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-raynauds-phenomenon/supplements-for-raynauds/43819/3/2016AnswersHow does bone broth protein compare to other types of protein? Bone broth protein supplements are produced by dehydrating bone broth (typically from chicken or beef bones) and can be a good source of protein and, in particular, collagen &mdash; the main protein found in bone. There is some evidence, that, like other types of protein, collagen may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#muscle" target="_blank"><strong>help to build muscle</strong></a>, and additionally, may help <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#arthritis" target="_blank"> <strong>reduce joint pain</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/#skin" target="_blank"><strong>improve skin elasticity and wrinkles</strong></a>. However, most of the evidence for these uses are based on studies using collagen supplements, not bone broth. (See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone-Broth-Review/bone-broth/" target="_blank"><strong>Bone Broth Review</strong></a> for more information and our tests of products). <br /> <br /> To learn more about how bone broth compares to other types of protein, such as whey, casein, soy, rice, pea and hemp, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying</strong></a> section of the Protein Powders and Drinks Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/bone-broth-protein-supplements---are-they-better/bone-broth-protein/43808/31/2016AnswersAre there any serious side effects with Lovaza or Epanova (prescription fish oil)? If so, would these also apply to generic versions of these drugs and to fish oil supplements?Lovaza and Epanova may cause increases in liver enzymes and &quot;bad&quot; cholesterol. Lovaza may also increase the frequency of heart rhythm problems. The same side effects would be expected with generic versions of these prescription drugs (which are highly concentrated fish oils) but not necessarily with fish oil supplements that provide lower doses of EPA and DHA. Interestingly, these particular side effects have not been reported with a prescription fish oil that does not contain DHA, but can cause joint pain. For details, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#lovaza" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/side-effects-of-prescription-fish-oils-like-lovaza/lovaza_side_effects/43778/30/2016AnswersI was told I have a MTHFR gene mutation. What do I need to know about taking B vitamins?The MTHFR gene mutation may make your body less efficient at converting folic acid and folate into L-methylfolate, the active form of folate in the body. People with this mutation may also be more likely to be deficient in vitamin B-12. Although certain forms of B vitamins are sometimes promoted for people with this mutation, they may not be necessary. For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#mthfr" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Using</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/mthfr-gene-mutation-%26-b-vitamins/gene-mutation_b-vitamins/43768/27/2016AnswersShould I worry about getting too much fluoride from drinking tea?Green tea, as well as black tea, contains a small amount of fluoride. Excess fluoride can cause teeth and bones to become brittle (a condition called "fluorosis"). This is unlikely to occur with consumption of just a few cups of tea daily, but has occurred in people habitually consuming very large amounts of tea. For more details, see the see the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#concerns" target="_blank"><strong>Green Tea Review (Including Brewable, Bottled, Matcha, and Supplements) &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-i-worry-about-getting-too-much-fluoride-from-drinking-tea/fluoride_in_tea/43758/25/2016AnswersThere are many reports of lead contamination in turmeric spice. How can I make sure I'm not getting lead in my turmeric supplement or spice?It is true that high concentrations of lead have been found and reported in some turmeric spices &mdash; including several reported in 2016 (See <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=12981" target="_blank">Recalls and Warnings</a>). &nbsp;ConsumerLab.com has found lead in some turmeric supplements, although mainly those containing turmeric herb powder rather than turmeric extract (typically sold as "curcumin"). The situation in supplements has been improving over the years.<br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com has also tested popular brands of turmeric spice. Although some have contained high amounts of filth (bug parts), lead contamination has not been a problem in the selected products.<br /> <br /> You can check ConsumerLab.com's latest product tests (including levels of beneficial curcuminoid compounds in supplements) in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><strong>Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review &gt;&gt;&nbsp;</strong></a><br /> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/lead-in-turmeric-supplements---how-to-avoid-it/turmeric-lead/43748/13/2016AnswersI've heard that melatonin may increase the risk of broken bones. I take melatonin regularly. Should I be concerned?Regular, long-term use of melatonin has been associated with an increase in fractures, which is also the case with some prescription sleep medications. While it's true that melatonin may slightly increase bone density, it may do so by inhibiting the normal cycle of bone resorption and formation, which can make bone less flexible,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#bone" target="_blank"><b>more likely to fracture</b></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#fractures" target="_blank"><b>slow healing <i>after</i> a fracture occurs</b></a>. For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#fractures" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Supplements Review</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-melatonin-increase-the-risk-of-broken-bones/melatonin-fracture/43738/12/2016AnswersIs it safe to take melatonin when taking prescription sedatives or sleep aids like lorazepam (Ativan) or zolpidem (Ambien)?Melatonin may increase side effects of sedative or sleep medication, although significant adverse events have not been reported in short-term studies. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#prescriptionmeds" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#prescriptionmeds" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Supplements Review</strong></a> for more information. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/melatonin-while-taking-prescription-sedatives/melatonin-prescription-sleep-medications/43718/9/2016AnswersDo you have any advice on how to find trusted pharmacies to refill my cholesterol medicine in Canada? In 2002, ConsumerLab.com's founder, Tod Cooperman, M.D., started a second company, <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>PharmacyChecker.com</strong></a>, to evaluate pharmacies in Canada and elsewhere which sell to Americans online. It has become the major, independent source of information on this subject. <br /> <br /> You can use the PharmacyChecker.com website to find PharmacyChecker.com <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>approved online pharmacies</strong></a> and <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>compare drug prices</strong></a>. Prices on brand name medications are often 80% lower than in the U.S. because drug prices are lower in other countries where governments negotiate and/or limit prices on medicine. Most of these online pharmacies work with licensed pharmacies in multiple counties, allowing you to find and chose the lowest price around the world -- which might be from a pharmacy in England, for example, rather than Canada. It typically takes about two weeks for you to receive your medication. You must provide a valid prescription from your doctor and the drug cannot be a controlled substance, such as a narcotic.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Be aware that, technically, it remains illegal for you to get your medication from outside the U.S. However, the U.S. government has not prosecuted Americans who do this for themselves (buying no more than a 3-month supply), and an estimated 4 million Americans get their medication this way. For more information, go to <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>www.PharmacyChecker.com</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/find-trusted-online-canadian-pharmacies-to-fill-prescriptions/finding-trusted-online-pharmacy/43708/2/2016AnswersWhat are phytoceramides? Do phytoceramide supplements really work to improve aging skin? Phytoceramides (or "plant" ceramides) are waxy lipids derived from plants such as wheat, rice and sweet potatoes. Supplements containing phytoceramides are promoted to hydrate and "plump" the skin for a more youthful appearance. Overall, there are few studies on the effects on phytoceramide supplements on aging skin or for reducing wrinkles, although small studies suggest one branded ceramide ingredient, known as Lipowheat or Ciratiq, may have a benefit. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=phytoceramides-aging-skin"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-phytoceramide-supplements-really-work-to-improve-aging-skin/phytoceramides-aging-skin/43677/31/2016AnswersHow significant are the risks to drinking tea from China from heavy metals?In the past, ConsumerLab.com and other research groups have found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#quality" target="_blank"><b>significant amounts of lead</b></a> contaminating some teas from China. Contamination is most common in tea made from older leaves, as in black tea and Oolong tea, than from younger leaves used to make green tea. Our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#results"target="_blank"><b>most recent tests</b></a> of popular brewable green teas on the market did <i>not</i> find lead contamination to be a significant issue. <br /> <br /> However, as amounts of lead in tea can vary depending on the region in which it is grown and how it is prepared (tea bags and filters may reduce the amount of lead from tea leaves that reaches the brewed tea liquid), it may be best to choose a tea that has been tested and confirmed to not to exceed limits for lead. For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#quality" target="_blank"><b>Quality Concerns</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><b>Green Tea Review</b></a>, as well as our tests of popular teas and our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><b><i>Top Picks</i></b></a> among products, including teas sold loose, in tea bags, as a K-cup, matcha teas and powders, and bottled teas. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/heavy-metal-contamination-in-tea-from-china/lead-in-tea/43667/26/2016AnswersIs it true that drinking a small amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with water can kill bacteria in the urinary tract or help in other ways? Is this safe -- or is it dangerous?It is not advisable to ingest (swallow) hydrogen peroxide and there is little evidence of benefit from doing so. Ingesting the more concentrated form (35%), which is sold in some online health food stores, is particularly dangerous. For details,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=is-drinking-hydrogen-peroxide-safe"><strong>see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-hydrogen-peroxide-h2o2-safe-to-drink-treating-urinary-tract-infection/is-drinking-hydrogen-peroxide-safe/43657/26/2016AnswersWhat is the best source of vitamin D3 -- from lanolin in sheep's wool or from fish oil?Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) from either source is the same compound. As explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>What It Is</strong></a> section of the Vitamin D Supplements Review, vitamin D3 in most supplements has been chemically converted from a compound in lanolin, while that in fish oil is naturally produced (also by conversion of the same compound). Vitamin D3 from lanolin is just pennies per dose and is a less expensive source than from fish oil. Because vitamin D is best absorbed when taken with fats or oils, getting it from fish oil helps assure better absorption, but this can also be achieved by taking vitamin D with a meal which contains some fats/oils. <br /> <br /> In online forums some people allergic to wool have reported allergic reaction to taking vitamin D3, particularly at larger doses. There does not seem to be scientific research on this topic, but, if this is of concern, you can take vitamin D2. It may not be quite as effective as vitamin D3 at raising blood levels, but it can certainly help. <br /> <br /> You can learn more about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#types" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D3 vs. vitamin D2</strong></a>, appropriate dosage, and see which products are best quality and value in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#types" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-best-source-of-vitamin-d3/vitamin-D-source-lanolin/43647/22/2016AnswersWhich supplements can help treat constipation?A number of supplements may be helpful in treating or preventing constipation. Fiber supplements, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=626483" target="_blank"><strong>psyllium</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21743" target="_blank"><strong>glucomannan</strong></a> (a water-soluble fiber) may help to relieve constipation (Note: there is a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/_/Skinny_Fiber/#choking" target="_blank"><strong>safety concern</strong></a><strong> </strong>when using glucomannan).&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21714" target="_blank"><strong>Ground flaxseed</strong></a>, another source of fiber, may also be helpful. (See ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Fiber Supplements Webinar</strong></a> for more information about these supplements for constipation as well as for other uses.) <br /> <br /> A specific <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#constipation" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic</strong></a> product was found to significantly increase the number of bowel movements per week in people with chronic constipation. (Other strains have been found to be helpful for constipation <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#ibsyndrome" target="_blank"><strong>associated with IBS</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> <strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>aloe vera juice</strong></a> (with latex) can help to relieve constipation due to their laxative effects (Note: There are safety concerns with aloe latex -- see the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Aloe Vera Review</strong></a> before using). <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21590" target="_blank"><strong>Constipation</strong></a> for information about other proposed treatments. <br /> <br /> Be aware that some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-that-cause-constipation/supplements-constipation/"target="_blank"><b>supplements can cause constipation</b></a>, including iron, calcium and others. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-treat-constipation/supplements-for-constipation/43637/20/2016AnswersWhat is the difference between the "Best By" date and the "Date of Manufacture" on a supplement label? How do I know how long my supplement will last before it "goes bad"?As explained by ConsumerLab.com's president, Tod Cooperman, M.D. in a <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong><i>New York Times article</i></strong></a>, the "Best By" or "Use By" date on a supplement label indicates how long a supplement is expected to last before its potency falls below 100% of the listed amount. Although the FDA does not require supplement labels to provide an expiration date, companies which include these dates are required to have stability data to support their claims. The expiration date refers to the shelf life of the unopened container stored under the conditions specified on the label. <br /> <br /> A "Date of Manufacture" simply indicates when the supplement was made, not how long the ingredients remain stable and potent. Typically, supplements are stable and potent if properly maintained for two to three years, but this depends on the product. Exposure to heat and/or moisture can significantly shorten shelf life.<br /> <br /> Be sure to take extra care when looking at the date listed on probiotics supplements. Some may list the number of cells in a product as the amount "at the time of manufacture" &mdash; a practice which is misleading and violates FDA regulations. You can learn more about this in the "ConsumerTips" section of ConsumerLab.com's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review</strong></a>, as well as in this <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>interview with Dr. Tod Cooperman</strong></a> on Reuter's Health.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-supplements-expire-info-on-best-by-%26-manufacture-date/supplements--best-buy-expiration/43627/16/2016AnswersIs it true that green tea can interact with blood-thinning medications like warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidogrel (Plavix)?While green tea contains vitamin K and catechins &mdash; both of which have the potential to counteract the effects of some blood thinning medications -- drinking a moderate amount of <i>regular</i> brewed green tea would not be expected to cause a problem. (However, <i>matcha</i> green tea could potentially intefere with certain blood-thinning medications.) For more details about this and other potential drug and nutrient interactions of green tea, see the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Green Tea Review >></strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/green-tea-interactions-with-warfarin-%26-plavix-blood-thinners/green-tea-blood-thinners/43617/12/2016AnswersWhat is Prelief? Does it really help for heartburn and/or bladder pain from acidic foods? Prelief (from DSE Healthcare Solutions) is promoted as a "food de-acidfier" to reduce the acidity of foods which can trigger "painful bladder, frequent urination, indigestion, and occasional heartburn." While lowering the acidity of certain foods can potentially reduce the risk of heartburn, ConsumerLab.com found that the evidence for Prelief and its main ingredient, calcium glycerophosphate, in reducing heartburn and bladder pain is extremely limited. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Prelief-heartburn-bladder-pain"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/prelief-information-%26-uses/Prelief-heartburn-bladder-pain/43607/9/2016AnswersIf vitamin K absorption appears to be reduced by other fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamin D, why do some "bone health" supplements combine them? Should they be taken separately?Vitamin K and vitamin D may each play a role in bone health, which is why they are often included together in bone health supplements. However, it may be best to take vitamin K apart from other fat-soluble vitamins, as explained in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#vitamind" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Using</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin K Supplements Review</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-k-absorption-reduced-by-fat-soluble-vitamins/vitamin-k-vitamin-d-absorption/43597/8/2016AnswersHelp! How do I know how much magnesium I am actually getting from my supplement? The label says it contains 500 mg of magnesium "as magnesium citrate" -- but how much of that is magnesium and how much is citrate?This is a good question, since magnesium can make up less than half the weight of compounds which include it, such as magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate. <br /> <br /> The amount of actual magnesium (sometimes listed as "elemental magnesium) you are getting from your supplement <i>should</i> be indicated on the label, but that's not always the case, so it's important to notice&nbsp;<i>how</i> the information is stated. For example, if your supplement label states: "Magnesium (as magnesium citrate)....500 mg" it should contain 500 mg of actual magnesium. However, if the label says "Magnesium citrate 500 mg," this means the entire compound is 500 mg &mdash; of which only a small percentage is magnesium (in fact, it's only 16.2%). Also, remember that even when a supplement appears to be properly labeled, the only way to know for sure whether it contains what it claims is if it has been tested by an independent group like ConsumerLab.com. Not all products contain what they claim.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more about how to read magnesium supplement labels, including an example of a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>misleading label</strong></a> from a product reviewed by ConsumerLab.com, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> (The Review includes the results of our latest product tests and information about what magnesium does, proper dosage, side effects, and how the forms of magnesium differ.) <br /> <br /> Note that this labeling rule applies to other essential minerals, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a>. See the "ConsumerTips" section of our Reviews of supplements made from each for more about the different forms and what to look for on labels. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-elemental-magnesium-should-i-get/how-much-magnesium-in-my-supplement/43557/3/2016AnswersDoes Restore (Bionic Sciences LLC) really improve gut health? What is in Restore?<i>Restore</i> is a liquid supplement that lists its main ingredient as "Aqueous Humic Substances" and is promoted to "restore gut health" as well as to "support respiratory wellness, combat environmental exposures, promote immune function and enhance mental clarity." Find out what this ingredient really is, what evidence exists to support <i>Restore's</i> claims, and information about potential side effects of <i>Restore</i>, in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Restore-gut-health"><strong>full answer >> </strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-restore-bionic-sciences-llc-really-improve-gut-health/Restore-gut-health/43536/29/2016AnswersAre there negative interactions between the following supplements I take twice each day, as well as 60 mg of beta-sitosterol with dinner: Vitamin C (500 mg), CoQ10 (100 mg), grape seed extract (100 mg), fish oil (500 mg), vitamin D3/calcium/magnesium/zinc (200 IU/333 mg/113 mg/5mg)?You may want to cut back on the vitamin C. The required daily intake is not even 100 mg and if you already get that, taking another 500 mg or 1,000 mg may actually reverse vitamin C's ability to reduce the risk of cataracts, as noted in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin C Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> The amounts of the other supplements you take are generally safe and are at doses which may be helpful -- depending on your health conditions. It is also good that you have broken up your intake of calcium over the day, since you can't absorb more than 500 mg at a time, as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Calcium Supplement Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> If you have high blood pressure, be aware that one study found the combination of vitamin C and OPCs (the active component of grape seed extract) to increase blood pressure (as noted in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21765" target="_blank"><strong>Safety Issues section of the article on OPCs</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> The beta-sitosterol which you take is at a dose which may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>help with symptoms of an enlarged prostate</strong></a>. Be aware that beta-sitosterol is also used at a much higher dose for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/" target="_blank"><strong>lowering cholesterol</strong></a> (by competing with cholesterol for absorption in the gut) and, at this higher dose, you would not want to take it at the same time you take the fat-soluble supplements --&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, both of which are best taken with a meal containing some fat. <br /> <br /> If you take also take prescription medications, be sure to look up the supplements with which they may interact using our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> information. <br /> <br /> <strong>Note: </strong>ConsumerLab.com staff is not able to regularly respond to requests from members to evaluate their supplement regimens. However, it tries to do so from time-to-time and often responds to questions of more general interest, such as those below.&nbsp; https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-negative-interactions-between-coq10-vitamin-d-vitamin-c-and-fish-oil-supplements/supplement-interactions/43526/25/2016AnswersAre lozenges and sublingual pills considered dietary supplements?Lozenges and sublingual pills are, according the FDA, not dietary supplements if they deliver their contents only to the mouth or throat to exert their effect. (An example of this is noted in an <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>FDA Warning Letter</strong></a> sent to a company marketing a "Zinc &amp; Echinacea" throat lozenge).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that just because a product is sold as a sublingual does not mean that it's been proven to work sublingually. Also keep in mind that the ingredients in lozenges do, of course, make their way into the gastrointestinal tract and can have additional effects once there. For example, while the zinc in zinc lozenges may have a local effect on the throat to reduce cold symptoms when taken at the correct dosage and frequency, ingestion of too much zinc from lozenges can cause one to exceed tolerable intake levels and, over time, have detrimental effects (see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><strong>Zinc Supplements and Lozenges Review</strong></a> for more information). <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com tests lozenges and sublingual pills (such as some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B-12 products</strong></a>) and holds them to the same standards as dietary supplements &mdash; making sure they contain what they claim, lack common contaminants, and that tablets will properly disintegrate.&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-lozenges-%26-sublingual-pills-considered-dietary-supplements/lozenges-sublingual-supplements/43516/24/2016AnswersIs it true that oat cereals, like Cheerios, oatmeal, oatflakes and steel-cut oats can be contaminated with a toxin?Yes, unfortunately. In fact, a study of oat-based cereals in the U.S. found the majority to be contaminated with a fungal toxin &mdash; several at unacceptably high levels.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=oat-cereal-toxin"><strong>Read the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> <b>UPDATE: Due to the concern about ochratoxin A in oat-based cereals, ConsumerLab.com purchased and tested popular oat-based cereals (and one buckwheat cereal) for contamination with this toxin (as well as for contamination with gluten and heavy metals) in 2016. For the results, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Oat-based%20Cereals/oats/" target="_blank">Oats Cereal Review &gt;&gt;</a></b>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/oat-cereals-contamination-with-fungal-toxin-ota/oat-cereal-toxin/43506/18/2016AnswersCan beetroot juice or supplements help lower my blood pressure?Beetroot juice (also called beet juice) may have a very modest effect on lowering blood pressure. Most beetroot supplements, however, are unlikely to provide the benefit of the juice. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=beetroot-juice"><strong>See the full answer for details, including dosage &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/beetroot-juice-and-supplements---do-they-help-lower-blood-pressure/beetroot-juice/43476/15/2016AnswersI take St. John's wort for depression. Your report notes that it can interact with other medications. Would taking it several hours apart from other meds avoid this interaction?Unfortunately not. Unlike <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-vitamins-and-minerals-should-be-taken-together-or-separately/how-to-take-vitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>mineral supplements (like calcium) which compete for absorption with other minerals</strong></a><strong> </strong>and should ideally be taken apart from large doses of one another, the interactions of St. John's wort are due to its effects on how drugs are metabolized after they have been absorbed, so it can still affect drugs taken hours later. In addition, St. John's wort is typically given three times each day, so there is not much time when it will not be active and potentially interfere with other drugs.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> More about the drugs with which St. John's wort can interact is found in the Concerns and Cautions section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#cautions " target="_blank"><strong>St. John's Wort Supplements Review</strong></a> and the Drug Interactions section of the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=31050" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's wort</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/st-johns-wort-interactions/St-Johns-Wort-interactions/43466/14/2016AnswersIs it okay to buy supplements as tablets? I've heard that tablets may go through our system without dissolving. Is there any way to know whether tablets will properly dissolve?Although tablets should disintegrate in a short period of time in your stomach, not all do. ConsumerLab.com has found that about 5% of products sold as tablets don't disintegrate as fast as they should, and some fail to disintegrate at all. <br /> <br /> So how do you know if the tablet you are taking is among those that don't dissolve properly? <ul> <p></p> <li>See if your product was tested in a recent ConsumerLab.com Product Review. You can&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>look it up by type of product</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/brands_vitamins_supplements_list.asp" target="_blank"><strong>by brand</strong></a><strong> </strong>to find the relevant review. Then, check the results table.</li> <p></p> <li>Try <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/hometest.asp" target="-blank"><strong>ConsumerLab.com's Home Test</strong></a> for tablet disintegration, which, while not foolproof, can provide some helpful information.</li> </ul> Be aware that passing a disintegration test does not guarantee bioavailability &mdash; which depends on additional factors such as how well ingredients are absorbed.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although you are unlikely to have disintegration issues with regular softgels and capsules, ConsumerLab.com has found issues with some enteric-coated (delayed-release) capsules and softgels.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> (ConsumerLab.com uses USP standards for tablet disintegration (<a href="#" target="_blank">United States Pharmacopeia [USP] "Disintegration and Dissolution of Dietary Supplements" method &lt;2040&gt;</a>), which require uncoated and plain-coated tablets to disintegrate completely within 30 minutes. Enteric-coated (delayed-release) tablets and soft shelled capsules are required to disintegrate within one hour in simulated intestinal fluid after an initial hour in simulated gastric fluid during which they should remain intact.)&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/will-supplements-taken-as-tablets-dissolve-properly/tablets-dissolving/43436/14/2016AnswersDoes Carditone work to lower blood pressure? Carditone, promoted to "maintain blood pressure" and "support heart function" contains magnesium and eight <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38728" target="_blank"><strong>ayurvedic</strong></a> herbal extracts. However, there are no well-designed clinical studies with this combination of ingredients and there is only evidence that two of the ingredients may help to lower blood pressure. In addition, the label of this product fails to list the plant parts (e.g., root, flower, leaf, etc.) from which the herbal extracts are derived &mdash; a violation of FDA labeling requirements, as well as not indicating the strength of any of the extracts. This creates a serious problem for the consumer since different parts of the same plant can have different chemical properties and clinical activity and extracts can vary widely in strength. You should also be aware of potential risks with some of the listed ingredients.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Carditone-blood-pressure"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/carditone---does-it-work-to-lower-blood-pressure/Carditone-blood-pressure/43426/8/2016AnswersCan psyllium help control hunger and appetite?A small study has found that psyllium (such as in Metamucil&reg;) can modestly help control hunger.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=psyllium-hunger-appetite"><strong>See the full answer for more information, including dosage &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-psyllium-help-control-hunger-and-appetite/psyllium-hunger-appetite/43416/8/2016AnswersDoes AZO Bladder Control really work for overactive bladder? AZO Bladder Control with Go Less&reg; (i-Health Inc.) is promoted to "safely reduce occasional urgency" and "support bladder strength." It contains a "proprietary blend" of pumpkin seed extract and soy germ extract (Go Less&reg;). The evidence behind it suggests, at best, only a slight improvement in bladder control in women. For men, only preliminary research has been conducted &mdash; although one of the ingredients its formula has potential benefit for men with enlarged prostate. &nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=AZO-overactive-bladder"><strong>See the full answer for details &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/azo-bladder-control---overactive-bladder/AZO-overactive-bladder/43406/4/2016AnswersIs it true that I should not keep magnesium supplements in a daily pill pack mixed with other supplements and medicines?If you are using magnesium chloride, it should be kept in a well-sealed container away from all types of other pills, as explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#humidity" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerTips section of Magnesium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-magnesium-supplements-be-stored-separately-from-other-supplements/storing-magnesium/43396/1/2016AnswersAre there any supplements I should avoid when taking an antibiotic? Are there any that may be helpful?Antibiotics can be affected by the supplements you take, and they can affect your ability to absorb certain vitamins and minerals. <br /> <br /> The interactions will depend on the type of antibiotic you are taking. You can search for the specific antibiotic you are taking by name in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> section of our ConsumerLab.com. <br /> <br /> Some of the most common antibiotics are listed below, followed by the supplements with which they can interact. Use the links for more details:&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21614" target="_blank"><strong>Amoxicillin</strong></a><strong> (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox):</strong> Bromelain, vitamin K&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21501" target="_blank"><strong>Cephalosporins</strong></a><strong> (cephalexin (Cefanex, Keflex, Keftab, Biocef), cefdinir (Omnicef), etc.): </strong>Vitamin K&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21659" target="_blank"><strong>Fluoroquinolones</strong></a><strong> (ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin)):</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Calcium</strong></a><strong>, </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a><strong>, </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#antibiotics" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a>, fennel, Dong Quai, St. John's Wort <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21418" target="_blank"><strong>Tetracyclines</strong></a><strong> (doxycycline (Bio-Tab, Doryx, Doxy-Caps), tetracycline hydrochloride (Achromycin V, Panmycin etc.):</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Calcium</strong></a><strong>, </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a><strong>, </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>iron</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#antibiotics" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a>, Dong Quai, St. John's Wort, citrate (i.e. potassium citrate) <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21402" target="_blank"><strong>Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole</strong></a><strong> (Bactrim, Cotrim, Septra, Sulfatrim):</strong> Folate, PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid), potassium, white willow, St. John's wort&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Interestingly, some of the supplements noted above (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folate</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K</strong></a>) may, at times, be helpful when taking certain antibiotics, as can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#diarrhea" target="_blank"><strong>probiotics</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplement-interactions-with-antibiotics---which-to-avoid/antibiotics-supplements-interactions/43375/31/2016AnswersWhich supplements are helpful to have when traveling? Any tips on how to best store supplements on trips?Several supplements may be helpful when traveling (see the "What to Consider When Using" section in Product Reviews of specific supplements you may be planning on taking with you during a trip, for more detailed information about the best way to store your supplements.) <br /> <br /> If you need a little help falling asleep, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#using" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin</strong></a> can be used and it may help you avoid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35548" target="_blank"><strong>jet lag</strong></a> after a long flight. <br /> <br /> Keeping a few <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/" target="_blank"><strong>nutrition or meal replacement bars</strong></a> in your travel bag or purse may come in handy in case you experience unexpected transportation delays, or an outing takes longer than expected. <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>ginger</strong></a><strong> </strong>may be helpful if you are prone to motion sickness. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you will be trying new foods (or just eating out more often) during your trip, you may want to consider bringing along <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-with-indigestion-and-heartburn/indigestion_heartburn/" target="_blank"><strong>supplements that may help with indigestion or heartburn</strong></a>, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/" target="_blank"><strong>digestive enzymes</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lactose-free-milk_lactase-enzyme-supplement-review/lactose-intolerance/" target="_blank"><strong>lactase supplements</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#using" target="_blank"><strong>certain probiotics</strong></a> several days before and during your trip may reduce the likelihood of developing traveler's diarrhea. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#colds" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotics</strong></a> may also offer some protection against colds and respiratory infections. If you do develop a cold, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>zinc lozenges</strong></a> may help to reduce the severity and/or duration of symptoms. (If you develop a cold while taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a>, it may modestly reduce symptom severity and duration, but starting vitamin C supplementation after symptoms have already begun may not be helpful.) <br /> <br /> <u>Storage and Travel</u> <br /> Keep in mind when traveling that certain supplements, including some probiotics, fish oil and protein powders, are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-supplements-lose-effectiveness-in-the-heat/vitamin_temperature/" target="_blank"><strong>particularly sensitive to heat and moisture and should be packed and stored accordingly</strong></a>. Do not leave them in your car, and, when flying, keep them in your carry-on luggage rather than checking them with baggage since bags may sit out on the tarmac or in other environments which are not temperature controlled. (Remember, however, that liquid supplements in amounts greater than 3.4 ounces (100 mL),&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>must be stored in checked luggage</strong></a> and cannot be kept in carry-on luggage.) <br /> <br /> Although <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>not required by the TSA</strong></a>, it may be helpful to keep your supplements in their original containers so they can be easily identified by security, especially if you are traveling abroad. In general, traveling in or out of the U.S. with supplements is permitted by the FDA as long as amounts are considered reasonable for personal use. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" name="xray" id="xray" style="background-color:#ccffff">Radiation from <b>airport security scanners</b> is not likely to affect the quality or safety of vitamins and supplements. According to the <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>FDA</strong></a>, "There are no known adverse effects from eating food, drinking beverages, using medicine, or applying cosmetics that have been irradiated by a cabinet x ray system used for security screening." A typical dose of radiation received by objects going through these systems is significantly lower than those used to irradiate food, and one study of medications such as acetaminophen found no change in drug content or quality after exposure to higher levels of radiation than used in typical scanners (<a href="#" target="_blank">Uehara, Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2015</a>). Nevertheless, you may <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>request</strong></a> that medications (and likely, supplements as well) be screened visually rather than by X-ray if you prefer.</span>&nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you have some favorite travel supplements or related tips, share them in the Comments section below! https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/travel-vitamins-%26-supplements---what-to-take-%26-how-to-take-them/supplements-travel-tips/43365/28/2016AnswersDo probiotics help with lactose intolerance?It has not been well demonstrated that probiotics reduce the gas and bloating caused by milk and dairy products in people with lactose intolerance. On the other hand, fermented milk products, such as yogurt and kefir, which contain live organisms (not necessarily "probiotics") have been shown to cause fewer symptoms of lactose intolerance than regular milk containing the same amount of lactose. <br /> <br /> More about this is found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#lactose" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements and Kefirs Review >></strong></a> <br /> <br /> Some probiotics <i>have</i> been shown to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#ibsyndrome" target="_blank"><strong>reduce abdominal pain due to irritable bowel syndrome, as well as functional abdominal pain in children, and colic in infants</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> (Also see ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/lactose-intolerance/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Products for Lactose Intolerance &mdash; Lactase Enzymes and Lactose-free Milks</strong></a>)https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/probiotics-for-lactose-intolerance/probiotics-lactose-intolerance/43345/25/2016AnswersSomeone told me that one Brazil nut can provide your entire recommended daily intake for vitamin E. Is that true?Nuts can certainly be a good source of vitamin E, but the recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 22 IU of natural vitamin E (or 33 IU of the synthetic form) and one Brazil nut provides only 0.42 IU of vitamin E &mdash; less than 2% the recommended daily intake. Note, however, that one Brazil nut does provide the recommended daily intake for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Selenium_Supplements_Review_Ratings/selenium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>selenium</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Other nuts, such as almonds and hazelnuts, as well as certain seeds, oils and grains (sunflower seeds, safflower and olive oil and wheat germ) have higher concentrations of vitamin E. For example, while one ounce of Brazil nuts contains 2.2 IU of vitamin E, an ounce of almonds provides 10 IU &mdash; and one tablespoon of wheat germ oil contains 30 IU. <br /> <br /> Incorporating some of these foods into your daily diet, you can easily meet normal daily requirements. Higher amounts may be helpful for certain conditions such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Alzheimer's disease</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#specialuse" target="_blank"><strong>rheumatoid arthritis</strong></a>. You may need a supplement to attain these higher intakes. <br /> <br /> For more about vitamin E and vitamin E supplements, upper intake limits, amounts found in other foods, plus our tests of popular natural and synthetic vitamin E supplements, see the ConsumerTips and Results sections of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#whattoconsider" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin E Supplements Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <strong> </strong><br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21476" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin E</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-one-brazil-nut-provide-your-entire-recommended-daily-intake-for-vitamin-e/vitamin-E-foods-brazil-nut/43335/24/2016AnswersI developed a rash soon after starting a probiotic. Is it possible to be allergic to probiotics?Yes, certain ingredients in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>probiotic supplements</strong></a> can cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals -- particularly individuals with milk or yeast allergies. Contamination with mold can also cause an allergic reaction (all probiotic products reviewed by ConsumerLab.com are&nbsp;tested for potential contamination with molds and/or pathogenic bacteria). Inulin, a&nbsp;<em>pre</em>biotic which is sometimes added to&nbsp;<em>pro</em>biotic supplements, is also a potential allergen. <br /> <br /> Allergens in probiotics are also suspected to cause, on very rare occasion, a serious condition known as eosinophilic syndrome. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more details about allergic reactions to probiotics, as well as other possible adverse effects, see the&nbsp;<strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#cautions" target="_blank">Concerns and Cautions</a>&nbsp;</strong>section of the <strong>Probiotics and Kefirs Product Review</strong>, which includes tests and quality ratings of popular probiotic products. &nbsp;Also be sure to check and compare the ingredients in each tested&nbsp;product, as can be found in the Review's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=ingredients/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>Ingredients Table</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/allergic-reactions-to-probiotics/probiotic-allergic-reaction-rash/43325/21/2016AnswersI've read that the best form of vitamin E is d-alpha tocopheryl succinate (it's recommended in the paleo diet, for example), but I don't see that listed on product labels. How can I find it?D-alpha tocopheryl succinate is just another name for natural vitamin E. It is also called d-alpha tocopherol, which may be followed by the words "acetate," "succinate," or "acid succinate." This is explained in our&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#whattoconsider" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin E Supplements Review</strong></a> -- which also explains that if you are looking for natural vitamin E, you'll want to&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#seeking" target="_blank"><strong>look for more than just the word "natural" on the label</strong></a> (not all products provide the tocopherols you may be expecting!).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The Review also explains <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#whattoconsider" target="_blank"><strong>differences</strong></a> between natural and synthetic forms of vitamin E, and provides our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#results" target="_blank"><strong>tests</strong></a> of many products claiming to contain the natural form, as well as the synthetic ("dl") form of vitamin E.&nbsp; https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-the-best-form-of-vitamin-e-d-alpha-tocopheryl-what-is-vitamin-e-d-alpha-tocopheryl-succinate--as-recommended-by-the-paleo-diet/D-alpha-tocopheryl-succinate/33325/17/2016AnswersI use a brand of curcumin and the most recent bottle contained capsules a few shades lighter than what I am accustomed to taking. Is this color change an issue to be concerned about?Variation in the color of turmeric and curcumin can occur, even from bottle-to-bottle for the same product. This is not necessarily a problem, as explained in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Buying and Using</strong></a>" section of the Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review. Most importantly, the product should provide the expected amount of curcuminoid compounds (not all do!)&mdash; which is what ConsumerLab.com has measured and published (see the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>What CL Found</strong></a>" and "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#results" target="_blank"><strong>Test Results by Product</strong></a>" sections of the Review). https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-i-be-concerned-if-the-curcumin-capsules-in-my-most-recent-bottle-are-a-few-shades-lighter-than-usual/curcumin-color/33315/15/2016AnswersI have heard that caffeine can interfere with the benefits of creatine supplementation. Is that true?It is true that some evidence suggests caffeine can diminish the effectiveness of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/" target="_blank"><strong>creatine</strong></a>. However, this negative effect appears to depend on whether caffeine is taken on a short-term or long-term basis. For details and more about the use of creatine, see the "What to Consider When Using" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#tips" target="_blank"><strong>Review of </strong><strong>Muscle Enhancers (Creatine and Branched-chain Amino Acids)</strong></a> -- which includes our tests and comparisons of products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-caffeine-interfere-with-creatine/creatine-and-caffeine/33305/7/2016AnswersCan a probiotic help men with prostatitis?<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35554" target="_blank"><strong>Prostatitis</strong></a> is an inflammation of the prostate gland. It is sometimes caused by bacterial infection which can either be acute -- typically cured with antibiotics, or chronic -- which is more difficult to treat and occurs more frequently in men with gastrointestinal disturbances, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). <br /> <br /> A study among men with chronic prostatitis and IBS found that taking a probiotic along with antibacterial treatment helped reduce the risk of recurrent infection and the progression of inflammation to other glands. Details about this study and probiotic used are found in the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#prostatitis" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> There do not appear to be studies evaluating the benefits of probiotics for acute bacterial prostatitis or for chronic non-bacterial prostatitis &mdash; which is the most common form of prostatitis. <br /> <br /> Other natural treatments for prostatitis, including quercetin and grass pollen extract, are described in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35554" target="_blank"><strong>Prostatitis</strong></a> article in the Encyclopedia.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/probiotics-%26-men-with-prostatitis/prostatitis-probiotic/33295/6/2016AnswersI use beta-sitosterol for my prostate. Should it be taken with or without food?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#using" target="_blank"><strong>Prostate Supplements Review</strong></a>, when used to reduce symptoms of an enlarged prostate (or BPH &mdash; benign prostatic enlargement), beta-sitosterol should be taken <i>without food</i>, to maximize absorption. Interestingly, beta-sitosterol can also be used to lower cholesterol by taking it with food (as discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/#using" target="_blank"><strong>Cholesterol-lowerers Review</strong></a>). See the respective reviews for more details, including dosage.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-beta-sitosterol-be-taken-with-food/beta-sitosterol-how-to-take-food/33285/6/2016AnswersWhich supplements can help with arthritis?There are a number of supplements that may modestly reduce pain or improve other symptoms of osteoarthritis (inflammation caused by damage or "wearing away" of cartilage in joints) or rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease causing joint pain, stiffness and inflammation). Use the links below for more information, including dosage, about supplements for each type of arthritis:<br /> <br /> <b>For osteoarthritis:</b> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAM-e_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>SAMe</strong></a> has been shown to be effective as a treatment for osteoarthritis and associated joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#osteoarthritis" target="_blank"><strong>Ginger</strong></a> may modestly reduce pain and disability from osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> Several small studies suggest <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-collagen-help-with-arthritis/collagen_arthritis/" target="_blank"><strong>collagen hydrolysate</strong></a> may reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis. A branded form of undenatured type II collagen, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-uc-ii-help-joints/UC_II_undenatured_collagen/" target="_blank"><strong>UC-II</strong></a>, has been found to improve knee stiffness and/or pain. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes-boswellia" target="_blank"><strong>Boswellia</strong></a> has been associated with significant pain reduction and improved physical function in people with osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> There is also evidence that <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#arthritis" target="_blank">ashwagandha extract</a></b> can reduce pain, stiffness and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> A branded enzyme supplement containing bromelain, trypsin and other ingredients, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#inflammation" target="_blank"><strong>Wobenzym</strong></a>, was found in one clinical study to reduce pain from knee osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> Research suggests that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> supplementation does not benefit osteoarthritis of the knee in people not deficient in vitamin D, but may help those who are deficient in vitamin D, particularly when taken for more than one year. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-tart-cherry-juice/tart_cherry/" target="_blank"><strong>Tart cherry</strong></a> juice has been found to reduce markers of inflammation, but not pain, in people with osteoarthritis. <br /> <br /> There is limited evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-hyaluronic-acid-helpful-for-osteoarthritis/hyaluronic_acid/" target="_blank"><strong>hyaluronic acid</strong></a> may be helpful. <br /> <br /> There is mixed evidence that the omega-3 fatty acids EPA + DHA from green-lipped mussel (such as in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#omegaxl" target="_blank"><strong>Omega XL</strong></a>) may be helpful. Similarly, there is mixed evidence for&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21882" target="_blank"><strong>white willow</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Although <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>glucosamine and chondroitin</strong></a> are popular supplements for joint health and some early clinical research suggested a benefit, more recent and larger clinical studies have tended to show little or no benefit for osteoarthritis of the knee.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The evidence is mixed for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21691" target="_blank"><strong>MSM</strong></a>, another compound commonly found in supplements for joint health. <br /> <br /> Higher <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank">fiber</a></b> intake from the diet is related to a lower risk of suffering symptoms (i.e., pain, aching, stiffness) from knee osteoarthritis, although not with improvements evident on radiographs. Risk of symptoms was 30% to 61% lower among people consuming about 22 to 27 grams of fiber daily compared to those consuming about 9 to 14 grams (<a href="#" target="_blank">Dai, BMJ 2017</a>). <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21505" target="_blank"><strong>Osteoarthritis</strong></a> for more information. <br /> <br /> <b>For rheumatoid arthritis:</b> <br /> <br /> Omega-3 fatty acids EPA + DHA from <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>fish oi</strong><strong>l</strong></a> may help reduce the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, or treat symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease, but do not appear to slow the progression of the disease. <br /> <br /> A branded liquid form of undenatured type II collagen, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-vital-3-collagen-drops-really-help-for-joint-pain/Vital-3-collagen-arthritis-joint-pain/" target="_blank"><strong>Vital 3</strong></a>, may modestly improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis when taken along with standard treatments.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cinnamon-supplements-review/cinnamon/#shishehbor" target="_blank"><strong>Cinnamon</strong></a> may help reduce pain and the number of swollen and tender joints in people with rheumatoid arthritis who are taking disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.<br /> <br /> There is limited evidence <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/#whatitdoes" target="_balnk"><strong>vitamin E</strong></a> may reduce discomfort caused by rheumatoid arthritis.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> In women, low levels of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a><strong> </strong>are associated with a higher risk developing rheumatoid arthritis, although it's not clear if supplementing with vitamin D in people who are not deficient has any benefit.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Similarly, low <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Selenium_Supplements_Review_Ratings/selenium/#other" target="_blank"><strong>selenium</strong></a> levels have been associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis &mdash; although selenium supplements don't seem to help rheumatoid arthritis once it has developed.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21511" target="-blank"><strong>Rheumatoid Arthritis</strong></a> for more information. <br /> <br /> <b>For osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis:</b> <br /> <br /> Supplements which may be helpful for both types of arthritis include <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#arthritis" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=22198" target="_blank"><strong>cat's claw</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=111799" target="_blank"><strong>rose hips</strong></a> (a source of vitamin C and bioflavonoids). <br /> <br /> It's also worth noting that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#pain" target="_blank"><strong>olive oil</strong></a> has an anti-inflammatory effect; however, it would be difficult to consume enough olive oil to provide relief comparable to a medication such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-any-supplements-i-should-avoid-when-taking-aspirin-ibuprofen-or-other-nsaids/aspirin_ibuprofen_NSAIDS/" target="_blank"><strong>ibuprofen</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/collagen-for-joints-%26-arthritis/arthritis-supplements/33275/4/2016AnswersDo Vital 3 collagen drops really help for joint pain?The website for Vital 3 Joint Solution (Bronson Laboratories), which provides undenatured type II collagen in a liquid form, claims the product "helps joints feel better and move better." Most of the research used to support this claim appears to be unpublished and the research studies which have been published focus specifically on its use for rheumatoid arthritis, rather than other types of joint pain. We contacted Bronson about this and reviewed available studies, which raises questions about its efficacy and suggested dosage.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Vital-3-collagen-arthritis-joint-pain"><strong>Sign in to learn more &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vital-3-collagen-drops---do-they-really-help-for-joint-pain/Vital-3-collagen-arthritis-joint-pain/33254/26/2016AnswersWhat is Noopept? Can it really improve memory and cognition, and is it safe? Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester -- JSC LEKKO Pharmaceuticals) is promoted as a "nootropic," a substance taken to enhance memory, cognitive function and/or mood. In Russia, where it was developed, it is apparently sold as a drug for improving learning and memory and improving cognitive function after brain damage (such as from concussion or stroke), although the evidence for this is limited. In the U.S., it is not approved as drug nor can it be legally sold as dietary supplement. Noopept should not be taken by people with high blood pressure or certain other medical conditions. For more information about Noopept, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=Noopept"><strong>see the full answer >></strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-noopept-really-improve-memory-and-cognition-and-is-it-safe/Noopept/33244/24/2016AnswersCan CLA slimming supplements cause liver damage?Although CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/How+do+I+choose+the+best+CLA+supplement+for+slimming/choosing_the_best_CLA/" target="_blank"><strong>popular supplement for slimming</strong></a>, there is some evidence it could have negative effects on the liver. It may also worsen blood sugar control. For more about these and other potential side effects, as well as our tests of CLA products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CLA_Conjugated_Linoleic_Acid_for_Slimming/CLA/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>CLA Supplements Review >></strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-cla-slimming-supplements-cause-liver-damage/CLA-liver-damage-safety/33234/23/2016AnswersMy doctor warned me that red yeast rice can cause liver damage - is that true?<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>Red yeast rice</strong></a> naturally contains lovastatin, the same key ingredient found in the cholesterol-lowering "statin" drug Mevacor. Increases in liver enzymes and rare cases of liver injury are associated with lovastatin, and the same is true with red yeast rice. Red yeast rice supplements also have the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#contamination" target="_blank"><strong>potential to be contaminated</strong></a> with a toxin which may be damaging to the liver and kidneys, which is why ConsumerLab.com <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#results" target="_blank"><strong>tests products</strong></a> for this toxin. For more details, see the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/red-yeast-rice-and-liver-damage/red-yeast-rice-liver-damage/33224/20/2016AnswersDo any supplements improve balance or reduce the risk of falls?Moderate doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#muscle" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> may improve balance and reduce the risk of falls in older adults deficient in vitamin D; however, be aware that too much vitamin D may actually <em>increase</em> the risk of falls.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> When combined with resistance exercise, supplementation with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_ Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>protein</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>creatine</strong></a> may help to build muscle in older adults (muscle loss has been associated with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#sarcopenia" target="_blank"><strong>an increased risk of falls</strong></a>). Note that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#schoen" target="_blank"><b>many older adults do not get enough protein from their diets</b></a> and some research suggests intakes higher than current daily recommendations may be needed to reduce muscle loss. <br /> <br /> Also, be aware that being deficient in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B12</strong></a> can cause problems with balance and gait, which could increase the risk of falls. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#lui"target="_blank"><b>Melatonin</b></a> supplements may impair balance in older adults for a period of time after taking. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamins-%26-supplements-for-improving-your-balance/supplements-for-balance-falls/33214/12/2016AnswersWith probiotics, how many CFUs should I look for as the dose? Is more necessarily better?As a general rule, a probiotic should provide at least 1 billion CFUs (colony forming units, i.e., viable cells), with doses typically ranging between 1 billion and 10 billion CFUs daily for adults. This is explained in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#using" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review</strong></a>, which includes ConsumerLab.com's tests of popular probiotics. There are some exceptions to this: Doses as high as 100 billion CFUs or more are used in some situations, while doses for children and infants are&nbsp;sometimes below 1 billion.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The specific dose will depend on the probiotic strain and the purpose for which it is taken. You can look this up in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#using" target="_blank"><strong>What to Consider When Using</strong></a>" section of the Review, where you will find the dose and strain(s) used in preventing/treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea, IBS, anxiety, depression, allergies,&nbsp;and more. Be aware that probiotic supplements may contain a single type of organism or a combination of many types. Combinations have been more effective in some situations, but single strain products have also been effective, so it is not clear that one is better than the other. Details about the clinical studies are found in the "<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>What It Does</strong></a>" section of the Review.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-many-cells-or-cfus-should-my-probiotic-have/probiotic-cells-CFU/33204/9/2016AnswersI've been taking a Daily Advantage multi but am now concerned by the very high % DV for vitamin C (833% DV), niacin (325% DV), and B vitamins (over 1,000% DV for several). The company tells me this formula is based on clinical experience and the scientific literature. What do you think?Unless you are deficient in each of these vitamins you don't need to take such high doses of each. Some may do more harm than good. It's good that you are now studying the ingredients listed on the label. You may still benefit from a multivitamin, but one which is likely to fill your nutritional gaps without exceeding upper tolerable intake levels. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> The following resources on ConsumerLab.com can help you: <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><strong>Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Nutrients</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerLab.com Multivitamin and Multimineral Supplements Review</strong></a> (which includes our latest tests, comparisons, and suggestions of CL Approved supplements based on age and gender, such as women's, men's, age 50+, prenatal, and children's) https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/exceeding-daily-values-dv-by-taking-multivitamins/Daily_Advantage_Multi/33194/7/2016AnswersDo any supplements help for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?Several different types of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#ibsyndrome" target="_blank"><strong>probiotics</strong></a> have been found to reduce symptoms of IBS, but the appropriate probiotic may depend on whether the IBS is causing predominantly diarrhea or constipation. (See the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#ibsyndrome" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review</strong></a> for details.) <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=108304" target="_blank"><strong><i>Pre</i>biotics</strong></a> have also been promoted for IBS, although the evidence is mixed. <br /> <br /> Supplementation with the amino acid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review_creatine_BCAAs/creatine/#zhou" target="_blank"><strong>glutamine</strong></a> has been shown to reduce symptoms such as pain and bowel frequency in people with diarrhea-predominant IBS. <br /> <br /> Interestingly, several small studies suggest <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#ibs" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin</strong></a> may improve symptoms of IBS, possibly by affecting the nervous system in the digestive track. (See the "What It Does" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#ibs" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin Review</strong></a> for details). <br /> <br /> Preliminary evidence suggests <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=626483" target="_blank"><strong>psyllium</strong></a>, a type of fiber, may be helpful for people with IBS with constipation. <br /> <br /> There is mixed evidence as to whether <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/peppermint-oil-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs/peppermint-oil-ibs/"target="_blank"><b>peppermint oil</b></a> can reduce symptoms of IBS. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21736"target="_blank"><b>IBS</b></a> for information about other potentially helpful supplements. <br /> <br /> Be aware that a number of supplements, including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a>, high doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-berberine-really-lower-blood-sugar/berberine_blood_sugar/" target="_blank"><strong>berberine</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>turmeric/curcumin</strong></a> can cause diarrhea, so you may want to avoid these or reduce your dosage if you find they are exacerbating IBS symptoms. See the "Concerns and Cautions" section in each review for details. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/ibs-supplements---what-works-best/supplements_for_IBS/33184/5/2016AnswersWhat is Brain Bright and can it really improve memory or cognition?[<strong><span style="color: red">Update:</span></strong> (1/26/20) A <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14330" target="_blank">recall announcement</a> may affect this product.] <br /> <br /> Brain Bright (BioTrust Nutrition) is promoted on the company's website as a "science-backed" "triple-action brain enhancement formula" which promises to provide: 1) greatly improved memory and recall, 2) immediate concentration and razor-sharp focus and 3) second-to-none long-term brain health (by shielding the brain from toxins).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <u>Evidence:</u> <br /> While the ingredients (and the amounts of these ingredients) in Brain Bright are each supported by some research suggesting a potential benefit, there are no published clinical studies on the effects of these ingredients when combined. <br /> <br /> The claims made on the website appear to be based on an unpublished study, along with studies by others on the different ingredients listed in the product. <br /> <br /> BioTrust provided ConsumerLab.com with a summary of the unpublished clinical trial. It involved 29 healthy adults between the ages of 19 and 68 (average age not given). It found that 2 tablets of Brain Bright taken daily for one week appeared to slightly reduce the number of mistakes on a test of concentration and short-term memory (approximately 1 mistake vs. 2.5 mistakes, respectively), but did not improve reaction time, processing speed or attention, compared to placebo. However, as data was not provided and the study results did not undergo peer-review for publication, it's difficult to draw any meaningful conclusions. In addition, no information about adverse effects was included. <br /> <br /> Here is the evidence for each of the key ingredients in Brain Bright based on studies of the individual ingredients. You can use the links to get more information about each ingredient on ConsumerLab.com. Also shown is the amount of each ingredient listed in the suggested daily serving size of 2 tablets: <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamins</strong></a> (riboflavin (8 mg), B-6 (20 mg), folate (as folic acid) (800 mcg), B-12 (methylcobalamin) (500 mcg) - The same doses of B-6, folic acid, and B-12, taken together, were found in one clinical study to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#memory" target="_blank"><strong>slow cognitive decline</strong></a> in people age 70 years or older with mild cognitive impairment (riboflavin, however, was not used in the study). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/" target="_blank"><strong><i>Gingko biloba</i></strong></a> (240 mg of extract standardized to 24% glycosides, 6% lactones, and &lt; 1 ppm&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>ginkgolic acid</strong></a>) - Although this&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>amount and type of extract</strong></a> is in-line with those used in some clinical studies for cognitive function, some experts have concluded there is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>little evidence</strong></a> that gingko improves cognitive function. The Brain Bright claim of "second-to-none long term brain health (by shielding the brain from toxins)" appears to be based on laboratory and animals studies demonstrating the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#quality" target="_blank"><strong>antioxidant activity of ginkgo glycosides</strong></a>. However, we are not aware of any studies demonstrating long-term brain health benefits based on gingko's antioxidant properties. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/" target="_blank"><strong><i>Rhodiola rosea</i></strong></a> (200 mg root extract standardized to 5% rosavins and 2% salidrosides) &mdash; Doses in this&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>range</strong></a> have shown some efficacy for improving certain measures memory and mental fatigue in a few small studies. However, overall, due to contradictory findings and design flaws in the studies, some researchers concluded there is insufficient evidence for this use. <br /> <br /> N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (500 mg) - N-acetyl-L-tyrosine is converted into the amino acid <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21794" target="_blank"><strong>tyrosine</strong></a> in the body. Although a few, small studies suggest tyrosine may improve memory or mental function in people who are sleep deprived or exposed to other forms of stress, it should be noted that these studies used higher doses of L-tyrosine (2,000 mg to 15,000 mg). In addition, it's not clear how much N-acetyl-L-tyrosine is actually converted into tyrosine in the body (<a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>Magnusson, Metabolism 1989</strong></a>; <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>Van Goudoever, J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1994</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Acetyl-L-Carnitine-Supplements-Review/Acetyl-L-Carnitine/" target="_blank"><strong>Acetyl-L-carnitine</strong></a> (500 mg) - There is some evidence that acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some help for age-related memory impairment, however, typically at a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Acetyl-L-Carnitine-Supplements-Review/Acetyl-L-Carnitine/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>higher dosage</strong></a> (1,500 to 2,000 mg). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-Theanine-Supplements-Review/L-Theanine/" target="_blank"><strong>L-theanine</strong></a> (100 mg) - There is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=653856#what" target="_blank"><strong>evidence</strong></a> that taking 50 mg of this amino acid (which is also found in black and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank"><strong>green tea</strong></a>) may increase alpha brain wave activity, which plays an important role in attention, within less than an hour of taking. This research may be part of the basis for the claim that Brain Bright promise of "immediate concentration."&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Brain Bright also contains 5 mg of black pepper extract (BioPerine), an ingredient which is sometimes added to supplements to enhance the bioavailability of certain ingredients. <br /> <br /> <u>Safety:</u> <br /> It's important to note that the directions for use state: "Take 1 tablet 2 times daily, preferably without food, or, for enhanced concentration take 2 tablets as needed. Do not exceed 6 tablets per day." Taking the maximum recommended dosage of 6 tablets would provide three times the dosages of each ingredient as listed above. There are risks associated with taking such high doses of some of these ingredients, including vitamin <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-too-much-b-6-be-dangerous/too_much_b6/" target="_blank"><strong>B-6</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-too-much-b-12-be-dangerous/too_much_b12/" target="-blank"><strong>B-12</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folic acid</strong></a>. Furthermore, there are no published studies on the safety of taking all of these ingredients together. For example, both <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#cautions" target="_blank"><i><strong>Ginkgo bilob</strong><strong>a</strong></i></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong><i>Rhodiola</i></strong></a> may lower blood sugar, and both <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong><i>Rhodiola</i></strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-Theanine-Supplements-Review/L-Theanine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>L-theanine</strong></a> may lower blood pressure. <br /> <br /> There are also potential interactions with medications for some of these ingredients. More information about potential side-effects and drug interactions for each ingredient can be found in the "Concerns and Cautions" sections of ConsumerLab.com's product reviews, which you can find by clicking on the above links to each review. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com has not tested Brain Bright to determine whether this product contains what it claims, and without contaminants.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <u>Cost:</u> Brain Bright costs $49 for a bottle containing 60 tablets - a 30 day supply if you take the recommended 2 per day. The website claims there is a one-year money back guarantee and you will not be enrolled in an auto-delivery program.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <u>The bottom line:</u> <br /> Brain Bright contains several ingredients in doses which some small studies suggest may help to improve memory and cognition. However,&nbsp;there are no published clinical studies showing that these ingredients are safe or effective when taken together as in the Brain Bright formula. Furthermore,&nbsp;the overall evidence for two of its main ingredients, ginkgo and rhodiola, is currently considered insufficient for memory and cognition, and the evidence for the other ingredients is quite preliminary.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=35549" target="-blank"><strong>Enhancing Memory and Mental Function</strong></a> for more information. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/brainbright-by-bio-trust-really-improve-memory/BrainBright_memory/33174/2/2016AnswersMy HDL (good) cholesterol level is low. Should I take niacin to raise my HDLs?Niacin, at very high doses, can raise HDL levels, as well as lower elevated triglycerides -- both of which would seem to be good objectives, since higher HDL levels are generally associated with reduced risk coronary artery disease, as are lower triglyceride levels. However, it's not necessarily a good idea to take niacin to raise HDLs and there are safer ways to boost HDL levels. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=niacin_HDL_cholesterol"><strong>See the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-i-take-niacin-to-increase-my-hdl-cholesterol-levels/niacin_HDL_cholesterol/33164/2/2016AnswersWhich supplements can help lower or control my blood sugar?Many different supplements may help lower or control blood sugar in people with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes who experience hyperglycemia (when blood glucose rises higher than normal). These supplements are discussed below. More details about each, including dosage, drug interactions, potential side effects, and ConsumerLab.com's reviews of products on the market, can be found by clicking on the links. <br /> <br /> Due to the seriousness of hyperglycemia, it is important to consult with your physician regarding use of these supplements. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/cinnamon/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Cinnamon</strong></a> supplements may modestly improve blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes whose blood sugar is not well controlled with medication. In addition, one small study found that a branded cinnamon extract reduced fasting blood sugar by an average of about 10 mg/dL in prediabetic men and women with metabolic syndrome. Keep in mind, however, that only certain varieties of cinnamon have been shown to have this effect, and long-term safety studies have not been conducted. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#diabetes" target="_blank"><strong>Curcumin</strong></a> (from turmeric) may improve blood sugar levels, according to preliminary studies, and one study found curcumin to dramatically lower the chances of prediabetes in middle-aged, slightly overweight men and women with somewhat higher than normal blood sugar levels. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Alpha-Lipoic_Acid_Supplements/alphalipoic/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Alpha lipoic acid</strong></a> may improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes, although it may only slightly reduce levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/chromium_supplements/chromium/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Chromium</strong></a> picolinate may help some people with type 2 diabetes decrease fasting blood glucose levels as well as levels of insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). However, be aware that high doses may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Chromium/chromium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong><i>worsen</i> insulin sensitivity</strong></a> in healthy people who are not obese or diabetic. <br /> <br /> Several small, preliminary studies suggest that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/apple-cider-vinegars-review/apple-cider-vinegar/" target="_blank"><b>apple cider vinegar</b></a>, taken as a liquid, may reduce the rise in blood sugar that occurs after eating, although it's not clear if it is beneficial to people with type 2 diabetes. Apple cider vinegar <i>tablets and pills</i> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/apple-cider-vinegars-review/apple-cider-vinegar/#johnston" target="_blank"><b>do not appear to have the same effect</b></a> on blood sugar. <br /> <br /> Having adequate blood levels of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#diabetes" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin D</strong></a> may reduce the risk of insulin resistance in people who are obese. There is some evidence that a certain blood level of vitamin D is needed for normal glucose metabolism in women who are overweight and obese (but not diabetic), but it is not clear whether any further benefit is gained with higher blood levels. <br /> <br /> In healthy people, consuming a moderate amount of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#bloodsugar" target="_blank"><strong>extra olive oil</strong></a> with a meal has been shown to reduce increases in blood sugar after the meal compared to the same meal consumed with corn oil. In people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, olive oil may improve glucose metabolism. <br /> <br /> Increasing <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank"><strong>dietary fiber</strong></a>, especially insoluble fiber from cereal and grains, is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes and has been shown to reduce fasting blood glucose and modestly lower HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes (<a href="#" target="_blank">Martin, J Nutr 2008</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Post,J Am Board Fam Med 2012</a>). In people with type 1 diabetes, 50 grams of dietary fiber per day has been shown to significantly improve blood sugar control and reduce hypoglycemic events (<a href="#" target="_blank">Giacco, Diabetes Care 2000</a>). The American Dietetic Association states that "diets providing 30 to 50 g fiber per day from whole food sources consistently produce lower serum glucose levels compared to a low-fiber diet. Fiber supplements providing doses of 10 to 29 g/day may have some benefit in terms of glycemic control." (<a href="#" target="_blank">Slavin, J Am Diet Assoc 2008</a>). Although ConsumerLab.com has not tested fiber products, we have produced a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=fiber_supplements_webinar_2012.asp" target="_blank"><strong>webinar</strong></a> about that provides more information. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/" target="_blank"><strong>Ginseng</strong></a>, both American and Korean Red ginseng (from <i>Panax ginseng</i>), may reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, according to preliminary research. <br /> <br /> Drinking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_ Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#diabetes" target="_blank"><strong>whey protein</strong></a> before a high glycemic meal may help to lessen increases in blood sugar after the meal in people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. <br /> <br /> Silymarin, a component of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>milk thistle</strong></a>, may decrease blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c in people with type 2 diabetes, and reduce insulin resistance in people with coexisting diabetes and alcoholic cirrhosis. <br /> <br /> Inulin, a type of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_and_Kefir/probiotics/#prebiotics" target="_blank"><strong>prebiotic</strong></a>, may improve measures of blood sugar control in women with type 2 diabetes, although it did not improve blood sugar levels or insulin resistance in a study of prediabetic men and women. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/berberine-goldenseal-supplements-review/berberine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>Berberine</strong></a> (a compound found in plants such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104391" target="_blank"><strong>barberry</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21828" target="_blank"><strong>Oregon grape</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21756" target="_blank"><strong>goldenseal</strong></a>) may reduce blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, according to a few small studies. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21712" target="_blank"><strong>Fenugreek</strong></a> may help to lower blood sugar, according to preliminary studies, and one study found fenugreek extract to significantly improve some measures of blood sugar control and insulin response in people with type 2 diabetes. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21860" target="_blank"><b>D-ribose</b></a>, often promoted for energy or sports performance, may also lower blood sugar levels (<a href="#" target="_blank">Fenstad, Internet J Nutr Wellness 2007</a>). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21774" target="_blank"><strong><i>Gymnema sylvestre</i></strong></a> may decrease average blood sugar levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, according to two small, preliminary studies using 400 mg of a standardized extract (GS4 from Sabinsa, standardized to 25% gymnemic acid) for six months or more (<a href="#" target="_blank">Baskaran, J Ethnopharmacol 1990</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Shanmugasundaram, J Ethnopharmacol 1990</a>). <br /> <br /> <b>White mulberry</b> (<i>Morus alba</i> or <i>Morus indica</i>) has been traditionally used in Asia to help treat type 2 diabetes, and there is some preliminary evidence to support this use. Mulberry leaf extract (species not given) may lessen increases in blood sugar after ingestion of table sugar in healthy people and people with type 2 diabetes (<a href="#" target="_blank">Mudra, Diabetes Care 2007</a>). Among people with type 2 diabetes, taking 1 gram of powdered white mulberry leaf three times daily (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) for four weeks was found to lower fasting blood sugar by 27%, while taking 5 mg of the anti-diabetes drug glibenclamide lowered fasting blood sugar by only 8% (<a href="#" target="_blank">Andallu, Clin Chim Acta 2001</a>). <br /> <br /> There is mixed evidence as to whether <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#yen" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a> may lower blood sugar. To be safe, people with diabetes or who take medication to lower blood sugar <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>should consult a physician</strong></a> before using. <br /> <br /> Preliminary evidence suggests certain other supplements, including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>aloe</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>ashwagandha</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>ginkgo</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/green_coffee_ extract_weight_loss/greencoffee/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>green coffee bean extract</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>glucosamine</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#blackcohoshcautions" target="_blank"><strong>black cohosh</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/rhodiola_supplements/rhodiola/#rhodiola" target="_blank"><strong>rhodiola</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-reishi-mushroom-supplements-boost-the-immune-system/reishi_mushroom/" target="_blank"><strong>reishi mushroom</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-tart-cherry-juice/tart_cherry/" target="_blank"><strong>tart cherry juice</strong></a> may lower blood sugar. While there is not enough clinical research to support the use of these supplements for this purpose, it's important to keep this in mind, as they could enhance the blood sugar lowering effect of other supplements or medications you may be taking. <br /> <br /> There are a few supplements which may&nbsp;<i>worsen</i> blood sugar control or insulin sensitivity in certain people: excessive amounts of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-b-vitamins-build-up-to-toxic-levels-in-the-body/water_soluble_toxicity/" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a> may elevate blood sugar levels, and prescription <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>digestive enzymes</strong></a><strong> </strong>may cause an increase or decrease in blood sugar levels in people with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CLA_Conjugated_Linoleic_Acid_for_Slimming/CLA/#cautions" target="-blank"><strong>CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)</strong></a>, a popular supplement for slimming, may worsen blood sugar control in diabetics and in obese people without diabetes. <br /> <br /> Although fish oil does not appear to adversely affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, one study reported that a large daily dose of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#insulin" target="_blank"><strong>krill oil</strong></a> (providing a modest amount of EPA and DHA) reduced insulin sensitivity in overweight, middle-aged men by about 27% -- which could potentially increase the risk of diabetes. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin C</strong></a> may lower blood sugar levels <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#mason" target="_blank"><b>after eating</b></a> in people with type 2 diabetes, but be aware that high doses may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#tests" target="_blank"><b>interfere</b></a> with certain blood sugar tests. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-lowering-blood-sugar/supplements_to_lower_blood_sugar/33153/29/2016AnswersIs it safe to take curcumin or turmeric supplements for a long period of time?Formal, long-term safety studies have not been conducted with curcumin or turmeric supplements. While smaller efficacy studies using fairly high doses have generally not shown toxicity in most people, abnormal liver function has been reported in a small percentage of people taking turmeric/curcumin supplements for longer than one month, even at typical dosages. Also be aware that other side-effects can occur. Additionally, bioavailability enhancers found in some curcumin supplements can interfere with certain medications and medical conditions. For more details, see the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Curcumin and Turmeric Supplements and Spices Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/long-term-effects-of-turmeric-supplements/curcumin_long_term_safety/33143/26/2016AnswersWhat are the most common, potentially dangerous interactions between supplements and drugs? Fifteen percent of men and women ages 62 to 85 in the U.S. are potentially at risk for a dangerous interaction between a prescription drug, over the counter drug (OTC), and/or supplement they are taking, according to a study published in 2016 (<a href="#" target="_blank">Qato, JAMA Intern Med 2016</a>). <br /> <br /> The most common drug and supplement combinations with the potential for harmful effects, according to that study, are warfarin (Coumadin) interacting with&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/omega3/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil</strong></a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/Garlic/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>garlic</strong></a>; the ACE inhibitor drug lisinopril (Zestril) interacting with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/Potassium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>potassium</strong></a>; and statin drugs like atorvastatin (Lipitor) and rosuvastatin (Crestor) interacting with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> For more about these drug interactions, use the links above. You may also check for others in the extensive <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=33801" target="_blank"><strong>Drug Interactions</strong></a> section in the Encyclopedia.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/most-common-supplement-%26-drug-interactions/dangerous_drug_supplement_interactions/33133/22/2016AnswersDoes Longevinex resveratrol really help for age-related macular degeneration?As discussed in the Resveratrol Supplements Review, there have been several reported cases, all from the same doctor, of people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) experiencing improvement or slowed progression of the disease while taking&nbsp;<i>Longevinex</i>. A laboratory study also suggests that resveratrol itself can inhibit the production of growth factors, the overexpression of which is known to worsen AMD in human retinal cells. However, there do not appear to be any randomized, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of <i>Longevinex</i> in people with AMD, as would be needed to determine its efficacy for AMD. More about this, plus evidence for other uses of resveratrol and our tests of popular products, is found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/#AMD" target="_blank">Resveratrol Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/longevinex-%26-macular-degeneration/Longevinex_resveratrol_AMD/33123/20/2016AnswersAre CoQ10 and ubiquinol safe to take for a long period of time? Should I give it a rest period?Studies with CoQ10 have not shown serious adverse effects at moderate doses even when taken for several years &mdash; although it may be best to divide the dose over the course of the day. (For more information about CoQ10 dosages used for reducing statin-related muscle pain, congestive heart failure, migraines and other uses, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#tips"target="_blank"><b>Dosage</b></a> section of the Review). <br /> <br /> Also, be aware that CoQ10 and ubiquinol may affect your response to certain medications. For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review</b></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/coq10-%26-ubiquinol---safe-to-take-long-term/CoQ10_long_term_safety/33113/15/2016AnswersWhat is "nano" CoQ10? Is it better than other CoQ10 formulations?Nano formulations of CoQ10, such as <i>NanoCoQ10, NanoCell-Q</i> and <i>VesiSorb CoQ10,</i> involve microencapsulating tiny amounts of CoQ10 in various substances which supposedly make CoQ10 more dispersible in water and enhance its absorption. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting these nano formulations is not strong and is based on small, company-funded studies -- some of which do not appear to have been published. For more about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#absorption" target="_blank"><b>Absorption, Formulation and Dose</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><b>CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-nano-coq10/nano_CoQ10/33103/12/2016AnswersAre the "% DV" numbers on vitamin supplement labels really based on what I need?Yes and no. The most current DVs (Daily Values), updated by the FDA in 2016, do accurately reflect the basic daily intake requirements for vitamins and minerals. <i>However</i>, companies are <i>not required to use the updated DVs on product labels until at least 2020</i>. In the meantime, many vitamin and supplement labels will be misleading &mdash; providing "%DV" values based on terribly out-dated DVs establish in the 1960s. The new DVs include separate values for infants, very young children, and women who are pregnant and lactating.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Some important changes in 2016 to the DVs for most adults and children over age 4 include the following. (Keep in mind that your supplement label is most likely still based on old DVs): <ul> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D</strong></a>: The DV <i>doubled</i>, from 400 IU (10 mcg) to 800 IU (20 mcg). (Note: Many people who are not deficient in vitamin D may already be taking <i>too much</i>.) Labels will also have to list vitamin D in different units (mcg), but can include the familiar IU (international units) values (1 mcg = 40 IU).</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b9" target="_blank"><strong>Folate</strong></a>: Recognizing that about 70% more folate is absorbed from supplements containing folic acid (synthetic folate) than from foods naturally containing folate, the DV (which remains at 400 mcg) is now based on "dietary folate equivalents," shown as "DFE". A supplement with 400 mcg of folic acid is to be labeled as providing 170% DV rather than 100% DV.</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b12" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin B-12</strong></a>: The DV <i>decreased</i> from 6 mcg to 2.5 mcg</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#biotin" target="_blank"><strong>Biotin</strong></a>: The DV <i>decreased</i> from 300 mcg to 30 mcg</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#b3" target="_blank"><strong>Niacin</strong></a>: The DV <i>decreased</i> from 20 mg to 16 mg</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/chromium_supplements/chromium/" target="_blank"><strong>Chromium</strong></a>: The DV <i>decreased</i> from 120 mcg to 35 mcg</li> <br /> <br /> <li><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin C</strong></a>: The DV <i>increased</i> from 60 mg to 90 mg.</li> <br /> <br /> <li> A DV for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Choline-Review/choline/" target="_blank"><strong>choline</strong></a> has been established the first time, at 550 mg.</li> <br /> </ul> For more about these changes, see <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=news/Updated-Daily-Values-Vitamins-Minerals/07_27_2016/" target="_blank"><strong>"ConsumerLab.com Helps Consumers Make Sense of the FDA's Updated Daily Values (DV) for Vitamins and Minerals."</strong></a> <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com lists the new DVs (as well as RDAs and Upper Tolerable Intake Levels (ULs)) for each vitamin and mineral at <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/" target="_blank"><strong>www.consumerlab.com/rdas</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> You'll find further information about each nutrient within our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Product Reviews</strong></a>, including our tests, reviews, ratings, and comparisons of products. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-the-daily-values-%25dv-on-vitamin-and-mineral-supplement-labels-what-i-really-need/daily_values/33093/12/2016AnswersI read an article stating that some of the ingredients in Centrum multivitamins may be dangerous or toxic. Is that true?The safety of certain ingredients in some Centrum multivitamins - especially binders, fillers and coloring agents - has been questioned on various websites. These ingredients are not unique to Centrum vitamins but are found in many brands of multivitamins and other supplements and include polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, BHT, modified corn starch, and coloring agents such as Yellow 6 Lake and titanium dioxide. <br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com has reviewed the evidence regarding the safety of these ingredients (which are listed as "Other ingredients" on supplements and as "Inactive ingredients" on medicines to distinguish them from "Active" ingredients). It is true that in amounts higher than that used in Centrum supplements, some of these ingredients can have dangerous or toxic effects. More information about these ingredients is found in our review article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Inactive_Ingredients_in_Supplements/inactiveingredients/" target="_blank">Inactive Ingredients</a>. Note that some ingredients, such as certain coloring agents, may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. <br /> <br /> In the amounts in which they occur in Centrum multivitamins, they are safe. By law, any inactive ingredient added to a supplement must be an FDA-approved food additive or generally recognized as safe (GRAS). <br /> <br /> Centrum multivitamins also contain calcium in the form of calcium carbonate and this, too, has been mentioned as a concern on some websites. However, calcium carbonate (the form found in oyster shells and most commonly used in supplements and antacids), is not inherently unsafe. While there are some differences to consider when choosing <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#buying" target="_blank">which form of calcium to take</a>, the potential for issues such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#heartattack" target="_blank">increased risk of heart attack</a> with large servings of calcium and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#otherconcerns" target="_blank">interactions with medications and other minerals</a> is not limited to calcium carbonate, but includes any supplemental calcium. <br /> <br /> You can check the full list of ingredients for each product tested in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank">Review of Multivitamin and Multimineral Supplements</a> (and in any of our many other <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=results/index.asp" target="_blank">Product Reviews</a>) by clicking on "Ingredients" underneath the product name in the first column of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#results" target="_blank">results table</a>. In the results table, itself, we also point out if a product is free of artificial colors, flavors, and/or preservatives, or has other special features, such as being <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-can-i-find-supplements-that-are-gluten-free-on-consumerlabcom/gluten-free_supplements_Consumerlab/" target="_blank">gluten-free</a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/centrum-multivitamins---are-they-dangerous/Centrum/33083/9/2016AnswersCan vitamin K2 really help decrease calcium in the arteries?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#heartdisease" target="_blank">Vitamin K Supplements Review</a>, higher intakes of certain forms of vitamin K2 from food are associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery calcification and mortality from coronary heart disease. These benefits have, so far, not been proven with vitamin K2 supplements, although one study showed some improvements in arterial stiffness. More information about this is found in the "What It Does" section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#heartdisease" target="_blank">Vitamin K Supplements Review</a>, which includes ConsumerLab.com's tests and reviews of products including those made with the MK-4 and MK-7 forms of vitamin K2. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-k2---decrease-in-calcium-in-the-arteries/vitamin_K2_calcification/33073/2/2016AnswersIs Super Beta Prostate better than other prostate supplements?<p>Although <i>Super Beta Prostate</i> (from New Vitality/NAC Marketing Co.) has the words "clinically tested" on the label, there do not appear to be published clinical studies based on&nbsp;<i>Super Beta Prostate's</i> exact formula, nor studies comparing it to other prostate supplements. So it does not seem supportable to say that it's a better prostate supplement, nor that the product itself has been "clinically tested."&nbsp;<br /> <br /> However, <i>Super Beta Prostate</i> does contain ingredients which, at the right doses, may reduce some of the symptoms of an enlarged prostate, as demonstrated in clinical studies using those ingredients.</p> <p>Be aware that the cost for a 30-day supply of this supplement (a 60-caplet bottle)&nbsp;can range from $19 to $39.95, depending on the vendor -- and that some vendors may automatically enroll you in a program which ships a new bottle every 30 days.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> For more about this supplement's formula, including evidence regarding its ingredients, its pricing, and more, see the discussion of&nbsp;<i>Super Beta Prostate</i> in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/#superbetaprostate" target="_blank">Prostate Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</a></p>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/super-beta-prostate-compared-to-other-prostate-supplements/Super_Beta_Prostate/33062/28/2016AnswersWhich supplements are helpful for age-related macular degeneration (AMD)?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review</strong></a>, lutein, zeaxanthin and zinc supplements may help to <em>slow the progression</em> of age-related macular degeneration, but won't improve the condition. People with age-related macular degeneration who have low blood levels of lutein may be more likely to benefit from lutein supplements. There is also&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#obana" target="_blank"><strong>evidence</strong></a> that lutein and zeaxanthin may only help in people with low macular pigment density. <br /> <br /> Two of the largest studies on supplements for eye health, known as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#areds" target="_blank"><strong>AREDS and AREDS 2</strong></a>), have helped narrow in on the best combination of ingredients for AMD. ConsumerLab.com has found that many supplements promoted as "vision formulas" do not necessarily contain the right formula. However, we've identified one product that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#resembles" target="_blank"><strong>most closely resembles this formula</strong></a>, as well as several others which may be helpful. <br /> <br /> Higher intakes of calcium from foods have been associated with a decreased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, but there is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#amdrisk" target="_blank"><b>mixed evidence</b></a> as to whether getting calcium from supplements decreases or increases the risk. <br /> <br /> Interestingly, while it has been shown that people with higher intakes of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA from their diet (i.e. from one or more servings of fish per week) are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Omega-3_Fatty_Acids_EPA_and_DHA_from_Fish_Marine_Oils/omega3/#eyedisease" target="_blank"><strong>42% less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration</strong></a> compared to those who eat less than one serving of fish per month, adding EPA and DHA from fish oil to the AREDS formulation did not provide additional benefit. (For more about the benefits of eating fish vs. taking fish oil supplements, and our tests of products, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/canned-tuna-and-salmon-review/canned-tuna-and-salmon/" target="_blank"><b>Canned Tuna and Salmon Review</b></a>). In addition to fish, another food associated with reduced risk of AMD is <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#oranges" target="_blank"><b>oranges</b></a>.<br /> <br /> For more information about the evidence, dosage, tips for choosing and using supplements for age-related macular degeneration &mdash; as well as our tests and reviews of popular products, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/" target="_blank"><strong>Vision Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21401" target="_blank"><strong>Macular Degeneration</strong></a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/macular-degeneration-vitamins-%26-supplements/macular-degeneration/33052/24/2016AnswersWhat is phytosomal curcumin? Does it have better absorption than other curcumin formulations?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank"><b>Curcumin Supplements Review</b></a>, only a limited percentage of curcumin taken orally will be absorbed into the blood. Phytosomal formulations, such as Meriva, which combine curcumin with phosphatidylcholine (a natural surfactant that dissolves in both water and oil), can help to improve bioavailability compared to regular curcumin. Other formulations, such as BMC-95, CurcuWin, Theracurmin, and black pepper extract (Bioperine) may also improve bioavailability. More details about these and how they compare, are found in the Bioavailability section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#bioavailability" target="_blank"><b>Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review >></b></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/phytosomal-curcumin-such-as-meriva-vs-other-curcumin/phytosomal_curcumin/33042/20/2016AnswersAre there supplements that can reduce prostate size?Interestingly, the supplements most commonly used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (also known as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21386" target="_blank"><strong>benign prostatic hyperplasia</strong></a> or BPH), do not reduce the overall size of the prostate. As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/" target="_blank"><strong>Prostate Supplements Review</strong></a>, these two supplements are beta-sitosterol and saw palmetto. <br /> <br /> Most studies of beta-sitosterol have found significant improvement in perceived symptoms of BPH and in urine flow rate. In addition, benefits seem to persist for months after treatment, according to a follow up study that looked at men one year after treatment. Like the BPH drug finasteride (Proscar), beta-sitosterol may inhibit 5-alpha-reductase activity in the prostate. (Beta-sitosterol is also found in&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/" target="_blank"><strong>Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements</strong></a>, but the dosing is quite different for that use, so be sure take a product specifically formulated for prostate symptoms.) <br /> <br /> The other common supplement for BPH is saw palmetto. It shrinks the inner epithelium of the prostate, but not the prostate's overall size. It was initially believed that saw palmetto dietary supplements provided mild to moderate improvement in symptoms of prostate enlargement. However, the evidence of saw palmetto's benefit is conflicting and recent studies have failed to show any benefit over placebo. <br /> <br /> Other ingredients which may help to reduce symptoms of BPH include Pygeum bark, pumpkin seed and stinging nettle root. (Interestingly, certain colors of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/maca-supplement-review/maca/#color" target="_blank"><strong>maca root</strong></a> have been reported to decrease prostate size in an animal study, but there do not appear to be studies in men to support this.) <br /> <br /> For more information about these ingredients, including evidence and dosage, plus ConsumerLab.com tests, reviews, and comparisons of marketed products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/" target="_blank"><strong>Prostate Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21386" target="_blank"><strong>Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-there-supplements-that-can-reduce-prostate-size/prostate_supplements/33032/16/2016AnswersDo reishi mushroom supplements boost the immune system, or have other health benefits?Reishi (<i>Ganoderma lucidum</i>) is an edible mushroom traditionally used in Chinese medicine for a wide range of purported health benefits, such as increasing vitality and strengthening the heart. In the U.S., supplements containing reishi are most commonly promoted for "strengthening" the immune system, as well as for lowering blood sugar, improving cardiovascular function, protecting from liver damage and reducing cancerous tumors. <br /> <br /> Compounds in reishi, including certain beta-glucans and ganoderic acids, are thought to be responsible for some of its benefits. However, evidence from clinical trials has been mixed, and one clinical trial in people with gastrointestinal cancer found that taking reishi had negative effects. For details, information about potential safety concerns and side effects, plus our tests and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/reishi_mushroom_supplements_review/reishi/#toppick" target="_blank"><strong><em>Top Pick</em></strong></a> among popular products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/reishi_mushroom_supplements_review/reishi/" target="_blank"><b>Reishi Mushroom Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/reishi-mushroom-extract-%26-supplements/reishi_mushroom/33022/13/2016AnswersIs Spirulina safe? I heard that it can contain toxins, such as BMAA and microcystin toxin.Concern has been raised by the fact that BMAA, a neurotoxic compound, can be produced by organisms related to <i>Spirulina</i> -- a common ingredient in dietary supplements, including "green" powders and drinks. Commonly referred to as a blue-green algae, <i>Spirulina</i> is actually a type of cyanobacteria (formerly called blue-green algae) and many cyanobacteria can produce BMAA. However, small studies suggest that dietary supplements with <i>Spirulina</i> are generally safe. Concerns remain, however, about other blue-green algae, particularly <i>Aph. flos-aquae</i>. <br /> <br /> Another concern with supplements made from cyanobacteria is contamination with microcystin toxin &mdash; a liver toxin, which appears to be common in&nbsp;<i>A. flos-aquae</i> supplements but has also been found in some&nbsp;<i>Spirulina</i> supplements. <br /> <br /> Get the details about this in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Greens_Whole_Foods_Powders_Supplements/greens/#bmaa" target="_blank">Greens and Whole Foods Powders and Pills Review &gt;&gt;</a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/spirulina-supplement---is-it-safe/spirulina-BMAA/33012/12/2016AnswersI started taking red yeast rice and soon after developed insomnia. Could my red yeast rice supplement be the problem?As discussed in the Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review, red yeast rice could potentially cause difficulty sleeping in some people &mdash; although this does not appear to be a commonly reported side-effect. See the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#insomnia" target="_blank"><strong>Cautions and Concerns</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review</strong></a> for more information. <br /> <br /> Be aware that if you also take <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a> (levels of which may be reduced in people taking red yeast rice or a prescription statin medication), this may also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>cause insomnia</strong></a> in some people. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/information-on-red-yeast-rice-and-insomnia/red_yeast_rice_insomnia/33002/10/2016AnswersWhat is the difference between fish oil and krill oil? Is one better than the other?As discussed in ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank">review of omega-3 supplements</a>, both fish oil and krill oil can provide significant amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Overall, there are more clinical studies investigating the effects of fish oil, however, preliminary studies indicate that krill oil, like fish oil, has a beneficial effect on cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as anti-inflammatory applications. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#astaxanthin" target="-blank">Krill oil supplements</a>, are generally a much more expensive source of EPA and DHA. It would not be unusual to spend 50 cents or more for dose of krill oil providing the same amount of EPA and DHA available from fish oil for as little as 5 to 10 cents. <br /> <br /> Perhaps due to the higher cost, krill oil capsules tend to be much smaller than fish oil capsules and provide smaller amounts of EPA and DHA. (Be aware that some products labeled "krill oil" may actually contain a mixture of krill and fish oil.) One might justify the higher cost of krill on the basis of it containing phospholipids, which may enhance absorption, and the red-colored antioxidant <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=160132" target="_blank">astaxanthin</a>. However, absorption of EPA and DHA from krill has not definitively been shown to be better from fish oil (at best, it may be 30% to 100% greater), and the benefit of astaxanthin is not clear. That is, even if you absorbed twice as much EPA and DHA from krill oil, that would not seem to justify paying ten to twenty times as much for it. Also, as noted in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#results" target="_blank">our tests of popular omega-3 supplements</a>, krill oil supplements cannot be tested for spoilage the same way that fish oil supplements are tested, since the deeply colored astaxanthin can interfere with the results. <br /> <br /> Both fish oil and krill oil supplements have been reported to have similar <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#cautions" target="_blank">side effects</a>, although one study found that krill oil caused more frequent gas/bloating and flatulence. <br /> <br /> For more about the evidence for fish and krill oil supplements, plus our tests and cost comparisons of popular products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank">Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Review (Including Krill, Algae, Calamari, Green-lipped Mussel Oil) >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/krill-oil-vs-fish-oil---which-is-better/fish_oil_vs_krill_oil/32992/2/2016AnswersWhat is monolaurin? Can it really prevent colds, cold sores, or other infections?Monolaurin supplements (such as <i>Lauricidin</i>) are often promoted for "immune system support," and are sometimes recommended to help ward off the cold or flu, or viral infections such as cold sores. However, these recommendations appear to be based on very preliminary laboratory and animal studies. For details about the studies and more about monolaurin taken orally as well as used topically and its safety. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=monolaurin_Lauricidin"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer >></strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/monolaurin-lauricidin-for-preventing-colds/monolaurin_Lauricidin/32981/30/2016AnswersFor two years, I used a red yeast rice brand which ConsumerLab.com's report showed to contain the highest amount of lovastatin. With just one pill per day, it kept my cholesterol lower (down to 205 from 260 before starting). I switched to a supermarket store brand because it was cheaper and my cholesterol jumped to 278 (taking 2 pills per day)! I don't think the store brand had anything in it -- is that possible? Can you test it?Yes, it is quite possible that the red yeast rice brand to which you switched contained little or no lovastatin. As shown in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review</strong></a>, even though products may list the exact same amount of red yeast rice per pill (typically 600 mg), those pills may contain less than 0.1 mg or more than 10 mg of lovastatin compounds, depending on the brand. That's more than a 100X difference and this will have a big impact in terms of efficacy. <br /> <br /> You can compare the amounts of lovastatin compounds which we found in different brands, and learn more about using red yeast rice, in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> We will consider purchasing and testing the brand you took (name removed above) in a future review. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/red-yeast-rice-supplements-%26-lovastatin-content/nothing_in_my_red_yeast_rice/32971/30/2016AnswersIs it true that fish oil supplements may contain soy? I'm allergic!Yes, a number of fish oil supplements (as well as krill and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>cod liver oil</strong></a> supplements) contain soy, which may be added as a source of tocopherols and tocotrienols (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin E</strong></a>). However, since it is a common allergen, manufacturers are required to list this on the label, under "Other Ingredients." <br /> <br /> To find a fish oil that does not contain soy and has passed testing by ConsumerLab.com (which checks for levels of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, freshness, and lack of contamination), see our Reviews of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>Fish Oil Supplements</strong></a> and/or<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>Cod Liver Oil Supplements</strong></a> supplements: Click on the "Ingredients" link in the first column of the results table (under the product name), which provides a complete list of ingredients for each product.&nbsp;https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-fish-oil-%26-cod-liver-oil-supplements-contain-soy/soy_in_fish_oil/32961/26/2016AnswersWhat is EpiCor? Does it really "boost" the immune system and prevent colds?EpiCor&reg; is a branded ingredient produced from the fermentation of "whole food" by&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=625843" target="_blank">brewer's yeast</a> (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>). According to the manufacturer (Embria Health Sciences), it contains number of compounds including <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104429" target="_blank">beta glucan</a>, a type of soluble fiber. Preliminary studies funded by Embria suggest EpiCor may increase some measures of immune system function and, if taken daily, slightly reduce certain symptoms of allergy and the incidence of colds or flu. Larger, independent studies are needed to confirm these findings.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=EpiCor">For details, including information about the safety of Epicor, see the full answer &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia articles about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=625843" target="_blank">Brewer's Yeast</a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104429" target="_blank">Beta Glucan</a> for more information about these supplement ingredients. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/epicor-supplement---does-it-really-work/EpiCor/32951/20/2016AnswersI take a supplement containing a "proprietary formula" which lists many ingredients. Can ConsumerLab test the contents so I'll know the amounts of each ingredient?<i>ConsumerLab.com has long cautioned against purchasing supplements with proprietary formulas</i> and typically does not test them. We may, however, check listed amounts of other key, individually listed ingredients in the same supplement. In some cases, we have found high levels of contaminants which, we suspect, originated from ingredients in a proprietary formula.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> The major problem with "proprietary formulas," as well as with proprietary "blends" and "complexes," is that they permit manufacturers to withhold important information about what's really in a product. The company only has to list the total amount of formula, not the amount of <i>each ingredient</i> in the formula. The formula's ingredients only have to be listed in weight order, i.e., based on their relative contribution to the weight of the formula. Furthermore, the formula may change over time without you necessarily knowing. <br /> <br /> Proprietary formulas are often developed around an expensive ingredient, like <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, because this allows a company to use less of the expensive ingredient, creating a formula in which the expensive ingredient is just a small part of the formula. We have seen this with ingredients such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><strong>chondroitin in joint supplements</strong></a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAMe_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/" target="_blank"><strong>SAMe</strong></a>. We also see proprietary formulas marketed for uses such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-with-brain-function/supplements_for_memory/" target="_blank"><strong>cognitive enhancement</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-with-nerve-pain/nerve_pain_supplements/" target="_blank"><strong>nerve pain</strong></a>, or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-skinny-fiber-really-work/Skinny_Fiber/" target="_blank"><strong>weight loss</strong></a> where a company may try to impress the consumer with a laundry list of ingredients having only shreds of evidence relating to the intended use. In most cases, the formulas themselves have not been clinically tested.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/proprietary-formulas-in-supplements/proprietary_formulas/32941/16/2016AnswersHow can I find the best quality extra virgin olive oil? Although extra virgin olive oil may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-health-benefits-of-olive-oil/olive_oil/" target="_blank"><b>improve heart health and have other benefits</b></a> (partly due to their polyphenol content), there have been reports that some products are "fake" or adulterated with other types of oils. Fortunately, there are certain things you can look for on labels which help indicate a high quality oil, including seals from organizations which test olive oils for authenticity. While authenticity is very important, it is also useful to compare products in terms polyphenols (for potential "healthfulness"), which are not typically not included on labels or part of certification testing.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> ConsumerLab.com purchased and tested 10 popular extra virgin olive oils, and tested their quality in the laboratory as well as subjecting them to sensory analysis (taste testing) by an expert olive oil tester. The results, which include CL's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/#toppicks" target="_blank"><em><b>Top Picks</b></em></a>, are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><b>Extra Virgin Olive Oils Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/picking-the-best-quality-extra-virgin-olive-oil/best_quality_olive_oil_/32931/9/2016AnswersDoes guggul really improve thyroid function?Guggul, a tree resin commonly used in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38728" target="_blank">Ayurvedic</a> medicine to treat a variety of conditions, is sometimes also promoted to enhance thyroid function. However, there is little evidence to support this use. In fact, the suggestion appears to be based a single animal study which found guggul increased iodine uptake and certain other measures of thyroid function in rats with chemically-induced low thyroid function (<a href="#" target="_blank">Tripathi, Planta Med 1988</a>). There do not appear to be any randomized, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed studies in people. (Interestingly, in a small study among adults who took 2,160 mg of guggul daily for three months, two people reported tiredness and "relapse" of their hypothyroidism (<a href="#" target="_blank">Nohr, Complement Ther Med 2009</a>)). <br /> <br /> More information about other proposed uses of guggul, such as cholesterol lowering and weight loss, is found in the article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21773" target="_blank">Guggul</a>. Also see the article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38740" target="_blank">Hypothyroidism</a>, which discusses herbs and supplements to use only with caution with this condition.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/guggul-for-thyroid-%26-hypothyroidism/guggul_thyroid/32921/5/2016AnswersHow much resveratrol is in wine? Is it enough to have a benefit?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Resveratrol Supplements Review</strong></a>, the amount of <i>trans</i>-resveratrol (the most researched form of resveratrol) in wines is typically just a small fraction of the amount provided by most supplements and used in clinical studies. Therefore, the effects seen with resveratrol would not be expected with wine consumption. <br /> <br /> On the other hand, there are cardiovascular benefits associated with moderate alcohol consumption that <i>have not been shown</i> with resveratrol supplementation. For more information about resveratrol (including amounts in various wines) and our tests of popular products, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Resveratrol_Review/Resveratrol_Red_Wine/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Resveratrol Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-much-resveratrol-is-in-wine/resveratrol_wine/329112/23/2015AnswersI take a number of supplements and I think they are making my acid reflux worse. Which supplements could be causing my stomach irritation, and what can I do about it?You may want to avoid supplements like <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin B-6</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>cocoa</strong></a>, which can irritate the stomach or cause heartburn in some people. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/l-arginine-supplements-review/arginine/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Arginine</strong></a> may potentially increase stomach acid levels and worsen esophageal reflux (heartburn). (Be aware that arginine may be sold as a single ingredient supplement, or as an ingredient in a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/review-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-yohimbe-horny-goat-weed-arginine/sexenhancers/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>sexual enhancement supplement</strong></a>.) If taken with heartburn medication such as omeprazole (Prilosec), <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>St. John's wort</strong></a> can worsen reflux symptoms. <br /> <br /> A number of other supplements can cause nausea or stomach upset. Vitamin C may cause an "acid stomach" in some people, but fortunately, there is a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>special form of vitamin C</strong></a> which may be helpful. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#nausea" target="_blank"><strong>Multivitamins</strong></a> often contain minerals such as iron and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>zinc</strong></a> which can cause stomach distress. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21574" target="_blank"><b>Citrus bioflavonoids</b></a>, another common ingredient in multis, can cause nausea or vomiting in a small percentage of women, especially those taking oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy. See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/#nausea" target="_blank"><strong>Avoiding Nausea</strong></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>Multivitamin and Multimineral Review</strong></a> for tips for reducing stomach upset. <br /> <br /> If you need supplemental iron, consider taking it separately. There are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/iron-supplements-review/iron/#forms" target="_blank"><strong>several forms of iron that are more gentle on the stomach</strong></a>; these may be a good option for people who experience stomach upset even when taking iron with food. <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a> can cause nausea, however, this can be minimized by dividing your dose and taking over the course of the day &mdash; just be sure not to take it&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/could-my-coq10-supplement-be-causing-my-insomnia/coq10_insomnia/" target="-blank"><strong>too late in the evening</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> There are several ways to reduce stomach discomfort and "fish burps" caused by <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#enteric" target="_blank"><strong>fish oil supplements</strong></a>. (See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-can-i-take-fish-oil-without-getting-nauseous/fish_oil_nausea/" target="_blank"><strong>CL Answer</strong></a> about this for our tips &mdash; as well as tips submitted by CL members).&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium</strong></a> can also cause stomach upset or diarrhea, however, taking it with food may help. Certain forms of magnesium may also be less problematic than others. <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAMe_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>SAMe</strong></a> may cause stomach upset in some people, which can be reduced by taking an enteric-coated formula, smaller, divided doses, or taking with food. <br /> <br /> Interestingly, although one study found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a> to improve heartburn symptoms, be aware it can cause <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-turmeric-a-stomach-irritant/curcumin_stomach_upset/" target="_blank"><strong>nausea and mild stomach distress in some people</strong></a>, especially in high doses or when taken for long periods of time. <br /> <br /> Similarly, although there is some preliminary evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/" target="_blank"><strong>ginger</strong></a> may be helpful for nausea or heartburn, it may also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginger-supplement-review/ginger/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong><i>cause</i> stomach upset or heartburn</strong></a> in some people. <br /> <br /> When available, you may also want to try alternatives to hard tablet supplements, such as chewables, liquids, or fortified foods, which may help reduce stomach irritation.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Fortunately, there are also a number of supplements that may be <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-with-indigestion-and-heartburn/indigestion_heartburn/" target="_blank"><strong><i>helpful</i> for heartburn</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia articles about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21605" target="_blank"><strong>Dyspepsia</strong></a> and gastroesophageal reflux disease (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38738" target="_blank"><strong>GERD</strong></a>) for more information about these conditions.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-that-cause-or-worsen-acid-reflux-heartburn-%26-gerd/heartburn_acid_reflux_GERD/329012/19/2015AnswersAfter developing kidney stones, I was told to avoid tea -- but recently I've heard that green tea might actually be helpful for kidney stones. Is that true?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#cautions" target="_blank">Green Tea Review</a>, both black and green tea contain oxalate, high levels of which can contribute to the development of kidney stones in some people. However, for a number of reasons, this is not much of a concern with green tea (which may even help), and there are even ways to minimize the kidney-stone risk when drinking black tea. Get the details in the "Concerns and Cautions" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#cautions" target="_blank">Green Tea Review >></a> <br /> <br /> Be aware that too much <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#cautions" target="_blank">calcium</a> or <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#cautions" target="_blank">vitamin C</a> from supplements may increase the risk of kidney stones. <br /> <br /> For information about other supplements that may be helpful or harmful regarding kidney stones, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21459" target="-blank">Kidney Stones</a>. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/tea-%26-kidney-stones/tea_kidney_stones/328912/19/2015AnswersCan curcumin help prevent or improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?Laboratory and animals studies have shown that curcumin inhibits several biological and chemical processes in brain cells associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, and may act similarly to some drugs currently used to treat symptoms (Aricept, Razadyne). And, in animal models of the disease, oral supplementation with curcumin has shown some benefit. However, the few studies that have been conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease have found little benefit (although it <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#lee" target="_blank">may improve cognitive function in healthy older adults</a>). For more details, (as well as our tests and comparisons of products) see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#Alzheimers" target="_blank">Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices Review >></a> <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia articles about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21874" target="_blank">Turmeric</a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38566" target="_blank">Alzheimer's Disease</a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/curcumin-to-help-improve-alzheimers-disease/curcumin_Alzheimers/328812/16/2015AnswersWhy is beta-carotene still an ingredient in some supplements? Isn't it dangerous?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin A Supplements Review</strong></a>, beta-carotene is actually a "pre-vitamin A" -- it is converted in the body to vitamin A based on the body's need for vitamin A &mdash; an essential nutrient. This should make it a "safer" form of vitamin A, since too much vitamin A can be toxic, and, unlike vitamin A, for which there is an upper tolerable intake level, no such limit has been established for beta-carotene. <br /> <br /> However, as noted in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions-beta" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> section of the Review, an analysis of many studies found a slight (5%) but statistically significant increase in mortality (i.e., more people died during studies) associated with the use of supplements containing beta-carotene, leading to the conclusion that the current evidence does not support the use of beta-carotene supplements in the general population. In particular, smokers and people who have been exposed to asbestos should avoid beta-carotene from supplements. Although it is still sometimes added to supplements for vision health, beta-carotene does not appear to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lutein_zeaxanthin_supplements_review/lutein/#areds" target="_blank"><strong>reduce the risk of macular degeneration</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Eating foods rich in beta-carotene has not been found to have the negative effects associated with beta-carotene supplements -- although it may cause yellowing of the skin. <br /> <br /> For more about the pros and cons of taking beta-carotene, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><b>What It Does</b></a> and the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/##cautions-beta" target="_blank"><b>Concerns and Cautions</b></a> sections of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/" target="_blank"><b>Vitamin A Supplements Review</b></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/beta-carotene---is-it-dangerous/beta-carotene-danger/328712/16/2015AnswersWhich supplements can help to lower blood pressure?There are many supplements, including fish oil, curcumin, certain probiotics, cinnamon and others, which may lower blood pressure. However, if you already take medication to lower blood pressure, always consult your physician before using these supplements, as they may lower your blood pressure <i>too much</i>, or interfere in some other way with your current medication. Be aware that a number of supplements can increase blood pressure.&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=supplements_high_blood_pressure"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21725" target="_blank"><strong>Hypertension</strong></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-to-lower-blood-pressure/supplements_high_blood_pressure/328612/12/2015AnswersIs there a difference between taking vitamin D in the dry form versus the oil capsules? Is one better than the other?As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#food" target="_blank">Vitamin D Supplements Review</a>, the most important thing about taking vitamin D is not whether it's dry or in oil, but that you take it with a meal, as that can increase absorption by about 30 to 50%. If you can't take it with food, the oil form may be slightly better. (Note that capsules containing oil are referred to as "softgels.")<br /> <br /> We have tested and reviewed many products in both forms (as well as other forms, such as drops -- which are also in oil). These reviews are found in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review&gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-d-in-the-dry-form-versus-oil-capsules---is-there-a-difference/dry_vs_oil/328512/8/2015AnswersWhich "whole food" multivitamins are only from foods and don't include synthetic vitamins? What can you tell from the labels of these products: Complete Foods Nutrition-OctoMega MultiVitamin; Sunwarrior Raw Vitamins; Garden of LIfe-MyKind Organics; Nature's Brands-PhytoVitamins; Doctors' Research MultiVitamin?If you read labels very carefully, you'll find that most "whole food" multivitamin/multimineral supplements are not exclusively made from "whole" foods (i.e., they contain food extracts or concentrates) and some may contain nutrients not from "foods" but from synthetic sources. <br /> <br /> It is particularly interesting to look at the source of vitamin D in these products. Plants do not provide vitamin D, so food-based products needs to include either fish oil (such as cod liver oil), a meat liver extract, or brewer's yeast (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>) or lichen (a combination of algae and fungus &mdash; which can be eaten if properly prepared) which has been exposed to UV radiation, as these can produce vitamin D&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-better-to-get-vitamins-from-foods-or-supplements/natural_vs_synthetic_vitamin/" target="_blank">Bear in mind that it's not necessarily clinically important that all of your nutrients come exclusively foods and, in limited situations, it may be better to include a synthetic source.</a> In addition, some "whole foods may be contaminated with heavy metals, as ConsumerLab.com has found (see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Greens_Whole_Foods_Powders_Supplements/greens/" target="_blank">Greens and Whole Foods Powders Review</a>). It's also important that products contain the vitamins and minerals they claim. We routinely purchase and test supplements claiming to be from "whole foods" as part of our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank">Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplements Review</a>, so be sure to check the report. <br /> <br /> However, if it important to you that you get your nutrients only from whole foods, we have, reviewed the labels of products from the brands you asked about -- <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=whole_food_vitamins" target="_blank">sign in to read our assessments &gt;&gt;</a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-whole-food-multivitamins-contain-synthetic-vitamins/whole_food_vitamins/328412/6/2015AnswersCan chocolate and cocoa powder cause eczema?Yes. They are both relatively high in nickel and can cause allergic contact dermatitis in people who are nickel-sensitive or have a nickel allergy. (If you are allergic to milk, also be aware that even some dark chocolates contain milk).&nbsp;In fact, in response to this question,&nbsp;<em>ConsumerLab.com checked the nickel content of several cocoa and dark chocolate products and found much higher levels of nickel than known to exist in milk chocolate and other foods. Just one serving of dark chocolate, for example, contained about as much nickel as an adult gets per day from all other foods and beverages combined</em>.&nbsp;More about this and other concerns are found in the Concerns and Cautions section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#dermatitis" target="_blank">Cocoa Powders, Dark Chocolate, Extracts, Nibs &amp; Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/chocolate-%26-cocoa-powder-causing-eczema/chocolate_cocoa_eczema/328312/6/2015AnswersAre red yeast rice supplements legally permitted to contain statins, like lovastatin, since these are drugs?Red yeast rice naturally contains lovastatin and related statin (or monacolin) compounds which can dramatically lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol. The statins are produced by a special yeast as it digests rice (creating a red color). In fact, it was from yeast cultures that lovastatin (also known as monacolin K) was originally discovered&nbsp;and later marketed as the brand name drug Mevacor. The regulatory problem is that a dietary supplement label cannot indicate that it contains a drug, nor list the amount of that drug. So, while red yeast rice can be legally sold as a supplement, the amount of lovastatin cannot appear on the label &mdash; otherwise it could be subject to removal from the market as an unauthorized drug. Technically, it is not even legal for a supplement to contain a drug, so some red yeast rice supplements do not contain lovastatin, despite the fact that it should, naturally, be there. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> To help consumers, ConsumerLab.com has been periodically purchasing and testing red yeast rice supplements since 2008 and reporting the amounts of statin compounds they contain. It also reports the amounts of a contaminant, citrinin, which may be toxic to the kidneys. ConsumerLab.com has found an enormous range in the amounts of lovastatin compounds among products. In 2014, for example, it found these amounts to range as little as&nbsp;0.05 mg to 25.1 mg per daily suggested serving &mdash; a 500-fold difference. This means some products are likely to be effective while others are not, and there is no way to tell from the labels alone.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> To find out how much lovastatin (and citrinin contaminant) ConsumerLab.com has found in red yeast rice supplements and which ones are, therefore, likely to be effective, see ConsumerLab.com's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><strong>Red Yeast Rice Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/legality-of-red-yeast-rice-supplements-containing-statins/lovastatin_in_red_yeast_rice/328212/5/2015AnswersDo any supplements help for varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency?Several supplements, including oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) from grape seed extract and pine bark extract, citrus bioflavonoids, and certain herbs may help reduce the appearance of varicose veins, or be beneficial for the related condition of chronic venous insufficiency. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=newsubscriber.asp?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=varicose_veins_"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer, including evidence, dosage, and more &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-varicose-veins-or-chronic-venous-insufficiency/varicose_veins_/328112/1/2015AnswersHow does turmeric spice compare to curcumin (turmeric extract) in supplements? I sprinkle it on my foods and wonder if that's equivalent to taking a supplement.Turmeric spice is ground (dried) turmeric herb &mdash; specifically the root/rhizome, sold as a powder. Consuming between &frac12; to 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder (about 2.5 to 5 grams) with food has been found to have certain&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/turmeric/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>digestive</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/_/turmeric/#lee" target="_blank"><strong>cognitive benefits</strong></a>.&nbsp;<br /> &nbsp;<br /> Most clinical studies, however, have not used turmeric powder, but turmeric&nbsp;<i>extract</i>. Only about 3% of the weight of turmeric powder is curcumin and "curcuminoid" compounds -- which are believed to be important to turmeric's effects. In turmeric&nbsp;<i>extracts</i>, the concentration of these is often increased to as high as 95%.&nbsp;<br /> &nbsp;<br /> Therefore, it is not unusual for a capsule containing half of a gram of turmeric extract to provide 400 mg of curcuminoids, while the same amount of turmeric powder (ground herb -- just like the spice) might provide only about 15 mg. In fact, in 2013, ConsumerLab.com found that capsules of turmeric "herb" (not extract) from a well-known supplement brand contained&nbsp;<i>only 3 mg&nbsp;</i>of curcuminoids per capsule. Many brands of turmeric supplements contain a combination of extract and herb, and the ratio will greatly affect the amount of curcuminoids you get, so be sure to check&nbsp;the amounts of curcuminoids in popular supplements in ConsumerLab.com's&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target='_blank'><strong>Review of Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements and Spices &gt;&gt;</strong></a>.<br /> &nbsp;<br /> One advantage of using turmeric spice, as opposed to a supplement, is that you are more likely to consume it with fats or oils from your food. This will enhance absorption of curcuminoids in the turmeric, as they are lipophilic (they attach to fats). You should take turmeric supplements with meals for the same reason and/or choose a supplement which includes a bioavailability enhancer (as discussed in detail in the Review). (Be aware, however, that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#food" target="_blank"><strong>some curcumin may be lost</strong></a> due to heat and chemical changes when cooking foods spiced with turmeric.) <br /> <br /> Another way that turmeric extracts differ from turmeric powders is that extracts are less likely to be contaminated with heavy metals, such as lead, and do not contain the filth (insect parts and rodent hairs) normally found to varying degrees in the powders. In the Review, you'll also see our tests of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#divReviewTableHeaderB" target="_blank"><strong>levels of filth and heavy metals in popular turmeric spices</strong>&nbsp;</a>for cooking, plus the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>dosage</strong></a> of herb or extract used in treating conditions such as ulcerative colitis, uveitis, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, depression, and cognitive function.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/difference-between-turmeric-spice-and-turmeric-curcumin-supplements/tumeric_spice_vs_supplements/328012/1/2015AnswersWhich supplements can help with indigestion and/or heartburn?A variety of supplements may help reduce indigestion or heartburn, including specific herbs, minerals, enzymes, and probiotics. However, be aware that certain supplements may&nbsp;<i>cause</i> indigestion or stomach upset. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=indigestion_heartburn"><strong>Sign in to see the full answer and get details on how to use these supplements &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-with-indigestion-and-heartburn/indigestion_heartburn/327911/24/2015AnswersI find labels of some supplement bottles misleading. For example, an L-theanine label says 200 mg on the front but the back says each pill contains just 100 mg, noting that a serving is 2 capsules. Is this legal?We agree that labels on many dietary supplements could be clearer about what's really in the bottle. <br /> <br /> Although the situation you describe is probably not illegal if the front label also indicates this is per serving (rather than per pill), one could be misled. This example shows why it&#39;s critical that you <i>carefully read the Supplement Facts panel on the back of vitamins and supplements</i>. <br /> <br /> Another misleading tactic we come across as part of our reviews of supplements is the listing of an amount of a &quot;formula,&quot; &quot;blend,&quot; or &quot;complex&quot; without showing the amounts of the specific ingredients in those formulas. For example, listing 100 mg of a &quot;CoQ10 complex&quot; is not the same as listing 100 mg of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/" target="_blank">CoQ10</a>. The formula may actually contain only a small amount of CoQ10. Formulas, blends, or complexes are required to list their ingredients (in order of the amount, from greatest to least) but the actual amount of each ingredient is not required to be listed. It&#39;s better to buy products which list the specific amount of each ingredient. <br /> <br /> Similarly, with herbs you&#39;ll often want an extract (a concentrated form of the herb) rather than just a powder made from the dried plant. Be sure to check in the Supplement Facts panel that you&#39;re getting an extract (if that&#39;s what you want). The label is also required to identify the specific part of the plant used because you may need extract from the leaf rather than, for example, the root. Ideally, the label should also state the % of the extract contributed by at least one key plant compound. Our Reviews of herbal supplements (such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/" target="_blank">Echinacea</a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/" target="_blank">St. John's wort</a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/" target="_blank">Saw Palmetto</a>, etc.) explain specifically what you should look for on these labels.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/misleading-supplement-labels---label-vs-pill-contents/misleading_labels/327711/17/2015AnswersWhich supplements can help me sleep?There are several supplements, discussed below, which may help to improve sleep -- as well as several which may <i>interfere</i> with sleep. Use the links to get more details, including dosage, cautions and ConsumerLab.com's ratings of tested products. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=#gangwisch">What you eat</a> may also affect sleep.<br /> <br /> <b>The following supplements may improve sleep:</b> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank"><strong>Melatonin</strong></a> is one the most popular supplements for sleep. It can help you fall asleep faster, although it will not necessarily help you sleep longer. Some research has shown it may also improve the quality of sleep in people with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-for-tinnitus/tinnitus/" target="_blank"><strong>tinnitus</strong></a>, and improve sleep quality <i>and</i> duration in people with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-have-been-shown-to-be-helpful-for-autism/supplements_for_autism/" target="_blank"><strong>autism</strong></a>. However, be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#rls" target="_blank"><strong>taking melatonin may <i>increase</i> leg movements</strong></a> in restless legs syndrome. <br /> <br /> Tart cherries contain a small amount of melatonin, and there is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-tart-cherry-juice/tart_cherry/" target="_blank"><strong>tart cherry juices, concentrates and extracts</strong></a> may contain enough melatonin to improve sleep for some people. One study, for example, found that drinking two 8 oz. glasses of tart cherry juice daily moderately improved some measures of sleep, such as reducing waking after falling asleep in older adults. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-tryptophan_5-HTP/tryptophan/" target="_blank"><strong>L-tryptophan and 5-HTP</strong></a> are amino acids which are used by the body to produce melatonin (as well as serotonin). L-tryptophan supplements can increase sleepiness and decrease the time needed to fall asleep in people with mild insomnia, but have not been shown to increase sleep time. They do not appear to be helpful for people with severe insomnia. (Be sure to read <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-tryptophan_5-HTP/tryptophan/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions</strong></a> for these supplements.) <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/L-Theanine-Supplements-Review/L-Theanine/" target="_blank"><strong>L-theanine</strong></a>, an amino acid found in black and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="-blank"><strong>green tea</strong></a>, can reduce stress and improve sleep quality, but does not cause drowsiness. Interestingly, L-theanine may also help to increase alertness during the day. <br /> <br /> There is preliminary evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#anxiety" target="_blank"><b>CBD (cannabidiol)</b></a> can help improve sleep in people with insomnia and other conditions that can cause difficulty sleeping, such as anxiety and Parkinson's disease. <br /> <br /> One small study found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#rls" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a> reduced leg movement associated with waking in people with restless leg syndrome, although this study was not blinded or placebo controlled. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#langade" target="_blank"><strong>Ashwagandha</strong></a> may improve sleep quality and decrease the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, as well as reduce anxiety, according to one clinical trial. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" name="lopresti" id="lopresti" style="background-color:#ffff00"><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=111801" target="_blank"><b>Saffron</b></a> extract provided a modest benefit in a small, company-funded clinical trial. The study, among 55 men and women (average age 50) in Australia with mild to moderate insomnia, found that 14 mg of saffron extract (<i>affron&reg;</i>, Pharmactive Biotech Products -- standardized to 3.5% lepticrosalides) taken twice daily for 28 days modestly reduced self-reported severity of insomnia symptoms (i.e., difficulty falling and staying asleep, early morning awakenings) and improved sleep quality (as indicated by reported tiredness, mood, and energy) compared to placebo. Most of these improvements occurred within the first seven days of supplementation (<a href="#" target="_blank">Lopresti, J Clin Sleep Med 2020</a>). [Note: The same extract has been found to decrease <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-help-with-depression-and-anxiety/supplements_depression_anxiety/#saffron" target="_blank">symptoms of depression</a>].</span> <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Valerian_Supplements_Review/valerian/" target="_blank"><strong>Valerian</strong></a> is commonly used as a sleep aid, although the evidence behind this use is mixed. One study reported an improvement in sleep for postmenopausal women who suffered from insomnia; however, a review of 37 studies of valerian concluded it was probably not effective for treating insomnia. Like ashwagandha, however, it may have a calming effect and be helpful for stress and anxiety, which can contribute to insomnia. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-prevagen-really-improve-memory/prevagen_memory/" target="_blank"><strong>Prevagen</strong></a>, a branded supplement that contains jellyfish protein, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-pqq-similar-to-coq10/what_is_PQQ/" target="_blank"><strong>PQQ</strong></a>, and antioxidant compound, have each been tested in a single study and found to improve sleep -- however neither study was placebo-controlled. <br /> <br /> For more information, see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21730" target="_blank"><strong>Insomnia</strong></a>, which provides information about information about lemon balm, skullcap and kava and other proposed supplements for sleep. <br /> <br /> <b>The following supplement may make it more difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep:</b> <br /> <br /> In addition to the obvious culprits - such as&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#energydrinks" target="_blank"><strong>energy drinks</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/weight_loss_supplements_7-keto-dhea/WeightLoss/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>weight loss supplements</strong></a><strong> </strong>and&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>cocoa</strong></a> products which contain caffeine and/or other stimulants - supplements such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#insomnia" target="_blank"><b>red yeast rice</b></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>garlic</strong></a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>policosanol</strong></a><strong> </strong>(a common ingredient in cholesterol-lowering supplements),&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/DHEA_Supplements/DHEA/" target="_blank"><strong>DHEA</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/chromium_supplements/chromium/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>chromium</strong></a> have been reported to cause insomnia in some people. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#melatonin" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10</strong></a>, taken in high doses or at nighttime, may also make it difficult to fall asleep. <br /> <br /> <span class="reviewBody" name="gangwisch" id="gangwisch">There is also some evidence that <b>diet, and specifically, carbohydrate intake, can affect the risk of insomnia</b>. A study that followed over 50,000 postmenopausal women in the U.S. found that those whose diets were highest on the dietary glycemic index (i.e., diets that most increase blood sugar levels) were 11% more likely to have insomnia at the start of the study and 16% more likely to develop insomnia over the next three years than those whose diets were lowest on the dietary glycemic index. Higher risk of developing insomnia was specifically associated with higher intakes of added sugars, starch, and refined grains, while higher intakes of fruit (but not fruit juice) and vegetables, dietary fiber, and whole grains were associated with a lower risk (<a href="#" target="_blank">Gangwisch, Am J Clin Nutr. 2019</a>).</span> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-supplements-can-help-me-sleep/supplements_for_sleep/227811/14/2015AnswersIs there a risk of liver toxicity with certain supplements?As discussed below, a wide variety of dietary supplements may cause damage to the liver. Use the links to get detailed information about each. <br /> <br /> Supplements containing <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Matcha_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/#toxicity" target="_blank"><strong>green tea extract</strong></a><strong> </strong>are the subject of many reports of liver toxicity. Several cases of liver toxicity have also association with green tea "infusions." There is only one reported case of liver toxicity from drinking brewed green tea. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> A number of reports suggest <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21785" target="_blank"><strong>kava</strong></a>, often taken for anxiety or insomnia, may cause liver damage. Occasionally, liver damage has been reported even with normal doses. For this reason, some countries have banned the sale of kava - although it is still available in the U.S. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Three cases of acute hepatitis have been reported with the use of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CLA_Conjugated_Linoleic_Acid_for_Slimming/CLA/#bilal" target="_blank"><strong>CLA</strong></a> (conjugated linoleic acid) supplements - which are used for slimming. <br /> <br /> Several cases of liver failure, one of which required a liver transplant, have been linked with drinking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Noni_Juice/Noni/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>noni</strong></a>, although it was not conclusively determined that noni was the cause. <br /> <br /> Too much <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin A</strong></a> can cause liver damage, as can high doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a>. (Be aware that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#energydrinks" target="_blank"><strong>energy drinks and shots</strong></a> often contain high doses of niacin, and a case of acute hepatitis due to excessive intake of niacin from energy drinks has been reported.) <br /> <br /> Like prescription statins, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>red yeast rice</strong></a> (which naturally contains lovastatin) can alter liver function. <br /> <br /> High doses of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/#cautions"target="_blank"><b>CBD (cannabidiol)</b></a> may cause abnormal results on liver-function tests. (CBD has also been reported to cause elevated liver enzymes in dogs). <br /> <br /> Rarely, elevated liver enzymes and liver injury have been reported with the use of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/#liver"target="_blank"><b>ashwagandha supplements</b></a>. <br /> <br /> There are several reports of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#blackcohoshcautions" target="_blank"><strong>black cohosh</strong></a> causing liver injury or autoimmune hepatitis, however it's not clear whether it these were due to the black cohosh itself, or a contaminant in the product. Similarly, cases of liver injury have been reported with other herbs such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Valerian_Supplements_Review/valerian/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>valerian</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21869" target="_blank"><strong>skullcap</strong></a>, although it's possible they were contaminated with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=108305" target="_blank"><strong>germander</strong></a>, another herb known to be toxic to the liver. <br /> <br /> Be aware that comfrey, which is known to be toxic to the liver when taken orally, can also be absorbed through the skin. This is important to know since comfrey is sometimes used in preparations on the skin to treat pain or swelling (see the Encyclopedia about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104671" target="_blank"><strong>comfrey</strong></a> for more information). <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21626" target="_blank"><strong>Butterbur</strong></a>, an herb that may be helpful for migraines and seasonal allergies, contains liver-toxic compounds. Although these compounds are typically removed from butterbur products, a small amount may remain. Therefore, to be safe, people with severe liver disease should avoid this herb. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Also be aware that the FDA has found a number of supplements, often promoted for muscle enhancement (such as <i><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=10804" target="_blank">Tri-Methyl Xtreme</a></i> and <i><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=10580" target="_blank">Mass Destruction</a></i>) to contain undeclared steroids, which can cause liver damage. (See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recalls.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Warnings</strong></a> section for more). <br /> <br /> On a positive note, some evidence suggests <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>milk thistle</strong></a> extract may help protect the liver from certain toxins -- although be aware that milk thistle which is not properly produced <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/_/milk-thistle-toxins/" target="_blank"><strong>can contain toxins</strong></a> which are potentially harmful to the liver. <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia articles about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38611" target="_blank"><strong>Liver Disease</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21393" target="_blank"><strong>Liver Cirrhosis</strong></a> for more information. Also see the <a href="#" target="_blank"><strong>LivTox database</strong></a> from the National Institutes of Health for more information about herbs and supplements which may cause liver damage. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/liver-damage-from-supplements/liver_toxicity/227711/14/2015AnswersWhat are the health benefits of coconut oil and medium chain triglycerides, such as those used in Bulletproof Coffee?[<b>UPDATE (3/3/19):</b> ConsumerLab has tested Bulletproof Brain Octane Oil. See the results -- and comparisons to other products -- in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-and-MCT-oils/coconut-mct-oil/" target="_blank"><b>Coconut and MCT Oils Review</b></a>] <br /> <br /> As discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=630167" target="_blank"><b>Tropical Oils</b></a> article in the Encyclopedia on our site, although coconut oil is made up of more than 90% saturated fatty acids, most of the fats are of the medium-chain variety (i.e., those with a chain of 6 to 12 carbons) which tend to be quickly used by the body and, it is speculated, may not be as damaging as other saturated fats.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Although clinical studies with coconut oil are limited, one study found that coconut oil (about 2 tablespoons a day of virgin coconut oil) did not increase lipid levels in the blood and even reduced abdominal&nbsp;<b>obesity</b>. (This study, and others involving coconut oil applied topically to treat <b>skin conditions</b>, are discussed in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=630167" target="_blank"><b>Tropical Oils</b></a> article.) Similarly, a diet rich in coconut oil has been associated with increased "good" HDL cholesterol, without an increase in "bad" LDL cholesterol (<a href="#" target="_blank">Feranil, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2011</a>). However, there is some evidence that coconut oil may raise total and LDL cholesterol in people who already have elevated levels (<a href="#" target="_blank">Cox, J Lipid Res 1995</a>) and, for this reason, the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/Which+oils+can+help+lower+my+cholesterol+and+risk+of+heart+attack+How+are+coconut+oil%2C+olive+oil%2C+and+fish+oil+for+example/oils-cholesterol-heart-attack-risk/" target="_blank">American Heart Association advises against use of coconut oil</a>. <br /> <br /> Coconut oil has been touted for enhancing athletic performance, typically when added to coffee or taken with caffeine; however, a small study found this combination was <i>not</i> helpful to recreational runners (see details in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-and-MCT-oils/coconut-mct-oil/#borba" target="_blank"><b>Sports Performance</b></a> section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/coconut-and-MCT-oils/coconut-mct-oil/" target="_blank"><strong>Coconut and MCT Oils Review</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> If you want just medium chain fatty acids, you can get them from supplements or medical foods specifically containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) -- typically those with a chain of 8 or 10 carbons (see the Encyclopedia article about&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21809" target="_blank"><strong>MCTs</strong></a> and their potential for use by people with <b>fat malabsorption</b> and for <b>exercise performance</b>). Some researchers theorize that the MCTs from coconut oil could potentially be useful for&nbsp;<b>Alzheimer's disease</b>, in part by providing an alternative energy source for the brain (which may not efficiently metabolize glucose in Alzheimer's disease) (<a href="#" target="_blank">Fernando, Br J Nutr 2015</a>). Some <i>in vitro</i> evidence suggests that coconut oil may protect brain cells from changes caused by amyloid-beta proteins associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (<a href="#" target="_blank">Nafar, J Alzheimers Dis 2014</a>). A clinical study found that a blend of MCTs derived from coconut and/or palm kernel oil (<i>NeoBee 895</i> -- sold in the prescription medical food <i>Axona</i> (Accera, Inc.) improved cognition in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease compared to placebo (<a href="#" target="_blank">Henderson, Nutr Metab 2009</a>). <br /> <br /> Bulletproof coffee is a combination of coffee, butter, and a proprietary MCT oil sold as Brain Octane Oil, which is made from coconut and palm kernel oils and concentrated to specifically provide caprylic acid -- an 8-carbon medium chain fatty acid.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/health-benefits-of-coconut-oil-%26-bulletproof-coffee/coconut_oil/227611/11/2015AnswersWhen choosing a protein powder, which protein source is best -- whey, casein, soy, pea, rice, hemp or egg?As discussed in more detail in our <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#buying"><strong>Protein Powders and Drinks Review</strong></a>, each of these can be a good source of protein, but certain protein sources may be better for particular uses and in certain people. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#protein" target="_blank"><b>Whey protein</b></a> contains the highest percentage of branched-chain amino acids, which can become depleted during exercise and are needed for maintenance of muscle. However, some studies have found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#rice" target="_blank"><b>rice protein</b></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#pea" target="_blank"><b>pea protein</b></a> equal to whey in increasing strength and muscle when taken after resistance exercise. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#casein" target="_blank"><b>Casein</b></a> is absorbed more slowly than whey and, for this reason, some athletes take it before bed to help counter protein breakdown. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#soyclaim" target="_blank"><b>Soy protein</b></a> is a complete protein and is often promoted as a "heart healthy" option, although the evidence for this claim is inconsistent and has been called into question by the FDA. Like rice, pea and soy protein, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#hemp" target="_blank"><b>hemp protein</b></a> may be a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-the-best-protein-supplement-for-vegetarians-and-vegans/best-vegetarian-vegan-protein-supplement/" target="_blank"><b>good option for vegetarians and vegans</b></a>, although there appears to be little published research on the use of hemp protein for muscle building or sports recovery, or comparing its effects with those of other sources of protein.<br /> <br /> Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have been found in protein powders. Typically, these have been at very low levels &mdash; below limits for safe use. When higher amounts have been found, it has been associated with added, non-protein ingredients such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/" target="_blank"><b>cocoa powder</b></a> (a source of cadmium) or bran (from rice). ConsumerLab has also found that a significant percentage of protein powders do not live up to their label claims regarding sodium and/or cholesterol.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Specific sources of protein should be avoided due to potential allergic reactions, food sensitivities, and medical conditions (e.g., soy protein should not be used by people with thyroid conditions).&nbsp; It is also important to understand differences in the forms of protein, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#formswhey" target="_blank"><b>concentrates, isolates, and hydrolysates</b></a>. <br /> <br /> The <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#protein" target="_blank"><b>pros and cons of each protein source</b></a>, information about how much protein you need (note: <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports/NutritionDrinks/#schoen"target="_blank"><b>many older adults do not get enough</b></a> from their diets), as well as our tests and comparisons of many popular products, are found in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Protein_Powders_Shakes_Drinks_Sports_%20Meal_Diet/NutritionDrinks/#buying" target="_blank"><strong>Protein Powders and Drinks Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-protein-powders-are-best/protein_powders/227511/4/2015AnswersDo any supplements help for hair loss?There is some very preliminary evidence that saw palmetto, beta-sitosterol, and pumpkin seed oil may provide a benefit for people with androgenic alopecia (male-pattern baldness). Applied topically, melatonin and certain essential oils may be helpful for other types of hair loss. For details, plus information about other supplements, as well as deficiencies that can cause hair loss, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=hair_loss"><strong>see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a><br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21376" target="_blank"><strong>Alopecia</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamins-%26-supplements-for-hair-loss/hair_loss/227411/1/2015AnswersAre vitamin D oral sprays more effective than vitamin D pills or drops?There are several vitamin D oral sprays marketed. They can be as effective as a pill or liquid drop and there is preliminary evidence suggesting they can be more effective than a pill (suggesting direct absorption in the mouth - which could help people with malabsorption conditions), but this is not well-established. However, because they tend to be a bit expensive, they are not necessarily cost effective. Get the details in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#oralspray" target="_blank">Vitamin D Supplements Review >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-vitamin-d-oral-sprays-more-effective-than-vitamin-d-pills-or-drops/vitamin_D_spray/227311/1/2015AnswersWhat are the benefits of calcium-d-glucarate?Calcium-d-glucarate is a form of glucaric acid (a naturally occurring substance found in certain fruits and vegetables). It is this glucaric acid portion of the compound (and not the calcium portion -- which is only 12% the compound&#39;s weight) which appears to be responsible for its activity. Although it has been promoted for &quot;detoxifying&quot; effects, as well as for lowering estrogen levels and preventing cancer growth, these applications are, for the most part, suggested only by laboratory and animal studies, not clinical studies in people. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=calcium_d_glucarate">See the full answer about calcium-d-glucarate supplements >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-calcium-d-glucarate/calcium_d_glucarate/227210/25/2015AnswersIs P-5-P really better than "regular" vitamin B6?Pyridoxal-5-phosphate, sometimes called P-5-P or PLP, is the active form of vitamin B<sub>6</sub> (pyridoxine). Most supplements provide the pyridoxine form of B<sub>6</sub>, although some provide pyridoxal-5-phosphate, or a combination of both. Taken at recommended doses, both forms appear to be relatively safe and have similar bioavailability for most people. Although pyridoxal-5-phosphate is sometimes promoted as more beneficial for people with diabetes, there do not appear to be any studies in people to support this. For more details, see the "What to Consider When Buying" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#tips-b6" target="_blank">B Vitamin Supplements Review >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/p-5-p-compared-to-regular-vitamin-b6/Pyridoxal_5_phosphate/227110/21/2015AnswersIs it safe to take CoQ10 while taking blood thinners like warfarin or Plavix (clopidogrel)?CoQ10 may interfere with warfarin treatment, although the evidence is mixed. There are some reports suggesting that CoQ10 decreases the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin), which could necessitate an increase in warfarin dosage. On the other hand, there&#39;s a study which suggests the opposite (that CoQ10 may increase the risk of bleeding when on warfarin). And another study suggests no effect so long as your INR (bleeding time) is stable. To play it safe, consult with your doctor about using CoQ10 with warfarin. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> However, it&#39;s not clear whether it CoQ10 affects Plavix treatment. For more information, see the Cautions and Concerns section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank">CoQ10 and Ubiquinol Supplements Review >></a> <br /> <br /> Also see the Encyclopedia article about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21625" target="_blank">Warfarin.</a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-coq10-interact-with-blood-thinners/CoQ10_blood_thinners/227010/17/2015AnswersI take estrogen replacement (Vagifem), to help relieve the symptoms of menopause. Are there supplements I should avoid, or be taking, due to this drug?Oral estrogen replacements, as well as estrogen creams and tablets (Vagifem, Estrace) can be affected by certain supplements and foods. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=estrogen_interactions">See the full answer >></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-you-take-supplements-with-vagifem/estrogen_interactions/226910/14/2015AnswersDo probiotics really help prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections?Taken orally, certain probiotic strains have been found to reduce bacteria and yeast known to cause infection caused by overgrowth of these organisms in the vagina. However, probiotics taken orally have not been shown to prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. There is mixed evidence on whether probiotics in suppository form can help. For details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/#vaginalinfection" target="_blank"><strong>Probiotic Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> Also see the article about natural approaches to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21373" target="_blank"><strong>Vaginal Infection &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/probiotics-to-prevent-vaginal-yeast-infections/probiotics_yeast_infections/226810/14/2015AnswersWhat are the benefits of grape seed extract?Grape seed extract is a source of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21765" target="_blank">oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs)</a>, which are antioxidant compounds. Several studies suggest it can help reduce symptoms of venous insufficiency (causing leg swelling), as well as swelling after surgery (such as arm swelling after breast cancer surgery), although large studies are needed for confirmation. These studies, as well small studies of grape seed extract and OPCs for other conditions, are discussed in detail in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21765" target="_blank">OPCs article</a> in our Encyclopedia. <br /> <br /> Additionally, a small, placebo-controlled study in men and women with <b>prehypertension</b> found that a fruit drink containing 150 mg of grape seed extract (<i>MegaNatural&reg; BP</i>, Polyphenolics) consumed twice daily for six weeks reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures by, respectively 5.6% and 4.7% (<a href="#" target="_blank">Park, Br J Nutr 2015</a>). Subjects with higher initial blood pressures experienced nearly double the reduction. <br /> <br /> As noted in the Encyclopedia article, grape seed extract may cause minor side effects but has generally been found to be safe, although it may have anticoagulant properties at high doses. OPCs are also found in pine bark extracts, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/does-pycnogenol-work/pycnogenol/" target="_blank">Pycnogenol</a>. <br /> <br /> The current method of testing for OPCs is inexact and amounts can be falsely inflated by other ingredients and it has been reported that less expensive ingredients, such as extracts of peanut skin, have been substituted for grape seed extract (a concern for people with peanut allergy) (<a href="#" target="_blank">Villani, Food Chem 2014</a>). ConsumerLab.com intends to test grape seed extract supplements when more reliable testing methods become available. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-benefits-of-grape-seed-extract/grape_seed_extract/226710/11/2015AnswersI'm considering taking vitamin K for my bones, but I take blood thinner (anti-coagulant) medication. Is there a problem taking both?In addition to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K playing a role in bone health</strong></a>, it helps make proteins needed for clotting. Anti-coagulant drugs like warfarin (Coumadin and Jantoven) work by blocking the production of those clotting proteins, helping to "thin" the blood and prevent clotting. Not surprisingly, increasing your intake of vitamin K long-term may require you to slightly increase the dose of blood thinner and, similarly, people taking these blood thinners are advised to avoid wide fluctuations in their vitamin K intake. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Because vitamin K<sub>2</sub> from food is associated with a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#heartdisease" target="_blank"><strong>reduced risk of coronary calcification</strong></a> and mortality from coronary heart disease, some people assume it is safer to take this form with warfarin than vitamin K<sub>1</sub>. In addition, the MK-7 form of vitamin K<sub>2</sub> has a longer half-life than K<sub>1</sub>, which may account for better stability of INR values (a clotting measurement) for people on anti-coagulant therapy. However, MK-7 has been shown to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>interfere with anti-coagulant therapy</strong></a>, and at much lower doses than vitamin K<sub>1</sub>. For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>Concerns and Cautions section of the Vitamin K Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> (Be aware that CoQ10 is chemically similar to vitamin K<sub>2</sub> and may also decrease the effects of warfarin , although the evidence for this is mixed. See Concerns and Cautions in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/CoQ10-Ubiquinol-Supplements-Review/CoQ10/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>CoQ10 Supplements Review</strong></a>). <br /> <br /> Some newer blood thinning drugs, such as dabigatran (Pradaxa) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) are not thought to be affected by vitamin K intake. <br /> <br /> Another way to prevent clots is by taking aspirin or related drugs, but these work in a different way - preventing platelets from clumping together to form clots. There does not appear to be evidence of vitamin K interacting with anti-platelet drugs. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-k-%26-blood-thinners-such-as-coumadin/vitamin_K_blood_thinners/226610/6/2015AnswersDo any supplements help prevent or treat osteoporosis?<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21413" target="_blank"><strong>Osteoporosis</strong></a> is a disease in which the density and quality of the bone are reduced, making it weak and brittle. A variety of supplements offer potential benefit, although in limited situations. (Use the links below for details.)<br /> <br /> Adequate intakes of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium</strong></a> (and vitamin D) during youth are important for building strong bone, and it's important to get adequate calcium throughout life to help maintain bone. However, in postmenopausal women, calcium supplements (with vitamin D) may only modestly protect against osteoporosis. Most adults&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>currently get enough calcium for bone health</strong></a>, and some postmenopausal women who take supplements may be getting <i>too much calcium</i>, which can increase the risk of kidney stones and stroke. <br /> <br /> <strong> </strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D</strong></a> may help to increase bone density, but only in people with low blood levels of vitamin D (below 20 ng/mL) and with adequate calcium intake. It may also help to reduce the risk of fractures and falls. However, getting&nbsp;<i>too much vitamin D</i> could be <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>detrimental to bone health</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Although uncommon, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#whatitis" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium deficiency</strong></a> can increase the risk of osteoporosis. In people with inadequate intake, supplementing with magnesium can increase bone mineral density. <br /> <br /> At doses higher than nutritional needs, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_K_supplements_review/Vitamin_K/#using" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin K supplements</strong></a> have been found to increase bone density in healthy postmenopausal women, and higher intakes of vitamin K from foods has been associated with reduced risk of fractures in elderly men and women.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> In postmenopausal women, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/#tips" target="_blank"><strong>soy isoflavones may increase bone density</strong></a>, although higher doses are required than those typically used to reduce hot flashes. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> A form of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=111809" target="_blank"><strong>strontium</strong></a> (strontium <i>ranelate</i>) available by prescription in Europe, but not in the U.S., has shown promise in reducing the risk of developing osteoporosis as well as increasing bone density and reducing the occurrence fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Strontium supplements in the U.S. typically contain strontium <i>citrate</i> and, while it is absorbed into bone (<a href="#" target="_blank">Moise, Bone 2014</a>), there is no research showing it to be effective against osteoporosis. Also, be aware that too much strontium may weaken bones. In some studies, up to 680 mg of elemental strontium from either strontium ranelate or strontium citrate has been taken for between 3 to 4 years without serious adverse effects (<a href="#" target="_blank">Meunier, N Engl J Med 2004</a>; <a href="#" target="_blank">Moise, Bone 2014</a>); however, Health Canada has warned that an increased risk of cardiovascular events has been reported in some people who have a history of, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease who took a daily dose of 680 mg of strontium ranelate. The agency advises those with risk factors for cardiovascular disease should not take strontium supplements, and that those taking strontium for longer than 6 months consult their healthcare provider (See the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=11868" target="_blank">Warning</a> for more information). Extremely large doses (1.5 - 3% of dietary intake) have been reported to decrease bone calcium in animals (<a href="#" target="_blank">Brandi, AM J Med 1993</a>). If you decide to use strontium, take it at least 2 hours before or after taking calcium or magnesium, as these may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-vitamins-and-minerals-should-be-taken-together-or-separately/how-to-take-vitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>reduce absorption of strontium</strong></a> (and other minerals) (<a href="#" target="_blank">Protelos Product Information 2014</a>).<br /> <br /> Very <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-are-there-boron-nickel-and-tin-in-my-multivitamin/boron_nickel_tin/" target="_blank"><strong>preliminary research</strong></a> also suggests that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21616" target="_blank"><strong>boron</strong></a> might be beneficial for osteoporosis, although this has not been studied in clinical trials. <br /> <br /> Research suggest that long-term use of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#bone" target="_blank"><strong>melatonin</strong></a> may help increase bone density but, unfortunately, it may also make bone <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/#fractures" target="_blank"><strong>more susceptible to fracture</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Be aware that excessive <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin A</strong></a> as retinol (but not beta-carotene) may <em>increase</em> the risk of osteoporosis and hip fractures.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> See our Encyclopedia for more information about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21413" target="_blank"><strong>osteoporosis</strong></a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/osteoporosis-supplements-%26-bone-supplements/osteoporosis/22659/26/2015AnswersDo any supplements help prevent or treat a cold?There is evidence that certain supplements can reduce the chance of getting a cold and/or reduce the severity of a cold.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/" target="_blank"><strong>Zinc</strong></a> can directly kill cold viruses and, when taken as a lozenge (as opposed to a pill), it may significantly reduce the duration and severity of cold symptoms. However, it needs to be taken properly and at the correct dosage and it should not be taken for more than about a week due to&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Zinc-Supplements-Lozenges-Review/zinc/#cautions" target="_blank"><strong>concerns about excessive zinc</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> In healthy adults, a certain combination of <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/" target="_blank"><strong>probiotics</strong></a> taken for 3 months was found to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/#colds" target="_blank"><strong>reduce the risk of catching a cold by about 12%</strong></a> compared to placebo. The probiotics also reduced the number of days of symptoms among those who did catch a cold.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Unless you are deficient in <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/" target="_blank"><strong>vitamin C</strong></a>, there's not much evidence that it can help prevent a cold. However, if taken routinely during cold season, it may reduce the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin-C_supplement_review/vitaminc/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>severity of a cold</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Evidence for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/" target="_blank"><strong>echinacea</strong></a> has been mixed. In general, this herb may be more effective for reducing the risk of catching a cold, rather than reducing symptoms of an existing cold. One large study found that taking a branded liquid echinacea three times daily during cold season <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea/echinacea/#echinaforce" target="_blank"><strong>modestly reduced the risk of getting a cold</strong></a>; if taken 5 times daily during a cold, it reduced the amount of pain medication, such as aspirin, used during colds.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21485" target="_blank"><strong>Andrographis</strong></a> (<i>Andrographis paniculata</i>), sometimes referred to as "Indian echinacea," is an herb which has been shown in several clinical studies to help prevent colds and reduce cold symptoms such as earache, sleeplessness, nasal drainage, and sore throat. Much of the research on this herb has been conducted on a branded formula (<i>Kan Jang</i> from Swedish Herbal Institute) which contains a combination of andrographis and Siberian ginseng. Although generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated, it should be noted this herb may not be suitable for people with certain autoimmune diseases or gallbladder disease. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D supplements</strong></a> may help <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#colds" target="_blank"><strong>reduce the occurrence of colds and upper respiratory infections</strong></a>, but only in people who do not already have sufficient blood levels of vitamin D (20 ng/mL). In these people, moderate daily doses may be more effective than extremely large, periodic doses. <br /> <br /> For pregnant and nursing women, getting 400 mg of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank"><strong>DHA from fish or fish oil supplements</strong></a> has been shown to <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/#using" target="_blank"><strong>reduce colds in their infants</strong></a>, but only for infants of women with otherwise low intake of DHA.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Studies of a branded American <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/" target="_blank"><strong>ginseng</strong></a> extract suggest that it might <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>help prevent colds</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Preliminary evidence suggest that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=104429" target="_blank"><strong>beta glucan</strong></a> (a type of soluble fiber from sources such as yeast or grains) may improve certain measures of immune system function &mdash; although the evidence is mixed as to whether or not this translates into a reduced risk of a cold . For example, a study in otherwise healthy adults who had recurring colds found that 900 mg of beta glucan (<i>Yestimun</i>, Leiber GmbH, Germany) taken daily for 4 months reduced the number of colds by 25% compared to placebo (<a href="#" target="_blank">Auinger, Eur J Nutr 2013</a>), and a daily dose of either 250 mg or 500 mg of another beta glucan product (<i>Wellmune WGP</i>) was found to reduce the incidence of respiratory infections in runners when taken for one month following a marathon (<a href="#" target="_blank">Talbott, J Sports Sci and Med 2009</a>). However, another study found 500 mg of Wellmune WGP did not decrease the incidence of respiratory infections in adults compared to placebo (<a href="#" target="_blank">Feldman, J Appl Res 2009</a>). <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that a branded fermented yeast product containing beta glucan (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/What+is+EpiCor+Does+it+really+%22boost%22+the+immune+system+and+prevent+colds/EpiCor/" target="_blank"><strong><i>EpiCor</i></strong></a>, Embria Health Sciences) may modestly help to increase certain measures of immune function and reduce the occurrence of colds. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/" target="_blank"><strong>NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine</strong><strong>)</strong></a> has been shown to thin mucus but there is little evidence that oral supplements help with colds. Oral NAC, however, may <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/N-Acetyl_Cysteine_NAC_Supplements/n-acetyl_cysteine/#whatitdoes" target="_blank"><strong>decrease the frequency of chronic bronchitis</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> Overall, the evidence is mixed on whether <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/" target="_blank"><strong>garlic supplements</strong></a> are effective against colds. However, as discussed in our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Encyclopedia</strong></a> article on&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21729" target="_blank"><strong>garlic</strong></a>, one study found taking a garlic supplement daily throughout the winter reduced the likelihood of catching a cold by almost two-thirds, and those who caught a cold recovered about one day faster than those who did not take garlic. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=108306" target="_blank"><strong>Glutathione</strong></a> is an antioxidant produced in the liver which is important for immune function. It is sometimes promoted to boost the immune system or help to ward off colds. To date, one small study found that a dose of 250 mg or 1,000 mg per day for six months reduced oxidative stress compared to placebo - although there does not appear to be any evidence that it prevents colds or reduces cold symptoms. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Some people have reported taking melatonin to help boost the immune system and promote sleep while having a cold. Very preliminary evidence suggests melatonin has some antiviral properties (<a href="#" target="_blank">Vielma, Acta Trop 2014</a>), although there does not appear to be any research specifically on colds in people. <br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=146651" target="_blank"><strong>Bromelain</strong></a> has been reported to reduce nasal inflammation and improve breathing difficulty in people with sinusitis. (ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/digestive_enzyme_supplements/digestive-enzymes/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Digestive Enzyme Supplements</strong></a> includes products containing bromelain). <br /> <br /> There is some evidence that <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21688" target="_blank"><b>elderberry extract</b></a> has antibacterial and antiviral activity, but a study of overseas travelers took either elderberry extract (600 mg per day for 8 days before travel and then 900 mg per day during travel for 4-5 days afterward) were just as likely to get a cold as those who took a placebo. However, among those who did get a cold, colds were 2 days shorter and symptoms were less severe than for those who took the placebo (<a href="#" target="_blank">Tiralongo, Nutrients 2016</a>). The study was funded by the manufacturer of the extract (<i>BerryPharma</i>, Iprona AG,&nbsp;Italy).&nbsp; <span class="reviewBody" name="weissman" id="weissman" style="background-color:#ffff00">Although rare, be aware that a case of acute pancreatitis was reported in 2019 in a 51-year-old man after he took two to three doses of elderberry extract (<i>Sambucol</i>). He reported having similar symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting) years prior after taking one dose of the same extract. His condition improved after treatment with steroids (<a href="#" target="_blank">Weissman, Dig Dis Sci 2019</a>).</span><br /> <br /> <b><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21540" target="_blank">Astragalus</a></b> is often promoted to help fight colds when taken at the onset of a cold. Preliminary evidence suggests it may help to stimulate the immune system, although there do not appear to be studies in people on the effects of astragalus on cold symptoms.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=111710" target="_blank"><b>Olive leaf extract</b></a> is promoted to boost the immune system and fight colds. However, despite laboratory studies suggesting it has some antiviral activity, there are no studies on the effects of olive leaf extract supplementation on cold symptoms in people. <br /> <br /> Although some people have reported preventing colds with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38325" target="_blank"><strong>Oscillococcinum</strong></a>, a homeopathic treatment, there is little evidence for this use. Some studies have found a benefit for treating flu, although the evidence for this is also weak. There are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=38449" target="_blank"><strong>many other homeopathic remedies proposed for preventing or treating colds</strong></a>, although, again, there is little quality evidence to support these remedies. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-for-colds---zinc-echinacea-%26-more/supplements_for_colds/22649/26/2015AnswersDoes cooking or frying with olive oil make it less healthy?As with other oils, heat does have an effect on the quality and composition of olive oil. Amounts of antioxidant polyphenols (which are in highest concentration in extra virgin olive oil) decrease, as do amounts of vitamin E. However, the healthy "monounsaturated" fat in olive oil (from oleic acid) seems to be fairly resistant to heat during cooking. In fact, in a number of studies which found <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-are-the-health-benefits-of-olive-oil/olive_oil/" target="_blank">health benefits associated with increased olive oil intake</a>, participants consumed the olive oil both unheated (on salads, etc.) as well as from foods in which it was used in cooking. <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=cooking_olive_oil">See the full answer for more information and tips on minimizing losses when cooking with olive oil &gt;&gt;</a> <br /> <br /> Also, see the full <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><strong>Extra Virgin Olive Oils Review</strong></a>, which includes CL's <em>Top Picks</em>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/cooking-or-frying-with-olive-oil---is-it-healthier/cooking_olive_oil/22639/20/2015AnswersWhat are the health benefits of olive oil?Olive oil is high in monounsaturated "healthy" fats and, depending on the oil, may be rich in antioxidant polyphenols. Olive oil can help lower cholesterol and control insulin levels in the body and may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. For details, including amounts of oil used, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=olive_oil"><strong>see the full answer &gt;&gt;</strong></a> <br /> <br /> For even more information, as well as <em>CL's Top Picks</em>, see the full <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Extra-Virgin-Olive-Oil-Review/evoo/" target="_blank"><strong>Extra Virgin Olive Oils Review&gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/olive-oil-benefits-for-your-health/olive_oil/22629/16/2015AnswersDo different colors of maca have different health benefits?In animal studies, different colors of maca, (i.e. red, black and yellow) have been found to have a variety of effects, such as decreasing the size of the prostate, increasing sperm counts, and increasing fertility. These studies are likely the source of claims that different colors of maca should be used for different purposes, because most studies in people (which have shown some benefits regarding mood and sexual desire and function) have not specified the color of the maca. For more about this, the evidence for maca, dosage, and our tests of different brands, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/maca-supplement-review/maca/#color" target="_blank">Maca Supplements Review >></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/different-maca-colors-health-benefits/mace_black_red_yellow/22619/12/2015AnswersIs sublingual vitamin B-12 really better than the pill form?Although sublingual B-12 is often promoted for better absorption, there does not appear to be much evidence for this. In fact, one clinical <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#sublingual" target="_blank"><strong>study comparing the same amount of B-12 given orally or sublingually</strong></a> found they were equally effective at correcting B-12 deficiency over a two-month period. <br /> <br /> Be aware that sublingual B-12 supplements often contain sugar substitutes such as sorbitol, mannitol or sucralose, which can <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#taste" target="_blank"><strong>cause gastrointestinal symptoms</strong></a> in some people. <br /> <br /> It should also be noted that unlike the vitamin B-12 in foods, the purified form of B-12 found in supplements, including tablets, does not require stomach acid for it to be made available for&nbsp;absorption. This benefits&nbsp;people with low stomach acid (including many people over the age of 50) or those who take acid blockers such as Pepcid or Zantac, or proton pump inhibitors such as Prevacid, or Prilosec, who are at an&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>increased risk for B-12 deficiency</strong></a>. For those who have difficulty with large pills, keep in mind that only a very small amount of B-12 is required to meet the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#cobalamin" target="_blank"><strong>recommended daily intake</strong></a> and can be obtained in small tablets (including some tested by ConsumerLab.com in its B Vitamins Supplement Review). For more information about buying and using B-12 supplements, plus our tests of popular products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamins Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/which-is-better-sublingual-b-12-vs-vitamin-b-12-pills/sublingual_B-12/22609/9/2015AnswersIs it okay to crush a tablet and consume the powder or add the powder to food, rather than swallowing the tablet whole?In general, crushing a tablet into powder and mixing it with foods or beverages is fine, unless directions specifically say not to or it is an extended-release, timed-release, or enteric coated pill. Of course, if directions say to take the tablet on an empty stomach, don&#39;t mix the crushed tablet with anything other than water. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> Supplements which are sometimes available in extended or timed-release formulas (and, therefore, should not be crushed) include certain <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank">multivitamins</a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/" target="_blank">B vitamins</a>, <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank">red yeast rice</a>, and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/melatonin-supplements/melatonin/" target="_blank">melatonin</a>. Some <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/" target="_blank">probiotic</a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/SAMe_Review_Comparisons/SAMe/" target="_blank">SAMe</a> supplements are enerically-coated. <br /> <br /> If you do crush a tablet to mix with food or a beverage, remember to consume all of the food or drink, in order to get the complete serving of your supplement -- and consume it right away. &nbsp; https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-okay-to-crush-a-tablet-and-consume-the-powder-or-add-the-powder-to-food-rather-than-swallowing-the-tablet-whole/crushing_tablets/22599/9/2015AnswersCan turmeric or curcumin with black pepper extract cause constipation? I had this problem when taking a curcumin formula with piperine, but it resolved when I switched to a curcumin supplement without this added ingredient. Black pepper extract (trademarked as <i>Bioperine&reg;</i>), which contains a compound called piperine, is sometimes added to turmeric or curcumin supplements to increase bioavailability. There does not appear to be any evidence that it causes constipation, or has other adverse effects, when taken in typical doses -- although there is a potential concern about taking piperine with certain medications. For more details, plus information about other bioavailability enhancers added to turmeric and curcumin, and our tests and comparisons products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#bioavailability" target="_blank"><strong>Turmeric and Curcumin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-curcumin-with-black-pepper-extract-cause-constipation/curcumin_piperine_constipation/22589/5/2015AnswersTo lower my cholesterol, I am taking a phytosterol supplement. Will taking other supplements, like red yeast rice or fish oil, help lower my cholesterol even further?Adding plant sterols ("phytosterols") or stanols to therapy with prescription statin drugs can often lower LDL "bad" cholesterol levels more than statin drugs alone. Adding red yeast rice (which naturally contains statins) has also been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol more than taking sterols alone, particularly if you are only using a modest amount of sterols. There is also some evidence that taking <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/#ferguson" target="_blank"><strong>curcumin</strong></a><strong> </strong>may increase the cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols. (<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/" target="_blank"><strong>Red yeast rice</strong></a> is the most powerful cholesterol-reducing supplement - although choosing the right brand is critical, as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Red-Yeast-Rice-Supplements-Review/Red_Yeast_Rice/#whatclfound" target="_blank"><strong>ConsumerLab.com's tests</strong></a> have shown that some brands have much greater chemical strength than others.) <br /> <br /> Fish oil, in large doses, can lower elevated levels of <i>triglycerides</i>, although it is not known to lower LDL cholesterol. However, a study in which various doses of fish oil were added to phytosterol treatment found that higher amounts of fish oil resulted in slightly greater reductions in LDL than the phytosterol alone - although this added benefit was not found with a lower dose of fish oil. HDL "good" cholesterol also increased by a small but statistically significant amount with high-dose fish oil. <br /> <br /> Get more details, including dosage and safety information, in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cholesterol-Lowering_Supplements_Review_Sterols_Policosanol/cholesterol/#statins" target="_blank"><strong>Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/will-taking-red-yeast-rice-or-fish-oil-help-reduce-my-cholesterol-further-when-taken-with-a-phytosterol/sterols_other_supplements/22579/5/2015AnswersWhat is berberine? Can it really lower blood sugar? Are there any cautions? Which supplements are best?Berberine is a compound found in plants such as barberry and goldenseal. There is some clinical evidence that it may lower blood sugar and cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes. However, berberine may not be safe for certain people and it can interact with a number of medications. In addition, tests by ConsumerLab.com have revealed that some berberine and goldenseal supplements on the market do contain the expected amounts of berberine. For more about the clinical evidence for berberine and goldenseal, safety, dosage and the best way to take these supplements, plus our tests of products, see the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/berberine-goldenseal-supplements-review/berberine/" target="_blank"><strong>Berberine and Goldenseal Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/what-is-berberine-and-can-it-really-lower-blood-sugar/berberine_blood_sugar/22568/29/2015AnswersAre plant-based calcium supplements, like AlgaeCal, better than regular calcium supplements?<i>AlgaeCal</i> (Basic) contains calcium, magnesium and trace minerals derived from algae with added vitamin D. <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i> also includes added vitamins C and K, boron, and additional magnesium. Testing by ConsumerLab.com in 2011 found <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i> to contain a higher amount of lead (a toxic heavy metal) (5.2 mcg per daily serving of 4 capsules) than many other calcium-containing supplements. Testing in 2017 found less lead, although still higher than acceptable to CL, but also less magnesium than listed on the label. <br /> <br /> Studies sponsored by the makers of <i>AlgaeCal</i> found that it increased bone mineral density in healthy men and women, although there were weaknesses to the study design. There do not appear to be any clinical studies comparing the effects of <i>AlgaeCal</i> to other forms of calcium, such as calcium carbonate or calcium citrate nor to other calcium + vitamin D supplements. For more about this, plus evidence for other forms of calcium, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_%20Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#algaecal" target="_blank"><strong>Calcium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a><strong> </strong><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#ff0000">Updates: <br /> CL members have contacted AlgaeCal about CL's findings of lead in its <i>AlgaeCal</i> product and have shared the responses they received with us. These are posted below along with our comments: </span> <br /> <br /> <span style="color:#ff0000">(11/17/15):</span> We were recently informed by a CL member that AlgaeCal provided the following information in response to the member's inquiry about lead in <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i>. In its response, AlgaeCal appears to acknowledge the amount of lead found by ConsumerLab.com in 2011, but provides information which we consider misleading regarding how that amount of lead compares to what is found in the U.S. diet by stating: <br /> <blockquote>"There are 5.2 mcg of lead in a daily dosage of 4 capsules of AlgaeCal Plus. It is just like taking a daily serving of other typical plant foods according to the FDA's publication, Total Diet Study Statistics on Elements Results (December 11, 2007): Food Amount of Lead in a 4 Ounce Serving Mixed nuts, roasted 10.2 mcg Brussels sprouts, fresh, boiled 7.9 mcg Sweet potato, fresh, baked 7.2 mcg Spinach, boiled 7.0 mcg Avocado, raw 4.5 mcg. Furthermore, the US Government's Centers For Disease Control publication 'Inorganic Lead Exposure, Metabolism and Intoxication' states that 'typical intakes of lead from food, beverages and inhaled air are in the order of 300 to 500 mcg per day.' "</blockquote> The most recent Total Diet Study (<a href="#" target="_blank">FDA 2014</a>) shows <i>much lower</i> amounts of lead in foods than AlgaeCal states above. The FDA found <i>no detectable lead</i> in peanuts or Brussels sprouts and, based 3 oz servings, only 1.1 mcg in sweet potatoes (0.013 mcg/gram or mg/kg), 0.3 mcg in spinach (0.004 mcg/g) and 0.085 mcg in avocado (0.001 mcg/g). We could not find the CDC publication referenced by AlgaeCal, but found another CDC publication (<a href="#" target="_blank">ATSDR Public Health Statement for Lead 2007</a>) which states that, based on recent studies, "the average dietary intake of lead was about 1 microgram (a microgram is a millionth of a gram) per kilogram of body weight per day." For an adult weighing 70 kg (154 lbs), this would be 70 mcg -- nowhere near the 300 to 500 mcg stated above. In short, the amount of lead in <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i> is <i>higher</i> than in most foods and calcium supplements and adds significantly to one's intake of lead. (Note: Be aware that in 2018, the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/supplements-and-foods-that-may-be-contaminated-with-lead/lead-contamination-supplements/#limits" target="_blank">FDA lowered the maximum intakes for lead</a> from all sources from 70 mcg per day to 12.5 mcg per day in adults, and from 6 mcg per day to 3 mcg per day in children.) <br /> <br /> <a name="update" id="update"></a> <span class="reviewBody" style="background-color:#ffff00"><span style="color:#ff0000">(6/12/18):</span> AlgaeCal recently provided the following information in response to a CL member's inquiry about lead in <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i>: <blockquote><span class="reviewBody" style="background-color:#ffff00">"Lead is omnipresent, albeit in very minute amounts, in our environment, and thus our food. There are 0.23 ppm (0.556 mcg) of lead in a daily dosage of 4 capsules of AlgaeCal Plus. There is no extraction process with the raw Algae product, it is merely live harvested from the protected beaches, dried and ground. This is one of the many trace minerals and is far below any problematic amounts &mdash; well within international safety standards. The vast majority of environmental lead present is safely excreted from the body every day, save for times of unusually high exposure. A study of lead levels in the USA food supply, found&nbsp;<a href="#" target="_blank">HERE</a>, states that "Data obtained on the lead content of milk, eggs, meat, fish, and shellfish indicate that the mean levels in these unprocessed foods varied from 0.02 to about 0.4 ppm, with the lowest level in milk." To attempt to remove this lead would damage the trace mineral content that makes AlgaeCal so effective for bone health. According to <a href="#" target="_blank">THIS</a> Health Canada informational page, "In adults with a normal diet, 3-15% of ingested lead is absorbed into the blood by the intestine. Less than 5% of absorbed lead stays in the body". So you can see that AlgaeCal is a safe, natural way to increase bone density."</span></blockquote> The amount of lead that AlgaeCal now claims to be in its product (0.556 mcg per 4 capsules) would pose little risk. However, it is about half the amount that ConsumerLab.com found in its most recent tests in 2017 of <i>AlgaeCal Plus</i>.</span>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/algaecal-%26-other-plant-based-calcium-supplements/AlgaeCal/22558/26/2015AnswersDoes chocolate really cause migraines?The evidence is not clear on this. Although cocoa and chocolate contain the amino acids tyramine and phenylethylamine, which could potentially trigger migraines, as well as histamine, which could cause headache, most clinical studies have not found chocolate any more likely to induce migraine attacks than placebo. For more details about this, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Cocoa_Powders_and_Chocolates_Sources_of_Flavanols/cocoa-flavanols/#cautions" target="_blank">Cocoa Supplements and Dark Chocolate Review >></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/chocolate-%26-cocoa---migraines-%26-headaches/chocolate_migraines/22548/23/2015AnswersIs it safer to get calcium from foods than from supplements? How about from calcium-fortified orange juice and non-dairy milks?In general, it appears to be preferable to get most of your calcium from foods which contain it naturally, and to restrict the amount you get from supplements (including calcium-fortified drinks and foods like orange juice, soy milk, almond milk, and even calcium-fortified milks like certain <a target="_blank" href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/lactose-free-milk_lactase-enzyme-supplement-review/lactose-intolerance/#fortified"><strong>lactose-free milks</strong></a> &mdash; which are like taking a supplement with food). (A common form of calcium added to these beverages, as well as to gummy and liquid supplements, is calcium phosphate or tricalcium phosphate.) For example,&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#toomuch" target="_blank"><strong>getting too much calcium from supplements</strong></a> has been associated with an increased risk of kidney stones, heart attack and death in women, and an increase in the risk of heart attack in men. Taking calcium supplements has also been associated with an increased risk of dementia in elderly women who have evidence of cerebrovascular disease or who have a history of stroke. Nevertheless, calcium from all sources counts toward the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#toomuch" target="_blank">upper <strong>tolerable intake level (UL)</strong></a> above which the risk of adverse effects increase &mdash; although it is rare to exceed this limit from food alone.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> If you are considering taking a calcium supplement, be sure to calculate how much <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>calcium you are already getting from food</strong></a>, and from other sources, such as <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-there-a-danger-of-getting-too-much-calcium-from-tums/calcium_from_tums/" target="_blank"><strong>over-the-counter antacids</strong></a>, and then only supplement with the amount you need to meet the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=RDAs/Calcium/#rdatable" target="_blank"><strong>recommended daily intake</strong></a>. For more about getting the right amount of calcium, sources and different forms, and our tests of popular products, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Bone_Supplements-Calcium_with_ Vitamin_D_K_magnesium/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>Calcium Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/natural-calcium-from-food-vs-calcium-supplements/calcium_foods_supplements/22538/23/2015AnswersI am very concerned about getting too much vitamin A. Is there danger in getting too much vitamin A if I take fish oil, which I've heard contains a lot of vitamin A, in addition to my multivitamin?Most traditional <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/fish_oil_supplements_review/omega3/" target="_blank">fish oil supplements</a> (from the oil in fish meat) do not contain significant amounts of vitamin A and should not be of concern when taken with a <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/multivitamin_review_comparisons/multivitamins/" target="_blank">multivitamin</a>. <br /> <br /> On the other hand, fish liver oils such as cod liver oil do contain significant amounts of vitamin A. Some of these products exceed the established upper limit for vitamin A for adults of 10,000 IU per day, or could exceed this limit if taken with multivitamins that contain high amounts of vitamin A. (See amounts of vitamin A found in popular cod and other fish liver oils in the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#results" target="_blank">Vitamin A Supplements Review</a>). When calculating the amount of vitamin A you are getting from supplements, note that the upper limit only includes the retinol form, such as retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate, not beta-carotene. (There are, however, separate concerns with <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions-beta" target="_blank">getting too much beta-carotene</a>). <br /> <br /> Also, keep in mind that Americans are more likely to get too much vitamin A from their diets, rather than too little. Unless you are deficient or have a condition which causes deficiency, you may not need to get any vitamin A from supplements. For more about the risks of getting too much vitamin A, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Vitamin_A_Retinol_Beta-Carotene_Cod_Liver_Oil/Vitamin_A/#cautions" target="_blank">Vitamin A Supplements Review >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/taking-vitamin-a-supplements-%26-fish-oil---too-much-vitamin-a/vitamin_A/22528/19/2015AnswersDo any supplements help prevent or improve cataracts?A number of supplements have been promoted to preventing or improving cataracts. These include multivitamins, vitamin A, C, and E: the B vitamins niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin; lutein, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, carnosine, NACA, and St. John's wort. The evidence, however, is better for some than for others. Get the details in the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=join/?FromSource=CLANSWERS&FromSourceId=cataracts"><b>full answer &gt;&gt;</b></a> <br /> <br /> See the Encyclopedia article on <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=tnp.asp?chunkiid=21495" target="_blank"><b>Cataracts</b></a> for more information.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/do-any-supplements-help-prevent-or-improve-cataracts/cataracts/22518/12/2015AnswersWhat are sugar alcohols and why are they in my nutrition bar?Maltitol, lactitol, and other sugar alcohols like erythritol, glycerol, sorbitol and xylitol are a common ingredient in nutrition bars because they add sweetness, but have fewer calories than sugar and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-maltitol-and-maltodextrin-safe-for-people-with-type-2-diabetes/maltodextrin_maltitol_diabetes/" target="_blank">less of an impact on blood sugar</a>. They can also help to improve the texture of bars and help to retain moisture. However, they may also cause gas and bloating, or have other unwanted effects. <br /> <br /> Be aware that unless a bar is labeled as "sugar free," manufacturers are not required to list exactly how much sugar alcohol it contains on the label. For this reason, ConsumerLab.com determines the amount of sugar alcohol in each bar it reviews, and identified bars with low and/or high levels. For more information about sugar alcohols and amounts found in popular bars, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/High_Protein_Bars_Low-Carb_Diet_Bars_Energy_Bars_and_Meal-Replacement_Bars/NutritionBars/#sugaralcohols" target="_blank">Nutrition Bar Review >></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/why-are-there-sugar-alcohols-in-some-nutrition-bars/sugar_alcohol/22508/2/2015AnswersDoes nicotinamide riboside (as in Niagen and Basis) really have anti-aging or other health benefits? [<strong><span style="color: red">Update:</span></strong> (1/26/20) A <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=recall_detail.asp?recallid=14330" target="_blank">recall announcement</a> may affect this product.] <br /> <br /> Nicotinamide riboside (sold as <i>Niagen</i> and <i>Niacel</i>) is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin) that has been promoted as having anti-aging effects, such as increasing energy, improving cognitive function, and improving cholesterol levels -- without causing flushing. However, the evidence for these uses appears to be very preliminary, as discussed in the "Niacin" section of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review.</strong></a><strong> </strong> <br /> <br /> Nicotinamide riboside can raise NAD+ levels in the body, and this is the scientific basis for some of its effects. However, there is theoretical concern that compounds that raise NAD+ levels could also <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#poljsak" target="_blank"><b>stimulate the growth of existing cancers</b></a>. <br /> <br /> Like supplements containing <i>Niagen</i> and <i>Niacel</i>, the supplement <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Best_B_Vitamins_and_Complexes_Energy_B6_B12_Biotin_Niacin_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#basis" target="_blank"><strong><i>Basis</i></strong></a><strong> </strong>(Elysium Health) includes 250 mg of nicotinamide riboside per recommended daily serving (typically two capsules) but also contains 50 mg of&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/can-pterostilbene-improve-cardiovascular-and-cognitive-health/what-is-pterostilbene/" target="_blank"><strong>pterostilbene</strong></a>. Details about <em>our laboratory tests of Basis</em> and a clinical study investigating the effects of this supplement can be found, respectively, in the "What CL Found" and "Niacin" sections of the&nbsp;<a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>B Vitamin Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/niagens-anti-aging-and-other-health-benefits/niagen/22497/29/2015AnswersDo probiotics have to be enterically coated to be effective?In general, most <i>Lactobacillus</i>, <i>Bifidobacterium</i>, and <i>Streptococcus</i> species of probiotics (all very common in supplements) do not need enteric coating as they can survive passage through the stomach. Although enteric coating may increase the number of cells that survive, there are <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/are-enterically-coated-supplements-better-than-non-enterically-coated-ones/enteric_coated_supplments/" target="_blank">potential downsides</a>. More details are found in the "Withstanding stomach acid" and "Cautions and Concerns" sections of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Probiotic_Supplements_Lactobacillus_acidophilus_Bifidobacterium/probiotics/#withstanding" target="_blank">Probiotic Supplements Review</a>.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/enterically-coated-probiotics---are-they-more-effective/probiotics_enteric_coating/22487/25/2015AnswersIs it important to take calcium and magnesium together?No, it is not necessary to take <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/calcium-supplements-review/calcium/" target="_blank"><strong>calcium </strong></a>and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Magnesium_Supplements/magnesium/" target="_blank"><strong>magnesium</strong></a> together. In fact, if you need to take large amounts (250 mg or more) of either of these, you may be better off taking them at separate times, as they can compete with each other for absorption. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/should-i-take-calcium-and-magnesium-together/calcium_with_magnesium/22477/22/2015AnswersI spend a lot of time in the sun, especially in the summer. Does this mean my vitamin D levels could get too high?No. Even though spending short periods of time in the sun can usually provide adequate amounts of vitamin D, spending longer periods of time in the sun will not increase vitamin D levels to toxic levels. This is because excessive exposure to sunlight degrades <i>pre</i>vitamin D3 (which is normally converted by sunlight into vitamin D3 in the skin) and degrades vitamin D3 itself.<br /> <br /> However, as discussed in the CL Answer about <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-it-possible-to-get-too-much-vitamin-d/too-much-vitamin-D/" target="_blank">getting too much vitamin D</a>, it is possible to get too much vitamin D from supplements. For more details about sun exposure and vitamin D, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#buying" target="_blank">Vitamin D Supplements Review >></a>https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/too-much-vitamin-d-from-the-sun/vitamin_D_from_sun/22467/21/2015AnswersIs hyaluronic acid helpful for osteoarthritis?Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of cartilage and joint fluid. Some research suggests that hyaluronic acid supplements may be helpful for people with severe pain from knee osteoarthritis, and for people with knee osteoarthritis who are also overweight - although the evidence is limited to just a few small studies and not all have found a benefit. Be aware that hyaluronic acid is sometimes added to joint health supplements in amounts too small to have an effect, so if you want to try it, be sure your supplement provides an amount used in clinical studies. For more details, see the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#hyaluronicacid" target="_blank"><b>Hyaluronic acid</b></a> section of the<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank"><strong>Review of Supplements for Joint Health</strong></a>. Also see our <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/#toppicks" target="_blank"><i><b>Top Picks</b></i></a> among products.https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/hyaluronic-acid-supplements-for-joints-%26-osteoarthritis/hyaluronic_acid/22457/19/2015AnswersI've heard that taking vitamin D can reduce your natural production of melatonin and interfere with sleep. Is this true?It is true that preliminary research suggests that a high dose of vitamin D can reduce the amount of melatonin naturally produced in the body. You can find details in the &quot;Concerns and Cautions&quot; section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_D_supplements_review/Vitamin_D/#melatonin" target="_blank"><strong>Vitamin D Supplements Review &gt;&gt;</strong></a> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/vitamin-d-and-melatonin-production/vitamin_D_melatonin/22447/15/2015AnswersWith herbal supplements, what is the difference between root powder and root extract? Does it matter?When selecting an herbal supplement, you should be guided by clinical studies showing a benefit using a particular type of plant preparation. Things you need to be clear about are 1) the name of the plant and its species, 2) the part of the plant, e.g., the root, leaf, flower or bark, and 3) whether the product was made of the whole plant part (such as root powder, which is dried root made into a powder), or just key compounds extracted from that part of the plant (i.e., a root "extract") which are typically provided as a dried powder or liquid. <br /> <br /> In most cases, you will be looking for an extract, in which case you will also need to know the % of specific compound(s) to which the extract should be "standardized" since there are many types and concentrations of extracts. Supplements made of whole plant plants, like root powder, are typically not standardized like extracts. <br /> <br /> The "ConsumerTips" section of every Product Review on ConsumerLab.com covers this information, so you will know what to look for when selecting a product. Other information you find is dosage, how and when to take the herbal supplement, potential side effects, and interactions with drugs and other supplements. Of course, you'll also see whether ConsumerLab.com testing found each product to contain the listed ingredient(s) and meet additional criteria of product quality. <br /> <br /> Here's a quick summary of popular herbal supplements, showing the type of preparation typically used: <br /> <br /> <table border="1" style="width:100%"> <tr> <td> <b>Plant</b></td> <td> <b>Form Commonly Used Clinically</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/aloe_supplements_gels_drinks/aloe/" target="_blank">Aloe</a></td> <td> Gel from inner portion of leaf or purified juice from whole leaf </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ashwagandha_supplements/ashwagandha/" target="_blank">Ashwagandha</a></td> <td> Root powder or root extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/bilberry_supplements_review_comparisons/bilberry/" target="_blank">Bilberry</a></td> <td> Berry extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/soy-isoflavones_red-clover_black-cohosh_supplements/phytoestrogens/" target="_blank">Black Cohosh</a></td> <td> Root (rhizome) extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Black_Currant_Borage_Evening_Primrose_and_Flaxseed_Oils_Sources_of_ALA_and_GLA_Omega-3_and_-6_Fatty_Acids/flaxseed/" target="_blank">Black Currant, Borage, Evening Primrose, Flax</a></td> <td> Seed oil </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_Glucosamine_Chondroitin_MSM_Boswellia_Supplements/jointsupplements/" target="_blank">Boswellia</a></td> <td> Extract of gum resin </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/echinacea_review/echinacea/" target="_blank">Echinacea</a></td> <td> Extract of aerial (above ground) parts </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/garcinia_hydroxycitric-acid_HCA-weight-loss/garcinia/" target="_blank">Garcinia</a></td> <td> Extract of fruit rind </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Garlic_Supplements/Garlic/" target="_blank">Garlic</a></td> <td> Bulb powder or extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Ginkgo_Supplements_Memory_Review/GinkgoBiloba/" target="_blank">Ginkgo</a></td> <td> Leaf extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/ginseng_supplements/ginseng/" target="_blank">Ginseng (Asian and American)</a></td> <td> Root powder or extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/green_coffee_%20extract_weight_loss/greencoffee/" target="_blank">Green Coffee Bean</a></td> <td> Bean extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Green_Tea_Review_Supplements_and_Bottled/Green_Tea/" target="_blank">Green Tea</a></td> <td> Leaf extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/maca-supplement-review/maca/" target="_blank">Maca</a></td> <td> Root (rhizome) powder </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/milk_thistle_and_liver_supplements/milkthistle/" target="_blank">Milk Thistle</a></td> <td> Seed extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Prostate_Supplements-Beta-Sitosterol-Phytosterols-Saw_Palmetto/sawpalmetto/" target="_blank">Saw Palmetto</a></td> <td> Berry extract or powder </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/St_Johns_Wort/stjohnswort/" target="_blank">St. John's Wort</a></td> <td> Extract of aerial (above ground) parts </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/turmeric-curcumin-supplements-spice-review/turmeric/" target="_blank">Turmeric (curcumin)</a></td> <td> Root (rhizome) powder or extract </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Valerian_Supplements_Review/valerian/" target="_blank">Valerian</a></td> <td> Root extract or powder </td> </tr> </table> https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/is-there-a-difference-between-root-powder-%26-root-extract/powder_vs_extract/22437/15/2015AnswersHow can the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium be higher than the Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL)? That is, how can an amount which is healthful also put you at risk for harm?It is true that, at first glance, there seems to be a contradiction. For example, the UL for magnesium (above which the risk of adverse effects increases) is 350 mg per day for adults and children over age 8, but the RDA (the amount one needs) can be as high as 420 mg for many people within this group depending on gender and stage of life. &nbsp;However, <em>the magnesium one consumes from food does not count toward the UL</em>; only magnesium from supplements and medicine can cause adverse effects and counts toward this limit. So, as long as you're not getting more than 350 mg of magnesium per day from supplements and/or medicine and are getting some magnesium from foods (like whole grains, nuts, beans, and green leafy vegetables) you can satisfy the RDA without exceeding the UL.<br /> <br /> For more about this, see the "What to Consider When Using" section of the <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/magnesium-supplement-review/magnesium/#using" target="_blank"><strong>Magnesium Supplements Review</strong></a>. <br /> <br /> The ULs established for <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#niacin" target="_blank"><strong>niacin</strong></a> and <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/Review_B_Vitamins_B-Complexes_Energy-Shots_Thiamin_Niacin_B-6_B-12_Biotin_and_Folic_Acid/bvitamins/#folate" target="_blank"><strong>folate</strong></a> also only apply to the amounts consumed from supplements and fortified foods and not from foods naturally containing these vitamins. For <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=reviews/vitamin_e_supplements_cream_oil_tocopherol/vitamine/" target="_blank">v<strong>itamin E</strong></a>, the upper limit is higher for the natural form than the synthetic form. <br /> <br /> For recommended daily intakes and upper limits for these and other nutrients, based on gender and stage of life, see ConsumerLab.com's <a href="https://namkimsteel.net/?big=resources/RDA_AI_UL_vitamins_minerals/recommended_intakes/index.asp" target="_blank"><strong>Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits</strong></a> page. https://namkimsteel.net/?big=answers/how-can-the-recommended-daily-allowance-rda-for-magnesium-be-higher-than-the-upper-tolerable-intake-levels-ul/magnesium_RDA_UL/12437/14/2015AnswersSome protein powders contain whey protein concentrate, and others contain whey protein isolates - what is the difference?Whey naturally contains a large amount of water, which is removed to create whey protein concentrate. Concentrate will contain mostly protein, but also some lactose, fat and cholesterol. Isolate is further processed, and will typically contain less lactose fat and cholesterol. &l